UNFPA Annual Report 2014

Annual Report | 2014

A Year Of Renewal

Navigation

Introduction

Renewing commitments to the health and rights of women and young people

"I believe that if we are equipped with adequate, timely and youth-friendly information and services on sexual and reproductive health, we will have a better understanding and knowledge of safe sex and how to protect ourselves,” 20-year-old Truong Van Duoc said at an awareness-raising event organized by UNFPA and others in Bien Hoa in Viet Nam. The event was one of 30 that took place in the country in 2014 to disseminate information about adolescent pregnancy, condom negotiation and other key health messages. Information booths, staffed by trained young people, were also on hand to provide information about sensitive issues, including how to use condoms and protect against HIV transmission.

Play
Viet Nam’s young people organize flash mobs to raise awareness about health and rights.

Key Achievements

64 countries

​64 countries have gender action plans that include reproductive rights

69% of national statistical authorities in 2014 had institutional capacities for analysing and using disaggregated data on adolescents and youth

43 countries

UNFPA helped 43 countries raise the quality of emergency, obstetric and newborn care and expand and strengthen midwifery

2013+16%2014

The number of countries with laws that allow adolescents to access sexual and reproductive health services increased from
74 in 2013 to 86 in 2014

From the Executive Director

Play
"In 2014, UNFPA published the findings of a 20-year review of countries’ progress in implementing the landmark Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD. The review presented UNFPA an unprecedented opportunity to take a close look at our programmes and assess their impact on the lives of women and girls. Has UNFPA made a difference? The evidence confirms that is has. But there is still much to do to, and the ICPD Programme of Action will continue to lead the way. UNFPA has seized the opportunity to renew its commitments to the ICPD agenda and, more importantly, to the women and girls whose lives stand to be transformed."

– Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin, UNFPA Executive Director

20 Years of Progress

Documenting the Impact

Gains have been made in access to sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, with significant overall impacts on the health of women, girls and children, in the 20 years since the historic Programme of Action was endorsed by 179 governments at the International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD, in 1994.

These gains were among the many achievements reported by developing countries in a review of progress in implementing the ICPD Programme of Action. UNFPA led the review in 2013 and published the results in 2014.

The review noted, however, that in many countries, some gains have gone only to those at the top of the income spectrum. The poor, in both rural and poor urban areas, continue to suffer from lack of access to services, sexual and reproductive ill health and violence. Today more than 200 million women who want family planning cannot get it.

At the start of the General Assembly’s special session on the ICPD, the Secretary-General called on Member States to renew their pledge “to protect people—especially women and girls—as we strive to eradicate extreme poverty, protect the rights and dignity of all people and secure the future of our planet for generations to come.”

The ICPD review also highlighted that the path to sustainability demands greater innovation to:

Protect Human Rights

Extend human rights and protect all persons from human rights abuses, discrimination and violence, so that all may have the opportunity to contribute to and benefit from development.

Strive for Universal Access

Strengthen health systems to provide universal access to sexual and reproductive health, so that all women can thrive and children can grow in a nurturing environment.

Young females have low levels of access to contraception

Females
15 to 24 years old

Females
older than 30

Transform Economies for Good

Transform the global economy towards one that will sustain the future of the planet and ensure a common future of human rights, dignity and well-being for all people in the years beyond 2014.

Invest in Young People

Invest in the capabilities and creativity of the world’s adolescents and youth for their own sake and to ensure future growth and innovation.

About nine out of 10 people between the ages 10 and 24 live in less developed countries.

2014 In Action

A strategic plan for 2014 through 2017 sets targets and benchmarks for success in our overall objective to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person's potential is fulfilled.

The plan equips UNFPA to respond more effectively and efficiently to emerging opportunities and challenges and to shifting needs, 20 years after the landmark ICPD Programme of Action, which still guides much of the organization's work today, and as the international community moves forward with a new generation of sustainable development goals.

Sexual and Reproductive Health

Strengthening and integrating services

Too often, sexual and reproductive health services are disconnected from each other. Women seeking HIV services, for example, may not be offered contraceptive choices, or women receiving antenatal services may not be given the option for HIV testing.

Similarly, marginalized women may face coercive or discriminatory practices when they seek family planning or HIV services. Women living with HIV may sometimes be forced to undergo sterilization or abortion, depriving their right to have a child. Human-rights-based responses that are also gender-responsive are essential to addressing these practices.

UNFPA helps developing countries face these challenges through advocacy, policy guidance and efforts to build capacities for developing guidelines, protocols, standards and systems for ensuring quality of care. All of this work proceeds within the context of strengthening national health systems and achieving universal health coverage.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Micka Perier

Continue Reading
Play
UNFPA partners with the government in order to make commodities more accessible to women living in rural and remote areas in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.

In 2014, the UNFPA Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive
Health Commodity Security supplied approximately
$100 million worth of contraceptives,
averting an estimated 7.8 million unintended pregnancies

2014 HAS SHOWN MUCH PROGRESS BUT MANY GLOBAL CHALLENGES STILL REMAIN IN SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH:

Protecting the health of mothers

10,175

UNFPA supported surgery to repair fistulas for more than 10,175 women in 2014.

Tearing down barriers to HIV services

Up to 50% of new HIV infections occur among key populations and their partners.

Ensuring access to services in times of crisis

72% of UNFPA offices in high-risk countries now have humanitarian preparedness plans

Increasing access to family planning

84 countries

By 2014, 84 countries had logistics management systems for supplies and distribution of contraceptives, enabling more women to gain access to them

Gender Equality And Rights

Advancing Gender Equality

​Gender equality is a human right. Women are entitled to live with dignity and with freedom from want and from fear. Gender equality is also a precondition for advancing development and reducing poverty: Empowered women contribute to the health and productivity of whole families and communities, and they improve prospects for the next generation.

Still, despite solid evidence demonstrating the centrality of women’s empowerment to reducing poverty, promoting development and addressing the world’s most urgent challenges, gender equality remains an unfulfilled promise.

In 2014—and for the past 30 years—UNFPA advocated for women and girls, promoting legal and policy reforms and gender-sensitive data collection, and supporting initiatives that improve women’s health and expand their choices in life.

Photo credit: UNFPA

Continue Reading
Play
UNFPA works to protect and empower adolescent girls through the </em>Action for Adolescent Girls</em> initiative.

In 2014, UNFPA supported
18 additional countries
in the development of gender action plans that included reproductive rights and that had a national budget allocation, raising the total to 64.

2014 has shown much progress but many global challenges still remain in providing adolescents with equal opportunities:

Preventing violence and harmful practices

2,021

In 2014, more than 2,021 communities supported by UNFPA declared the abandonment of female genital mutilation.

Civil society and rights for all

30 countries

In 30 countries, UNFPA supported civil society to institutionalize engagement of men and boys to address gender-based violence and gender inequality.

Data For Development

Policies and programmes based on evidence

Information generated through a population and housing census—numbers of people, their distribution, their living conditions and other key data—is critical for development. Without accurate data, policymakers do not know where to invest in schools, hospitals and roads. Those most in need remain invisible. Yet too many countries have outdated or inaccurate information about their populations.

UNFPA supported countries’ efforts to collect and analyse data, critical to evidence-based policymaking, as well as monitoring and evaluation of development programmes and other interventions.

Photo credit: UNFPA

Continue Reading
Play
West and Central Africa’s regional humanitarian affairs specialist Judicael Elidje describes how UNFPA helped sustain care for women and girls during the Ebola outbreak.

In 30 countries,
UNFPA supported civil society to institutionalize engagement
of men and boys to address gender-based violence and gender inequality

2014 HAS SHOWN MUCH PROGRESS BUT MANY GLOBAL CHALLENGES STILL REMAIN IN COLLECTING THE DATA NEEDED FOR EVALUATION:

2014 HAS SHOWN MUCH PROGRESS BUT MANY GLOBAL CHALLENGES STILL REMAIN IN COLLECTING THE DATA NEEDED FOR EVALUATION: Census data

2013+57%2014

As of 2014, 104 countries had analysed census data and disseminated it according to internationally agreed standards, up from 66 countries a year earlier.

Services in crisis

69% of the countries experiencing a humanitarian crisis in 2014 received UNFPA technical assistance on the use of population-related data to inform and guide the delivery of services to affected communities.

Institutional capacities

69% of national statistical authorities in 2014 had institutional capacities for analysing and using disaggregated data on adolescents and youth

Reproductive health indicators

2013+46%2014

The number of countries that conducted a national household survey yielding reproductive health indicators increased from 69 in 2013 to 101 in 2014.

Adolescents

Investings in Adolescents

Our world is home to 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and 24, and this demographic is growing fastest in the poorest nations. Within this generation are 600 million adolescent girls with specific needs, challenges and aspirations for the future.

Investing heavily in young people’s education and health and protecting their rights could help developing countries with large youth populations see their economies soar, according to the 2014 edition of The State of World Population, published by UNFPA.

The potential economic gains would be realized through a “demographic dividend,” which can occur when a country’s working age population is larger than the population that is dependent and younger, the UNFPA flagship report showed.

But to maximize the dividend, countries must ensure their young working-age populations are equipped to seize opportunities for jobs and other income-earning possibilities.

With the right policies and investments in human capital, countries can empower young people to drive economic and social development and boost per-capita incomes, the report stated.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Ollivier Girard

Continue Reading
Play
Over 3,000 youth activists participated in Viet Nam's first flash mobs to raise awareness about sexual and reproductive health.

UNFPA helped
11.6 million adolescents
access sexual and reproductive health services in 2014

2014 HAS SHOWN MUCH PROGRESS BUT MANY GLOBAL CHALLENGES STILL REMAIN IN PROVIDING ADOLESCENTS WITH EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES:

Comprehensive sexuality education

2013+38%2014

In 2014, UNFPA provided technical support to an additional 24 countries to develop comprehensive sexuality education curricula that are aligned with international standards, raising the total to 63.

Ending Child Marriage

41

In 2014, 41 countries received support from UNFPA to develop health, social and economic asset-building programmes that reach out adolescent girls at risk of child marriage.

Regions

Arab States

“All I know is that I needed help badly,” said Reem, a 22-year-old mother of three, at a women’s centre in Deir Alla, Jordan, supported by UNFPA and the Institute for Family Health (IFH).

“Without the help of the social workers here in the centre, I would have committed suicide,” she said.

Reem is one of some 619,000 Syrian refugees who have been forced to cross the border into Jordan. Her family has struggled to adjust. “Our lives changed in one day, when we had to flee to Jordan from the horror and violence in Syria,” she said.

The terror stayed with them. Her husband was overwhelmed with fear for the family’s safety. He even restricted Reem’s movements.

“My husband was so obsessed after we arrived here that he didn’t want us to cross the house door,” she said.

“I learned about this centre from my neighbours. I visited them and explained our problem. In turn, the staff sat with me and my husband several times, individually and together. They gave us a great help.”

The IFH Deir Alla centre is one of many supported by UNFPA in Jordan. These centres offer a range of services to women, including antenatal care and family planning counselling. They also provide psychosocial assistance, legal counselling and support for survivors of gender-based violence.

Since the outbreak of the Syrian crisis, these centres have been an important resource for Syrian refugee women and girls.

In 2014, there were an estimated 150,000 Syrian refugee women and girls of reproductive age in Jordan. An estimated 11,000 of them were pregnant.

In August and September alone, UNFPA and its partners helped nearly 18,000 women and girls gain access to reproductive health services and about 2,900 survivors of gender-based violence access care.

The Deir Alla centre has also begun offering skills-building programmes, such as knitting and beadwork classes, which could potentially help women earn an income.

Photo credit: UNPFA/Aral Kalk

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

The Arab States witnessed another unsettling year.

The protracted Syrian crisis continued to overwhelm the region’s humanitarian landscape. Renewed fighting in Gaza in July and August led to a further deterioration of the humanitarian situation. Over 14 million people in Yemen need humanitarian assistance, and in Libya, fighting led to the internal displacement of 285,000 people.

In Sudan, the situation in Darfur has led to more than 7 million people needing humanitarian assistance. The situation in Somalia has internally displaced 1.1 million people and resulted in 1 million Somalis fleeing to other parts of the Horn of Africa and to Yemen. By October 2014, some 1.8 million people were displaced as a result of the fighting in Iraq.

For countries like Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria or Morocco, achieving economic stability remains a priority. Rising debt, inflation and dwindling foreign currency reserves have contributed to high unemployment rates, especially for young people, 29 per cent of whom are jobless. Despite increased investment in women’s education in recent years, women’s access to the labour market remains one of the lowest in the world.

The crises in Syria and Iraq have caused large-scale population movements, which are destabilizing neighbouring countries and other parts of the region. Of the 12.2 million Syrians affected by the ongoing conflict, over 3 million are women of reproductive age, including an estimated 488,000 pregnant women.

Female genital mutilation persists in Djibouti, Egypt, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen, despite laws in some countries forbidding it. Gender-based violence is widespread, with some 37 per cent of women having experienced some form of it.

Limited access to sexual and reproductive health information, education and services undermines many women’s ability to exercise reproductive rights.

Continue Reading
Play
Syrian refugee from the Deraa countryside (southern Syria, near Jordan) shares her experience receiving maternal health services at the UNFPA-supported clinic

Progress

36 women’s spaces

UNFPA supported 36 women’s spaces in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria to improve access to gender-based violence services in humanitarian settings

1.5 million young people

Through the Let’s Talk campaign, UNFPA raised awareness about HIV among 1.5 million young people in the Arab States

4.6 million couples

UNFPA procured enough contraceptives to last a year for nearly 4.6 million couples in nine Arab States

822,678 unintended pregnancies

Contraceptives procured by UNFPA helped prevent 822,678 unintended pregnancies and avert 96,871 unsafe abortions in eight Arab States

2,157 maternal deaths averted

Medicines and other supplies provided by UNFPA in 2014 helped avert a total of 2,157 maternal deaths in Djibouti, Egypt, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan and Syria

600 service providers

UNFPA-supported midwifery schools in Somalia trained 600 service providers

Indicators

Total population in millions 327

of the Population is between the ages of 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children per woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
Arab States
  • Algeria 489
  • Djibouti 1,285
  • Egypt 3,628
  • Iraq 8,283
  • Jordan 7,339
  • Lebanon 3,358
  • Libya 553
  • Morocco 1,695
  • Oman 907
  • Palestine 2,713
  • Somalia 14,179
  • Sudan 15,638
  • Syrian Arab Republic 9,436
  • Tunisia 849
  • Yemen 7,092
  • Total country/territory programmes 77,444
  • Regional projects in Arab States 5,929
  • Total programme expenses
    in Arab States

    83,373

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

Asia and the Pacific

Purple is the colour that midwifery students proudly wear in a small but revolutionary school in the busy Afghan capital, Kabul. In addition to a purple scarf, they have one other thing in common: They all come from one of the most hard-to-reach areas of the country.

These midwifery students will soon bring life-saving health care to the women and children of Daikundi, their remote, mountainous region dotted with green valleys.

In a country where a woman dies every two hours from pregnancy-related complications, midwives play a key role in promoting safe motherhood and delivering healthy babies. They embody the difference between life and death.

“My grandmother left this world delivering my father,” says Fatima, one of the midwifery students at the school. “I think this is the reason my family encouraged me to help my community by joining this programme, so no one has to live without a mother or a father.”

Fatima’s story is not unique in Afghanistan, where around 40 per cent of the population lacks access to health services within 10 kilometres—a three-hour walk—and women are often left to deliver alone.
“I still remember a woman in my community who died because she couldn’t get to the hospital on time,” Masooma, another student, recalls.

“My uncle’s wife died during childbirth,” says classmate Aqela. “Her two children survived, but they died months later because the adopting families didn’t have enough resources to take care of them.”

Fatima, Masooma and Aqela joined the Community Midwifery Programme eight months ago, following a tough selection process that involved their families, their communities and a written examination. The ones with the best marks enrolled in the programme, an initiative supported by UNFPA in collaboration with the Ministry of Public Health and support from the governments of Canada and Italy.

Thirty-six candidates passed the exam and joined the school in Kabul. These midwives represent a country that is changing and moving towards a future where every birth is safe.

The students and their families sign a commitment so the future midwife will return to the village once she finalizes her studies. They all realize how important their role will be when they move back to their communities after completing the two-year midwifery degree.

“We are really proud that we passed the exam. I was very nervous, but now I am very happy that I will be able to help the people living in my community,” says Aqela.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Maria Blanco

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

With 4.2 billion people, Asia and the Pacific is the world’s most populous region. It is home to three of the world’s largest populations, as well as some of its smallest countries.

While progress has been made towards achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health in the region, the unmet need for family planning remains high. Approximately 38 per cent of pregnancies in Asia are unintended, and 21 per cent end in abortion.

Despite reporting a steady 50 per cent reduction in maternal mortality since 1990, South Asia still accounts for 24 per cent of all maternal deaths worldwide.

Although the region has made impressive progress in responding to HIV, almost two new infections occur for every person gaining access to treatment.

Child marriage and adolescent pregnancies remain a challenge: Every year approximately 6 million adolescent girls in the region become mothers, three quarters of whom are in South Asia.

Violence against women and girls is manifested in many forms, including domestic violence, rape, harmful practices, dowry and honour killings, trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Prenatal sex selection remains a significant issue in China, India and Viet Nam.

Continue Reading
Play
Purple is the colour that midwifery students proudly wear in a small but revolutionary midwifery school in the busy Afghan capital, Kabul.

Progress

100,000 women and girls

UNFPA provided reproductive health kits to serve 100,000 women and girls affected by floods and landslides in Nepal.

14,000 women and 900 deliveries

UNFPA supported life-saving reproductive health services for 14,000 women and assisted 900 deliveries in Northern Waziristan Agency in Pakistan.

1 in 5 people

In India, where one in five people is between the ages of 10 and 19, UNFPA supported the development of a national adolescent health strategy, which aims to expand access to health, information and services to fulfil the needs of adolescents, including girls and marginalized groups.

15 camps

UNFPA-supported mobile medical teams resumed providing life-saving reproductive health services in 15 camps for displaced people in Myanmar’s Rakhine State in 2014. Four teams were deployed, including 10 UNFPA-sponsored midwives.

Indicators

The population in millions 3823

of the Population is between the ages of 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children of woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
Asia and the Pacific
  • Afghanistan 20,249
  • Bangladesh 11,860
  • Bhutan 1,004
  • Cambodia 5,272
  • China 4,171
  • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 2,210
  • India 10,641
  • Indonesia 4,922
  • Iran (Islamic Republic of) 1,468
  • Lao People’s Democratic Republic 3,666
  • Malaysia 691
  • Maldives 482
  • Mongolia 4,781
  • Myanmar 36,022
  • Nepal 5,180
  • Pacific island countries 7,445
  • Pakistan 7,104
  • Papua New Guinea 2,251
  • Philippines 12,655
  • Sri Lanka 1,758
  • Thailand 1,700
  • Timor-Leste 2,426
  • Viet Nam 5,206
  • Total country/territory programmes 153,164
  • Regional projects in Asia and the Pacific 7,087
  • Total programme expenses
    in Asia and the Pacific

    160,251

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

East and Southern Africa

When Josefina, 12, told community activist Faustina Diamond that she was about to leave school to become a mother, Diamond stepped in.

Josefina lives in Moçimboa da Praia District in the northern province of Cabo Delgado, where 54 per cent of girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are pregnant or already mothers.

Cabo Delgado also has the highest maternal mortality ratio in the country, at 822 deaths per 100,000 live births. It is significant that the majority of these deaths are among girls and women, 15 to 24. This trend is closely associated with a low contraceptive prevalence rate of 2.9 per cent in the province.

In response to the high rates of adolescent pregnancy and maternal death, UNFPA supports community-based distribution of contraceptives and family planning services and information to people in remote communities, through Associação Moçambicana para o Desenvolvimento da Família, AMODEFA, an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Diamond works for AMODEFA.

Diamond talked to Faustina about what it would mean to become a mother so early in life and about the pressures she may be experiencing from her family and community. Diamond also told her about family planning.

Since being taken under Faustina’s wing, Josefina has continued her education and managed to avoid motherhood in childhood. Convinced that this is the right path for all girls her age, she has begun helping
her peers learn about the benefits of family planning and the importance of staying in school. Josefina is now helping people like Ameha, a 14-year-old girl participating in one of the brigade’s events. Ameha dreams about becoming a nurse: “For someone at my age to become a mother is not right—we are still children,” she says.

Meanwhile, Faustina continues traveling through difficult rural terrain to reach people in remote communities with information about family planning. Several times a month, she joins her fellow activists at family planning “brigades,” which use theatre, community dialogue and individual consultations, to help inform people about the benefits of spacing or delaying pregnancies. “People are starting to value our work and appreciate the difference family planning can make in their lives,” she says.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Helene Christensen

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

The unmet need for family planning in the region remains large, with millions of people unable to access contraceptives and information about their safe use. Large disparities exist in access to family planning, depending on age, place of residence, marital status and income level.

Recent demographic shifts have resulted in a large youth population, which could set the stage for a demographic dividend, provided countries make timely investments in the development of their youth’s human capital through improved access and quality to education and health. Realizing a dividend could add billions of dollars to the region’s economies and lift millions out of poverty.

East and Southern Africa is the region most affected by HIV, which remains the single-largest source of life-years lost there, particularly among young people and people of reproductive age. Although the region is home to only 5.4 per cent of the world’s population, nearly half of the world’s new HIV infections occur there.

Continue Reading
Play
UNFPA supported clinic in Namibia provides patients all the services they need in one place.

Progress

23 countries

23 countries adopted standardized midwifery training that meets international standards

16 countries

16 countries have costed national action plans for scaling up maternal and newborn health services

73 per cent

As a result of the UNFPA-supported Safeguard Young People programme, 73 per cent of adolescents and youth in eight countries have access to sexual and reproductive health information

4 million condoms

4 million condoms were distributed to young people

Indicators

Total population in millions 523

of the Population is between the of ages 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children per woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
East and Southern Africa
  • Angola 2,872
  • Botswana 1,768
  • Burundi 7,486
  • Comoros 1,158
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo 14,497
  • Eritrea 2,444
  • Ethiopia 17,505
  • Kenya 7,313
  • Lesotho 2,061
  • Madagascar 6,020
  • Malawi 9,256
  • Mauritius 89
  • Mozambique 10,031
  • Namibia 1,674
  • Rwanda 4,845
  • South Africa 3,209
  • South Sudan 19,087
  • Swaziland 2,012
  • Uganda 20,654
  • United Republic of Tanzania 9,982
  • Zambia 9,200
  • Zimbabwe 21,097
  • Total country/territory programmes 174,260
  • Regional projects in East and Southern Africa 8,947
  • Total programme expenses
    in East and Southern Africa

    183,207

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Aygul, 23, nearly lost her life when she developed complications during labour due to a heart condition. Fortunately, she was rushed from her home in rural Turkmenistan to the capital Ashgabat, where, under the care of a cardiologist, she successfully gave birth to a baby girl.

“I’ve had heart problems since I was a teenager,” Aygul explains. “When I got married, I didn't realize it could become a threat. Plus, my husband’s family expected we would start having children immediately.”

Following her close call, Aygul began receiving free contraceptives, which will enable her to prevent another pregnancy until she has fully recovered and received treatment for her condition.

Like many other countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Turkmenistan is stepping up efforts in helping at-risk women access modern contraceptives, acknowledging that when women are empowered to choose the number, spacing and timing of their children, they face fewer complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and their children are healthier.

Turkmenistan announced in 2014 that it would begin covering the cost of modern contraceptives and other reproductive health medicines and supplies through the state budget by 2017. The initiative is part of a larger effort to ensure all people, particularly at-risk women, have access to voluntary family planning and will help doctors identify the most-at-risk women and then direct them to local reproductive health centres like the one that saved Aygul’s life.

“Risk factors of most-at-risk women contribute to a significant percentage of the maternal mortality rate,” says Bahar Agayeva, head of the Medical Statistics Department at Turkmenistan's Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. “Addressing the family planning needs of these women will help us significantly decrease maternal mortality and improve maternal and child health.”

Photo credit: UNFPA

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

After more than two decades of often painful political and socioeconomic transition in the region, key indicators such as life expectancy have shown signs of recovery. Antenatal care is near-universal in the region, and maternal mortality rates have more than halved since 1990, from 66 to 27 deaths per 100,000 births last year.

Limited access to sexual and reproductive health services accounts for relatively high adolescent pregnancy rates and for widespread use of abortion as a method of birth control. Up to one third of abortions in some countries in the region are performed under unsafe conditions. And it is one of the reasons why HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are still on the rise. An estimated 1.1 million people are living with HIV.

Women, in particular, still face significant legal and other obstacles in fully participating in society and the economy, free from discrimination and violence. Harmful practices such as child marriage persist in parts of the region, threatening the health and well-being of women and girls and perpetuating cycles of violence, poverty and exclusion, especially among marginalized minority populations. Gender-biased sex selection has emerged in a number of countries, shedding light on the negative long-term effects of son preference and the corresponding excess number of men in society, and providing an evidence base for policy responses.

Continue Reading
Play
A father in Armenia expresses his concerns regarding gender-biased sex selection.

Progress

Pre-natal sex selection

In Armenia, UNFPA helped establish a coalition to mobilize the political will to address pre-natal sex selection and the underlying preference for sons

Access to services

The UNFPA office in Kosovo helped Ashkali, Egyptian and Roma communities access sexual and reproductive health services, including modern methods of voluntary family planning

Empowering youth

In Georgia, UNFPA supported the Ministry of Sport and Youth Affairs in developing a new youth policy and action plan

Healthy lifestyles

Further progress has been made in integrating healthy-lifestyle education into the curricula of vocational schools in Kyrgyzstan in 2014

Indicators

Total population in millions 263

of the Population is between the ages of 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children of woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  • Albania 615
  • Armenia 564
  • Azerbaijan 729
  • Belarus 819
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,075
  • Georgia 2,665
  • Kazakhstan 853
  • Kyrgyzstan 1,136
  • Republic of Moldova 1,160
  • Russian Federation 7
  • Serbia (includes Kosovo) 1,161
  • Tajikistan 1,668
  • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 307
  • Turkey 3,383
  • Turkmenistan 749
  • Ukraine 1,001
  • Uzbekistan 1,546
  • Total country/territory programmes 19,438
  • Regional projects in Eastern Europe and Central Asia 8,536
  • Total programme expenses
    in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    27,974

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

Latin America and the Caribbean

More than 200 adolescents in the rural community of El Cuá in northeastern Nicaragua have joined a movement that seeks to reduce the number of adolescent pregnancies to zero.The movement is part of an effort by the Nicaraguan Communal Movement, supported by UNFPA in 2014, to increase adolescents’ access to modern methods of contraception.

Nicaragua has the second-highest adolescent pregnancy rate in Latin America. According to Nelson Centeno, a doctor with the country’s Social Medical Service, “Adolescent pregnancy is one of the biggest problems this community faces” referring to El Cuá, one of the 33 municipalities in Nicaragua with the highest rates of adolescent pregnancy.

Jessica Torres, an advocate for the Nicaraguan Communal Movement’s pregnancy-prevention campaign, says she provides vital information to fellow young people in her community and is there “to give them the support they need.” Byron Martinez, a community health promoter, says he’s already seeing positive changes in young people’s attitudes and noted that before he could change people’s minds, he had to change his own views about sexual and reproductive health. “The hardest thing was recognizing that the change had to start with me. I needed to change in order to be an example for all the kids in my community. In the beginning, I was embarrassed about discussing the use of condoms. Now I’m more open, and they are too,” he said.

Jony Cuan, one of the 200 adolescents reached through the initiative, says it helped him gain access to modern contraceptive information and services. “As a young person, I have the right to plan my life; we shouldn’t be exposed to any kind of risks.” The initiative is giving young people not only the information they need to empower themselves to exercise their own reproductive rights, but also the tools to inform their peers about how to access sexual and reproductive health services, including modern methods of contraception.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Daniel Bravo

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

Latin America and the Caribbean has an estimated 111 million adolescents, many of whom are confronting obstacles to exercising rights. Adolescent and youth in the region, for example, are becoming increasingly vulnerable violence insecurity.

Unemployment among 15-to-24-year-olds is disproportionately high in the region. More than 30 million people between the ages of 15 and 29—more than one in five young people—in 18 Latin American countries were neither enrolled in formal education nor employed.

In 2014, the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) endorsed a plan for reducing the number of adolescent pregnancies in English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries by at least 20 per cent by 2019. UNFPA supported the plan’s development.

Also in 2014, UNFPA, the International Organization for Migration and the System of Central American Integration began implementing a project to prevent violence against women and girls in Central America, in response to high rates of lethal violence and trafficking. The project includes the development of policies to protect women and girls from violence and social and economic support, for those who have survived it.

Continue Reading
Play
Young people in the rural community of El Cuá in Northern Nicaragua join a movement to reduce the number of adolescent pregnancies to zero.

Progress

35 youth leaders

UNFPA helped build the skills of 35 youth leaders from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama to advocate youth access to sexual and reproductive health information and services and enable them to exercise their reproductive rights

200 girls

More than 200 girls from Guatemala’s indigenous communities joined Abriendo Oportunidades, a UNFPA-supported programme, which helps girls navigate the transition to adulthood through clubs and safe spaces where girls gain life and leadership skills and build social networks

500 young people

In Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Panama, UNFPA enabled more than 500 young people, including adolescents, to participate in the development of programmes to prevent gender-based violence

108 midwifery educators

Through a joint initiative of UNFPA and the International Confederation of Midwives, 108 midwifery educators received training

Indicators

The population in millions 618

of the Population is between the ages of 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children of woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Argentina 677
  • Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 3,805
  • Brazil 2,218
  • Caribbean, English- and Dutch-speaking 3,431
  • Chile 172
  • Colombia 4,786
  • Costa Rica 686
  • Cuba 886
  • Dominican Republic 1,022
  • Ecuador 1,234
  • El Salvador 1,794
  • Guatemala 4,182
  • Haiti 6,838
  • Honduras 2,835
  • Mexico 1,834
  • Nicaragua 2,632
  • Panama854
  • Paraguay 1,027
  • Peru 1,684
  • Uruguay 1,116
  • Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 2,582
  • Total country/territory programmes 46,295
  • Regional projects in Latin America and the Caribbean 8,664
  • Total programme expenses
    in Latin America and the Caribbean

    54,959

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

West and Central Africa

Laetitia, 18, was living with her father in Duékoué, a small town 457 kilometres west of Abidjan, the capital of Côte d’Ivoire, attending a secondary school. She interrupted her education while in eighth grade, following an unwanted pregnancy with her boyfriend, an unemployed 21-year-old.

“When my father found out I was pregnant, he got furious. I’ve then decided to flee to Abidjan where my mother had moved after she separated from my father,” Laetitia said sadly.

“I dreamed of becoming a teacher. Unfortunately, I stopped my education because of my pregnancy,” she said.

Laetitia is not an isolated case. A survey by the Ministry of Education revealed that more than 5,000 primary- or secondary-school students become pregnant in 2013, quadruple the number reported seven years earlier.

Faced with these increasing numbers of adolescent pregnancies, the Government designed a national plan on accelerated pregnancy reduction in schools, with technical and financial support from UNFPA.

The plan aims for a 50 per cent reduction in the number of adolescent pregnancies by expanding access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. As a result, 88 per cent of public schools’ clinics are now providing family planning services, including contraceptives. Comprehensive sexuality education is also being introduced into the curriculum. One academic year after the plan was launched, the number of pregnancies in the school has been reduced by 21 per cent, the Ministry of Education reported.

In early 2014, Côte d’Ivoire introduced a national campaign, Zero Pregnancy in School, to raise students’ awareness about sexual and reproductive health. Meanwhile, laws have been introduced to increase penalties for sexual abuse of minors, including sanctions against teachers who abuse their students.

More than one in 10 adolescents becomes pregnant in Côte d’Ivoire. Factors contributing to high adolescent fertility rates include limited access to comprehensive sexuality education in schools, poor communication between parents and children about sexual health and reproduction, child marriage and limited access to reproductive health services for adolescents and youth.

Photo credit: UNFPA/Ollivier Girard

Continue Reading

Context And Challenges

West and Central Africa comprise least developed countries and a few middle-income countries, including ones that produce and export oil. Two thirds of countries in the region have been affected by crises, ranging from political upheaval, to terrorism and a deadly epidemic.

An outbreak of Ebola began sweeping through Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in December 2013 and killed nearly 8,000 people by the end of 2014. The outbreak also reached Mali, Nigeria and Senegal but was contained in those countries soon after the first cases were reported.

In October 2014, UNFPA estimated that more than 800,000 women in these countries would give birth in the following 12 months, and over 120,000 were at risk of death from complications of pregnancy and childbirth, if the required emergency obstetric care were not available.

Continue Reading
Play
UNFPA supplied dignity kits to women affected by Ebola in LIberia.

Progress

Strengthening 12 countries

UNFPA supported the expansion or strengthening of integrated sexual and reproductive health services in 12 countries

Midwifery

In Guinea Bissau, UNFPA assisted the Ministry of Health in resuming midwifery training at the national health school after an eight-year hiatus

70 medical staff trained

In Gabon, 70 medical staff received training in emergency maternal obstetric care, and 142 midwives in fistula diagnosis

Integrating

UNFPA contributed to the response to the Ebola crisis mainly through contact tracing and the provision of midwifery and reproductive health services so that pregnant and delivering women could still have access to care

1,600 girls

In Niger, about 1,600 girls were reached by an UNFPA-supported programme to reduce child marriage and adolescent pregnancy

160,000 adolescents and young people

Liberia expanded access to sexual and reproductive health services, including HIV/AIDS testing and counselling services, to more than 160,000 adolescents and young people

Indicators

Total population in millions 388

of the Population is between the ages of 10 and 24

of married women between the ages of 15 and 49 use modern method of contraception

Average number of children of woman

of every 1,000 females between the ages of 15 and 19 give birth

Gender parity index (1=parity)

Expenses

Programme expenses

in thousands of US$
(includes core and non-core resources)
West and Central Africa
  • Benin 3,688
  • Burkina Faso 10,152
  • Cameroon 7,141
  • Cabo Verde 1,013
  • Central African Republic 4,466
  • Chad 6,534
  • Congo 3,845
  • Côte d’Ivoire 9,791
  • Equatorial Guinea 798
  • Gabon 1,141
  • Gambia 1,927
  • Ghana 4,960
  • Guinea 9,839
  • Guinea-Bissau 2,805
  • Liberia 6,191
  • Mali 3,911
  • Mauritania 3,741
  • Niger 13,569
  • Nigeria 32,144
  • São Tomé and Principe 1,331
  • Senegal 6,633
  • Sierra Leone 10,685
  • Togo 5,211
  • Total country/territory programmes 151,516
  • Regional projects in West and Central Africa 6,560
  • Total programme expenses
    in West and Central Africa

    158,076

Programme expenses by focus area

in thousands of US$
 
  • Integrated sexual and reproductive health
  • Adolescents
  • Gender equality and rights
  • Data for development
  • Organizational efficiency and effectiveness
Total expenses
Focus area as a percentage of total

Income and Expenses

View all 2014 income and expenditure information, which is provided through the UNFPA transparency portal.

Go To The UNFPA
Transparency Portal