UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

State of World Population 2009

go to UNFPA.org

Notes

 

[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Overview

  1. Ban, K. 2007. "A New Green Economics." The Washington Post, 3 December, p. A17.
  2. United Nations Environment Programme. 2009. UNEP Yearbook 2009. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme.
  3. World Bank. 2008. Development and Climate Change: A Strategic Framework for the World Bank Group. Washington, D.C.:
    World Bank.
  4. Asian Development Bank. 2009. The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Costello, A. and others. 2009. "Managing the Health Effects of Climate Change." The Lancet 373 (9676): 1693-1733.
  7. Aguilar, L., M. Blanco and I. Dankelman. 2006. "The Absence of Gender Equity in the Discussions on the International Regime on Access and Benefit Sharing." Discussion document for the Eighth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Gland: International Union for Conservation and Nature.
  8. World Health Organization. 2009. Reproductive Health. Geneva: website: http://www.who.int/topics/reproductive_health/en/, accessed 23 July 2009.
  9. Patz, J. A. and others. 2005. "Impact of Regional Climate Change on Human Health." Nature 438: 310-317.
  10. World Health Organization. 2005. "Climate and Health Fact Sheet." July. Geneva: World Health Organization. Website:
    http://www.who.int/globalchange/news/fsclimandhealth/en/index.html, accessed 24 July 2009.
  11. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 1999. The World at Six Billion (Document ESA/P/WP.154). 12 October 1999. New York: United Nations. Website: http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/sixbillion/sixbilpart1.pdf, accessed 28 July 2009. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York: United Nations. Website: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/unpp/panel_population.htm, accessed 28 July 2009.
  12. Bongaarts, J., B.C. O'Neill and S.R. Gaffin. 1997. "Global Warming Policy: Population Left Out in the Cold." Environment 39 (9): 40-41.
  13. Jiang, L. and K. Hardee. 2009. "How Do Recent Population Trends Matter to Climate Change?" Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  14. UNFPA and the International Institute for Environment and Development, in collaboration with the Population Division of the United Nations and UN-HABITAT, brought together 40 demographers, scientists, and experts in population, gender and development in London in June 2009 to share the latest thinking and research on mitigating climate change through reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions and on adapting to the effects of current and future climate change. For a complete list of conclusions from the event, visit the UNFPA website at www.unfpa.org/public/News/events/ccpd.
  15. Oldrup, H. and M. H. Breengaard. 2009. "Gender and Climate Changes Report." Nordic Summit Declaration, Abstract—Desk Study on Gender Equality and Climate Changes. Nordic Council of Ministers. Website: http://www.norden.org/gender/doks/sk/Gender_and_climate_changes_Rapport.pdf, accessed 12 April 2009.
  16. United Nations Development Programme. 2009. "Resource Guide on Gender and Climate Change." New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  17. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  18. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 2009. Website: http://unfccc.int/essential_background/convention/background/items/1349.php, accessed 23 July 2009.
  19. Mutunga, C. and K. Hardee. 2009. "Population and Reproductive Health in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) for Climate Change" (draft). Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  20. International Conference on Population and Development. 1994. Programme of Action, paragraphs 1.2 and 10.7. Website: http://www.unfpa.org/icpd/icpd-programme.cfm, accessed 23 July 2009.

[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 1

  1. This chapter has been adapted from the United Nations Environment Programme's UNEP Yearbook 2009 but draws on other sources, such as the Worldwatch Institute.
  2. Gillet, N.P. and others. 2008. "Attribution of Polar Warming to Human Influence." Nature Geoscience (1): 750-754.
  3. Kay, J., T. l'Ecuyer, A. Gettelman, G. Stephens and C. O'Dell. 2008. "The Contribution of Cloud and Radiation Anomalies to the 2007 Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum." Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L08503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033451; National Snow and Ice Data Center. 2008.  "Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis." Website: http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/, accessed 23 July 2009.
  4. McKeown, A. and G. Gardner. 2009. Climate Change Reference Guide. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
  5. Perovich, D.K., J.A. Richter-Menge, K.F. Jones and B. Light. 2008. "Sunlight, Water and Ice: Extreme Arctic Sea Ice Melt During the Summer of 2007. Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L11501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034007.
  6. Kay, J., T. l'Ecuyer, A. Gettelman, G. Stephens and C. O'Dell. 2008. "The Contribution of Cloud and Radiation Anomalies to the 2007 Arctic Sea Ice Extent Minimum. Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L08503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033451.
  7. Holland, D.M. and others. 2008. "Acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbrae Triggered by Warm Subsurface Ocean Waters." Nature Geoscience 1(10): 659-664.
  8. Charbit, S., D. Paillard and G. Ramstein. 2008. "Amount of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Irreversibly Leading to the Total of Melting of Greenland." Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L12503, doi:10.1029/2008GL033472.
  9. Rignot, E. and others. 2008. "Recent Antarctic Ice Mass Loss from Radar Interferometry and Regional Climate Modelling." Nature Geoscience 1(2): 106-110.
  10. Dahl-Jensen, D. 2009. "Greenland Ice Sheet in a Changing Climate," cited in Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions. Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, 10-12 March, p. 9.
  11. Pfeffer, W.T., J.T. Harper and S. O'Neel. 2008. "Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st Century Sea-level Rise." Science 321(5894): 1340-1343.
  12. Jevrejeva, S. and others. 2008. "Recent Global Sea Level Acceleration Started over 200 Years Ago?" Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L08715, doi:10.1029/2008GL033611.
  13. Carlson, A.E. and others. 2008. "Rapid Early Holocene Deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet." Nature Geoscience, 1 (9): 620—624.
  14. UN-HABITAT. 2008. State of the World's Cities 2008/9: Harmonious Cities. London: Earthscan.
  15. Semiletov, I. 2008. International Siberian Shelf Study 2008. International Arctic Research Center, ISS08-Update, 15 September 2008. Website: http://www.iarc.uaf.edu/expeditions/?cat=8, accessed 23 July 2009; Shaw, J. 2002. "The Meltwater Hypothesis for Subglacial Bedforms." Quaternary International 90 (2002): 5—22.
  16. Khvorostyanov, D.V. and others. 2008. "Vulnerability of East Siberia's Frozen Carbon Stores to Future Warming." Geophysical Research Letter, 35, L10703, doi:10.1029/2008GL033639.
  17. Ise, T. and others. 2008. "High Sensitivity of Peat Decomposition to Climate Change through Water-Table Feedback." Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/ngeo331.
  18. Global Carbon Project 2008. "Carbon Budget and Trends 2007." Website: www.globalcarbonproject.org; Canadell, J.G. and M.R. Raupach. 2008. "Managing Forest for Climate Change Mitigation." Science 320 (5882): 1456-1457.
  19. Piao, S. and others. 2008. "Net Carbon Dioxide Losses of Northern Ecosystems in Response to Autumn Warming." Nature 451 (7174): 49-53.
  20. Ramanathan, V. and G. Carmichael. 2008. "Global and Regional Climate Changes Due to Black Carbon." Nature Geoscience 1(4): 221-226.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Elsner, J.B., J.P. Kossin and T.H. Jagger. 2008. "The Increasing Intensity of the Strongest Tropical Cyclones." Nature 455 (7209): 92-94.
  23. Barnett, T.P. and D.W. Pierce. 2008. "When Will Lake Mead Go Dry?" Water Resources Research 44, W03201, doi:10.1029/2007WR006704.
  24. All items in box from the International Union for Conservation and Nature, the United Nations Development Programme, the Stockholm International Water Institute, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or the United Nations.

[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 2

  1. Bernstein, L. and others. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Table 5.1, p. 67. Website: http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm, accessed 23 July 2009; For 2-degree threshold, see Watkins, K. and others. 2007. "Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World," Human Development Report 2007/2008. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Website: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2007-2008/, accessed 23 July 2009.
  2. Hare, W.L. 2008. "A Safe Landing for Climate," in Engelman, R., M. Renner and J. Sawin, eds., State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. New York: Norton; Lynas, M. 2009. "Preventing Dangerous Climate Change," in Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.
  3. Smith, P. (author), and M. Bertaglia (editor). 2007. "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture." Encyclopedia of Earth. Cleveland,: C. J., editor. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. Website: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Greenhouse_gas_mitigation_in_agriculture, accessed 23 July 2009.
  4. British Petroleum. 2008. Statistical Review of World Energy. London: British Petroleum; Marland, G. and others. 2007. "Global, Regional, and National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions," Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge: Carbon Dioxide International Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.
  5. International Energy Agency. 2008. International Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: International Energy Agency.
  6. Carbon Dioxide International Analysis Center. 2009. National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture,
    and Gas Flaring: 1751-2006.
    Oak Ridge: Carbon Dioxide International Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Hansen, J. and others. 2008. "Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity
    Aim?" New York: Columbia University. Website: http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/2008/TargetCO2_20080407.pdf, accessed 2 July 2009; Meinshausen, M. and others. 2009. "Greenhouse-gas Emission Targets for Limiting Global Warming to 2C." Nature 458 (7242): 1158.
  9. Rogner, H.-H. and others. 2007. "Introduction." Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. International Energy Agency. 2006. World Energy Outlook 2006. Paris: International Energy Agency.
  11. World Resources Institute. 2009. Summary of UNFCCC Submissions (Working Paper, June). Website: http://pdf.wri.org/working_papers/unfccc_wri_submissions.pdf, accessed 21 July 2009.
  12. Rahman, A., N. Robins and A. Roncerel. 1993. Consumption versus Population: Which Is the Climate Bomb? Exploding the Population Myth. Brussels: Climate Network Europe.
  13. Pearce, F. 2009. "Consumption Dwarfs Population as Main Environmental Threat." Yale Environment 360/Guardian Environmental Network. Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/apr/15/consumption-versus-population-environmental-impact, accessed 20 April 2009.
  14. Holdren, J. P. 1991. "Population and the Energy Problem." Population and Environment 12 (3): 231-255.
  15. Eilperin, J. and S. Mufson. 2009. "Renewable Energy's Environmental Paradox." The Washington Post. 16 April, p. A1.
  16. Sedgh, G. and others. 2007. "Induced Abortion: Rates and Trends Worldwide." The Lancet, 370 (9595): 1338—1345; Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1999. Sharing Responsibility: Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide. New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2005. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. New York: United Nations; Leridon, H. 1977. Human Fertility: The Basic Components. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977. All cited in Guttmacher Institute. 2007. "Abortion: Worldwide Levels and Trends" (PowerPoint presentation).
  17. Alan Guttmacher Institute. October 2007. New York. "Abortion: Worldwide Levels and Trends."(PowerPoint presentation). Website: http://www.guttmacher.org/presentations/AWWtrends.html, accessed 9 July 2009.
  18. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009: World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision. New York: United Nations.
  19. United Nations Economic and Social Council. 2009. "World Population Monitoring, Focusing on the Contribution of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development to the Internationally Agreed Development Goals, Including the Millennium Development Goals." Document E/CN.9/2009/3. Website: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/212/29/PDF/N0921229.pdf?OpenElement, accessed 21 April 2009.
  20. Ibid.
  21. MacKellar, F. L. and others. 1995. "Population, Number of Households, and Global Warming." Popnet (27): 1-3.
  22. Cole, M.A. and E. Neumayer. 2004. "Examining the Impact of Demographic Factors on Air Pollution." Population and Environment 26 (1): 5-21.
  23. Dalton, M. and others. 2008. "Population Aging and Future Carbon Emissions in the United States." Energy Economics 30 (2008): 642-675. Website: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/PCC/pubs/Dalton_etal_EE2008.pdf, accessed 22 April 2009; Dalton, M., L. Jiang, S. Pachauri and B. C. O'Neill. 2008. "Demographic Change and Future Carbon Emissions in China and India." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, 28-31 March 2007, New York.
    Revised 2008. Website: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/PCC/pubs/dem-emiss/Daltonetal_PAA2007.pdf, accessed 22 April 2009.
  24. Satterthwaite, D. and D. Dodman. 2009. "The Role of Cities in Climate Change," in State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. (Engelman, R., M. Renner and J. Sawin, eds.) New York: Norton.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2008. "Promoting Sustainable Consumption: Good Practices in OECD Countries" and "Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour: Evidence in the Areas of Energy, Food, Transport, Waste and Water." Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
  27. Caiazzo, A. and A. Barrett. 2003. "Engaging Women in Environmental Activism: Recommendations for Rachel's Network." Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women's Policy Research. Website: http://www.iwpr.org/pdf/I913.pdf, accessed 9 April 2009; Bord, R. and R. O'Connor. 1997. "The Gender Gap in Environmental Attitudes: The Case of Perceived Vulnerability to Risk." Social Science Quarterly 78 (December):830-40; Brunette, D. 2008. "NPD Reports Women Are More Keen on 'Green'" (press release). Port Washington: The NPD Group.
  28. European Commission and the European Parliament. 2008. Europeans' Attitudes Towards Climate Change. Website: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_300_full_en.pdf, accessed 23 July 2009; Central Office of Information 2005. "Attitudes to Climate Change—Wave 1: Top Line Summary." London: Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK). Website: http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/climatechange/uk/individual/attitudes/pdf/ccresearch-toplines1-0503.pdf, accessed 23 July 2009; Hunter, L., A. Hatch and A. Johnson. 2004. "Cross-National Gender Variation in Environmental Behaviors." Boulder: University of Colorado.
  29. Davies, K. 2008. "Alive: Culture, Sustainability and Intergenerational Democracy." UNESCO E-journal. Edition 2. ISSN: 1835 — 2776. Website: http://www.abp.unimelb.edu.au/unesco/ejournal/pdf/kirsten-davies.pdf, accessed 23 July 2009.
  30. Johnsson-Latham, G. 2007. A Study on Gender Equality as a Prerequisite for Sustainable Development. Report to the Environment Advisory Council, Sweden. Stockholm: Ministry of the Environment (Sweden).
  31. O'Neill, B.C. 2009 (in press: tentative publication date October 2009). "Climate Change and Population Growth," in Mazur, L. 2009. A Pivotal Moment: Population, Justice and the Environmental Challenge. Island Press, Washington, D.C.; Pacala, S. and R. Socolow. 2007. "Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies." Science 305: 968-972.
  32. Pacala, S. and R. Socolow. 2007. "Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies." Science 305: 968-972.
  33. Jowitt, J. and P. Wintour. 2008. "Cost of Tackling Climate Change Has Doubled, Warns Stern." The Guardian 26 June.
  34. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. Website: http://esa.un.org/unpp/index.asp, accessed 23 July 2009.
  35. Wheeler, D. and D. Hammer. (Forthcoming in 2009.) "The Economics of Population Policy for Carbon Emissions Reduction." Working Paper. Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development.
  36. Panel on Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. 1992. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, p. 811. Website: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=1605&page=809, accessed 21 April 2009.
  37. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. "Gender and Food Security, Agriculture." Website: http://www.fao.org/gender/en/agri-e.htm, accessed 23 July 2009.
  38. Scherr, S. J. and S. Sthapit. 2009. Capturing Carbon on the Land: Food, Land Use and Climate Change. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
  39. Shandra, J. M., C. Shandra and B. London. 2008. "Women, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Deforestation: A Cross-National Study." Population and Environment 30: 48-72.
  40. Ibid.

[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 3

  1. Piguet, E. 2008. "Climate Change and Forced Migration," UNHCR Research Paper 153. Geneva.
  2. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1990. "Policy Maker Summary of Working Group II (Potential Impacts of Climate Change)," First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. p. 103, para. 5.0.10.
  3. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Tacoli, C. 2009. "Crisis or Adaptation? Migration and Climate Change in a Context of High Mobility." Environment and Urbanization 21: 2.
  5. Emergency Events Database (http://www.emdat.be) distinguishes between two categories of disasters: hydrometeorological disasters (avalanches/landslides, droughts/famines, extreme temperatures, floods, forest/scrub fires, windstorms and other disasters, such as insect infestations and wave surges) and geophysical disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions). While there is no strict scientific definition of climatic disasters, the World Disaster Report 2008 notes that climatic disasters are weather-related and include most of the hydrometeorological disasters, such as floods, cyclones, storms, extreme temperatures, drought, and wildfires, while avalanches, landslides and mudslides may be related to a mixture of climatic and geological factors. Geophysical disasters are generally not considered to be climate-related. Website: http://www.emdat.be, accessed 23 July 2009; International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 2008. "World Disaster Report: Focus on HIV and AIDS," p.144. Website: http://www.preventionweb.net/files/2928_WDR2008full20reportLR.pdf, accessed 23 July 2009.
  6. United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2008. "Climate Change Risks Overwhelming Current Global Humanitarian Capacity," http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EDIS-7LYLUA?OpenDocument, accessed 23 July 2009.
  7. Integrated Regional Information Networks. 2005. "Disaster Reduction and the Human Cost of Disaster," pp. 3 and 7. Website: http://www.irinnews.org/IndepthMain.aspx?IndepthId=14&ReportId=62446, accessed 23 July 2009.
  8. Estimates based on Emergency Events Database figures given in Guha-Sapir, D., D. Hargitt and P. Hoyois. 2004. Thirty Years of Natural Disasters 1974-2003: The Numbers. Louvain: Presses Universitaires de Louvain. Website: http://www.emdat.be/Documents/Publications/publication_2004_emdat.pdf, accessed 23 July 2009.
  9. http://ochaonline.un.org/News/InFocus/ClimateChange HumanitarianImpact/ClimateChangeIntroduction/VideoSlideshow/tabid/5100/language/en-US/Default.aspx, accessed 15 May 2009.
  10. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2001). World Disasters Report, http://www.ifrc.org/publicat/wdr2001/, accessed 15 April, 2009; Conisbee, M. and Simms, A. (2003) Environmental Refugees: The Case for Recognition. London: New Economics Foundation.
  11. Myers, N. 1993. "Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World." BioScience, 43 (11): 757-761; Christian Aid. 2007. "Human Tide: The Real Migration Crisis."
  12. Stern, N. 2006. "Part II: Impacts of Climate Change on Growth and Development." The Economics of Climate Change: the Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Website: http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/Part_II_Introduction_group.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  13. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  14. International Organization for Migration. 2007. "Migration and the Environment." Discussion note MC/INF/288. Website: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/evolving_global_economy_2728112007/MC_INF_288_EN.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  15. Kniveton, D. and others. 2008. Climate Change and Migration: Improving Methodologies to Estimate Flows. Migration Research Series No. 33. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
  16. Nicholls, R.J. and others. 2007. "Coastal Systems and Low-lying Areas—Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability." Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. Cecilia Tacoli. 2009. "Crisis or Adaptation? Migration and Climate Change in a Context of High Mobility." Environment and Urbanization 21 (2): October.
  18. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. de Kalbermatten, Grégoire G. 2008. "Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought as Push Factors of Forced Migrations", address to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/events/docs/hsn/hsn_address_kalbermatten.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  20. International Organization for Migration. 2008. "Expert Seminar: Migration and the Environment." International Dialogue on Migration No. 10. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations Office in Geneva and the International Organization for Migration, 2007. "Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Harnessing Opportunities." Background Paper. Website: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/events/docs/hsn_background_paper.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  23. Seck, E. 1996. "Désertification: effets, lutte et convention." Dossier documentaire. Dakar: ENDA-Tiers Monde.
  24. Ibid. p.7.
  25. Brody, A., J. Demetriades, and E. Esplen, 2008. "Gender and Climate Change: Mapping the Linkages." A Scoping Study on Knowledge and Gaps, Sussex:  BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
  26. Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2006. "Minimum Initial Service Package for Reproductive Health in Crisis Situations." Website: http://misp.rhrc.org, accessed 27 July 2009.
  27. World Bank. 2007. "Dhaka: Improving Living Conditions for the Urban Poor." Bangladesh Development Series. Paper No. 17, Dhaka: World Bank
  28. World Bank. 2009. "Urban Growth: A Challenge and an Opportunity." http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/0,,contentMDK:21393869~
    pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,00.html#example
    , accessed 27 July 2009.
  29. International Organization for Migration. 2008. "Expert Seminar: Migration and the Environment." International Dialogue on Migration No. 10. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
  30. International Organization for Migration. 2009. "Return of Skills." Website: http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/about-migration/developing-migration-policy/migration-dvlpment/return-skills/cache/offonce%3Bjsessionid=EA68730B19165D5668FC9797E19FB275.worker02, accessed 27 July 2009; Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty. 2005. "Report on the International Workshop on Sustainable Return of Professional and Skilled Migrants," 7-8 March.
  31. Cecilia Tacoli. 2009. "Crisis or Adaptation? Migration and Climate Change in a Context of High Mobility." Environment and Urbanization 21 (2): October.
  32. International Organization for Migration. 2007. "Migration, Development and Natural Disasters: Insights from the Indian Ocean Tsunami." Migration Research Series: 30; International Organization for Migration. 2008. "Migration and Climate Change." Migration Research Series: 31. Geneva.

[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 4

  1. Women's Environment and Development Organization. 2008. "Final Report: Gender and Climate Change Workshop," 2-3 June. Website: http://www.wedo.org/wp-content/uploads/finalreport-dakar-workshop-2008.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  2. Rowling, M. 2008. "Women Farmers Toil to Expand Africa's Food Supply." Reuters. 26 December. Website: http://in.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idINIndia-37187320081226, accessed 27 July 2009.
  3. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: 2008 Revision. New York: United Nations.
  4. Schuemer-Cross, T. and B. H. Taylor. 2009. The Right to Survive: The Humanitarian Challenge for the 21st Century. Oxford: Oxfam.
  5. Alley, R.B., et al. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Website: http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  6. McGranahan, G. and others. 2007. "The Rising Tide: Assessing the Risks of Climate Change and Human Settlements in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones." Environment and Urbanization, 19 (1): April.
  7. Gray, D. 2007. "Cities at Risk of Rising Sea Levels." Associated Press, 30 October.
  8. United Nations. 2005. Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. New York: United Nations. p. XII-1.
  9. Cometto, G. 2009. "A Global Fund for the Health MDGs?" The Lancet 373 (9674): 1500-1502.
  10. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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  29. Parry, M.L. and others. 2007. "Summary for Policymakers." Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 5

  1. Sen, A. 1993. "Capability and Oldrup, H. and M. H. Breengaard. 2009. "Gender and Climate Changes Report." Nordic Summit Declaration, Abstract—Desk Study on Gender Equality, and Climate Changes. Nordic Council of Ministers.
  2. Raworth, K. 2008. "Coping With Climate Change: What Works for Women?" Factsheet. Oxfam GB. June. Website: http://www.oxfam.org.uk/resources/policy/climate_change/climate_change_women.html, accessed 5 May 2009; Awuor, C. B. 2009. "Impacts of and Adaptation to Climate Change." Presentation at congressional briefing "Disaster and Displacement: The Human Face of Climate Change." CARE and Population Resource Center. 11 February. Washington, D.C.
  3. Nyoni, S. 1993. Women and Energy: Lessons from the Zimbabwe Experience. Working Paper 22. Harare: Zimbabwe Environment Research Organization. Cited in Clancy J., M. Skutch and S. Batchelor. 2003. The Gender-Energy-Poverty Nexus. London: United Kingdom: Department for International Development. Cited in Brody, A., J. Demetriades and E. Esplen. 2008. Gender and Climate Change: Mapping the Linkages, a Scoping Study on Knowledge and Gaps. London: United Kingdom: Department for International Development.
  4. Sengupta, S. 2009. "An Empire for Poor Working Women, Guided by a Gandhian Approach." The New York Times. 7 March. p. A6.
  5. Wamukonya, N. and M. Skutsch. 2001. "Is There a Gender Angle to the Climate Change Negotiations?" Paper prepared for ENERGIA for the Commission on Sustainable Development, Session 9. New York, 16-27 April. Cited in Dankelman, I. 2002. "Climate Change: Learning from Gender Analysis and Women's Experiences of Organising for Sustainable Development." In Masika, R. (ed.). 2002. Gender, Development, and Climate Change. Oxford: Oxfam.
  6. Engelman, R. 2008. More: Population, Nature, and What Women Want. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
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  8. Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. 2007. Innovation og mangfoldighed —
    Ny viden og erfaringer med medarbejderdreven innovation.
    Cited in Oldrup, H. and M. H. Breengaard. 2009. "Gender and Climate Changes Report." Nordic Summit Declaration, Abstract—Desk Study on Gender Equality, and Climate Changes. Nordic Council of Ministers.
  9. Terry, G. 2009. "No Climate Justice Without Gender Justice: An Overview of the Issues." Gender & Development 17(1): 5-18; Rosenwald, M.S. 2008. "Why He Jumps In and She Tests the Water." The Washington Post. 17 August. p. F1.
  10. Sullivan, K., and M. Jordan. 2009. "In Banking Crisis, Guys Get the Blame." The Washington Post. 11 February. p. A10.
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  13. Anam, T. 2008. "Losing the Ground Beneath Their Feet." The Guardian. 4 September,p. 6; Dankelman, I. 2002. "Climate Change: Learning from Gender Analysis and Women's Experiences of Organizing for Sustainable Development." Gender and Development 10(2) July.
  14. International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. 2008. Gender Perspectives: Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into Climate Change Adaptation, Good Practices and Lessons Learned. Geneva: United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction.
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  17. Brody, A., Demetriades, J. and Esplen E. 2008. "Gender and Climate Change: Mapping the Linkages." A Scoping Study on Knowledge and Gaps, Sussex: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, p. 17.
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  24. Guttmacher Institute. 2003. Adding It Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. New York: Guttmacher Institute. Website:  http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/240_filename_addingitup.pdf, accessed 29 July 2009.
  25. Obaid, T.A. 2009. "ICPD at 15: Putting People First. Statement to the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, New York, March 30.
  26. Lutz, W. 2008. "It's Human Capital, Stupid!" Popnet 40: 1.
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[ Overview  |  Chapter 1  |  Chapter 2  |  Chapter 3  |  Chapter 4  |  Chapter 5  |  Chapter 6 ]

Chapter 6

  1. Beller, K. and H. Chase. 2008. Great Peacemakers: True Stories from Around the World. Sedona, Ariz.: LTS Press. p. 169.
  2. Chakravartya, S. and others. 2009. "Sharing Global CO2 Emission Reductions Among One Billion High Emitters." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS Early Edition): Website: http://www.pnas.org_cgi_doi_10.1073_pnas.0905232106, accessed July 9, 2009; Baer, P. and others. 2008. The Greenhouse Development Rights Framework: The Right to Development in a Climate Constrained World (Second Edition). Berlin: Heinrich BÅ‘ll Stiftung.
  3. Rogner, H-H. and others. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Metz, B. and others, eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 109.
  4. Speidel, J.J. and others. 2009. Making the Case for U.S. International Family Planning Assistance. Baltimore: Gates Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  5. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: the 2008 Revision. New York: United Nations.
  6. Asian Forum of Parliamentarians for Population and Development. 2008. "Hanoi Statement of Commitment." Arising from the 9th AFPPD General Assembly on Addressing Climate Change and Food Security: Linking Population as a Factor, 13-14 December 2008.
  7. Sinding, S.W., J.A. Ross and A. Rosenfield. 1994. "Seeking Common Ground: Unmet Need and Demographic Goals." International Family Planning Perspectives 20: 23-27, 32.
  8. Potts, M. 1997. "Sex and the Birth Rate: Human Biology, Demographic Change, and Access to Fertility-Regulation Methods." Population and Development Review 23(1): 1-39.
  9. UNAIDS. 2008. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic 2008 (Chapter 7, figure 7.1). Geneva: UNAIDS.
  10. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. 2009. World Population Prospects: the 2008 Revision. New York: United Nations.
  11. Speidel, J.J. and others. 2009. Making the Case for U.S. International Family Planning Assistance. Baltimore: Gates Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  12. Population Council. 1997. "South African Apartheid Spurred Women to Adopt Contraception." Press release. December. New York: The Population Council.
  13. Sen, A. 1994. "Indian State Cuts Population without Coercion." Letter to The New York Times. 4 January.
  14. United Nations Population Fund. 2009. "Flow of Financial Resources for Assisting in the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development." Report to the Commission on Population and Development, Forty-second Session, 30 March-3 April. E/CN.9/2009/5. New York: United Nations.
  15. Guttmacher Institute. 2003. Adding It Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. New York: Guttmacher Institute. Website:  http://www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/240_filename_addingitup.pdf, accessed 3 April 2009.
  16. Lakshminarayanan, R. and others. 2007. Population Issues in the 21st Century: The Role of the World Bank. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
  17. Sadik, N. 2009. Address at United Nations Foundation, 23 April, Washington, D.C.
  18. Deen, T. 2009. "Population: Global Financial Crisis Threatens Family Planning." 1 April. Inter Press News Service.
  19. Women's Environment and Development Organization. 2008. "Final Report: Gender and Climate Change Workshop," 2-3 June. Website: http://www.wedo.org/wp-content/uploads/finalreport-dakar-workshop-2008.pdf, accessed 27 July 2009.
  20. This section draws significantly from recommendations of the Women's Environment and Development Organization, GenderCC and the Global Gender and Climate Change Alliance, a consortium of WEDO, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme.
  21. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2009. Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Relationship Between Climate Change and Human Rights (advance unedited version). New York: United Nations. A/HRC/10/61. 15 January.
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