Endnotes

INTRODUCCIÓN

1 División de Población de Naciones Unidas, World urbanization prospects: the 2003 revision. New York: United Nations, 2003.

2 El estudio ‘Slums of Urban Bangladesh, Mapping and Census 2005,’ fue conducido conjuntamente por Centre of Urban Studies (CUS), National Institute of Population
Research and Training (NIPORT) and the Measure Evaluation of Carolina Population Centre of the University of North Carolina

3 Hakkert, Ralph, 2007. Three Notes on Central issues in Poverty and Urbanization in Cities, Poverty and Environment: Attacking the Future Now, en prensa

4 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 78

5 David Satterthwaite, The Scale of Urban Change.

6 Population Council. Promoting healthy, safe and productive transitions to adulthood. “Reaching vulnerable youth in Ethiopia� by Erulkar, A. and T. Mekbib. Brief no. 6 May 2005

BING

1 Organización Interrnacional del Trabajo, 2006. Global Employment Trends for Youth, Ginebra, Octubre 2006. www.ilo.org/trends

2 Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales de Naciones Unidas, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015.

3 UN-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3974_95355)

4 Ibid.

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

6 Lloyd. 2005.

7 ONU, Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, 2005

8 OIT. Youth: Pathways to decent work. Report VI: Promoting youth employment – Tackling the challenge Conferencia internacional del Trabajo, 93a sesión, 2005, Sexto tema de la agenda. OIT, Ginebra, pp 13-14

9 UN-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/3974_95355)

10 ONU, Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, 2005

11 Youth Employment Network, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/yen/challenge/index.htm
consultada en Enero 26, 2007

12 ONU, Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, 2005

GEETA

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

2 Banco Mundial, 2006. Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 2007: el desarrollo y la próxima generación. Washington, D.C. p. 161

3 Lloyd. 2005.

4 Banco Mundial. 2006. p. 162

5 Banco Mundial. 2006.

6 Environment and Urbanization brief “Deep democracy; transforming opportunities for the urban poor.� Environment and Urbanization. Vol 13 No 2, Octubre 2001

7 Ibid.

8 Banco Mundial. 2006. p. 163

9 Agarwal, 1994 en Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 365.

10 Cabannes, Y. 2006. Children and Young People Build Participatory Democracy in Latin American Cities. Environment and Urbanization 18(2): 195–218.

11 Ibid.

12 Banco Mundial. 2006. p.173.

REHAM

1 Informe del Secretario General, 2006. Adelanto de la mujer: estudio a fondo sobre todas las formas de violencia contra la mujer. 61ª sesión de la Asamblea General, 6 de julio de 2006.

2 Moser, C. et al. 2003 “Violence, fear and insecurity and the urban poor in Latin America�, Paper for the World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Region Study of Urban Poverty. 3 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 consultado en febrero 27, 2007

4 Moore, A. et al. 2005. “Coercive First Sex among Adolescents in Sub-Saharan �frica: Prevalence and Context.� Trabajo presentado en IUSSP XXV Conference on Population,18-23 July 2005, Tours, France.

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

6 Jejeebhoy S, Bott S. 2003. Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People: A Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. New Delhi, india: Population Council.

7 Organización Mundial de la Salud. MS. 2005. Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Por García-Moreno, C. et al. 2005 p.44

8 Dunne M. et al. 2006. Gender Violence in Schools in the Developing World. Gender and Education 18(1): 75-98.

9 Ibid.

10 Erulkar, AS. 2004 in The Lancet, Sexual and Reproductive Health. “Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death�, por Glasier, A. et al. October 2006. p 11-21

11 Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical intersections. information Bulletin Series, No. 1.

12 The Population Council. 2004. Sexual Coercion: Young Men’s Experiences as Victims and Perpetrators. New York. The Population Council.35

13 Kishor, S. and K. Johnson, 2004, Profi ling Domestic Violence: A Multicountry Study, Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, Measure DHS+:66

14 Barker, G. and M. Nasciemento. 2002. Case Study Guy to Guy, Rio de Janeiro: instituto Promundo

15 At http://www.mavaindia.org/consultado en marzo 4, 2007

16 At http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/16days/about.html. Consultado en marzo 4, 2007


FREDDY

1 BBC News. “El Salvador y el costo de la violencia� Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/business/barometro_ economico/newsid_4708000/4708008.stm, último acceso Junio 2, 2006.

2 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 consultado en febrero 27, 2007 3 ONU Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 139

4 Ibid.

5 UN-HABITAT. Overview of Urban Crime Trends. http://ww2.unhabitat.org/Istanbul+5/56.pdf consultado en febrero 23, 2007

6 Winton, A. 2004. Young People’s Views On How to Tackle Gang Violence en “Post Confl ict� Guatemala. Environment and Urbanziation 16(2): 83-99.

7 UN-HABITAT en http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 consultado en febrero 27, 2007

8 Winton. A. 2004. Urban Violence: a guide to the literature. Environment and Urbanization 16(2): 165-184.

9 Ibid.

10 Cardia, N. 2000. Urban Violence in Sao Paulo. USAID Project on Urbanization, Population Environment and Security.

11 Ibid.

12 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 391

13 Franz Vanderschueren, The Prevention of Urban Crime. Paper presentado en Africities 2000 Summit, Windhoek, Mayo 2000

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375. Consultado en febrero 12, 2007.

18 Ibid.

MATY

1 http://www.unfpa.org/profi le/compare.cfm

2 Ali et al., 2003; Gueye et al, 2001; Gupta, 2000; Kuate- Defo, 1998 en Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 212

3 DHS data

4 Ibid.

5 UNFPA: Estado de la población mundial 2004. El Consenso de Cairo diez años después. Salud Reproductiva y acciones mundiales para terminar con la pobreza. Naciones Unidas 2004.

6 ONU. Proyecto del Milenio, 2005. De las Promesas a la Acción: Recomendaciones con respecto a la Igualdad entre los Géneros y el Empoderamiento de las Mujeres. Grupo de Trabajo sobre Educación e Igualdad entre los Géneros. Naciones Unidas, 2005.

7 Banco Mundial, 2004. “Round II Country Reports on Health, Nutrition, and Population Conditions Among the Poor and the Better-Off in 56 Countries.� Washington, D.C.

8 Naciones Unidas, 2001. Nosotros, los niños: examen de fi nal de decenio de los resultados de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia (A/S-27/3). Informe del Secretario General. Nueva York: Naciones Unidas.

9 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 518

10 DHS data

11 Calvès, 2002 en Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 216

12 Ibid.

13 Mahy, M. and N. Gupta. 2002. Trends and Differentials in Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in Sub-Saharan �frica. DHS Analytical Studies No. 3 ORC Macro. Calverton,
Maryland USA.

14 Encuesta VIH-SIDA, Base de indicadores en http://www. measuredhs.com/hivdata/data/table_builder.cfm?survey_ type_id=&survey_pop_based=&userid=44038&usertabid=49344 Consultado en marzo 4, 2007

15 Ibid.

16 ONUSIDA/OMS Actualización de la epidemia de SIDA: Diciembre 2006 en: http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV_data/epi2006/default.asp Consultado en marzo 5, 2007.

SHIMU

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 78.

2 Ibid.

3 Satterthwaite, D. et. al. 1996. The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on the environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents. London:
Earthscan Publications.

4 Lloyd. 2005. p. 434.

5 Ethiopia Ministry of Youth and Sports, Population Council & UNFPA, Programme Brief Berhane Hewan (Light for Eve); a programme to support married and unmarried adolescent girls in rural Amhara Region, Ethiopia at http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/Ethiopia_BerhaneHewanBrief2006.pdf

6 Ibid.

7 Lloyd. 2005. p. 437-8

8 UNFPA. 2002. Reproductive Health and Employment: implications for Young People.

9 Ibid.

10 Population Council. 2006. Biruh Tesfa: A program for poor, urban girls at risk of exploitation and abuse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Program Brief.

11 Ibid.

ANGELO

1 Parenti, M. 1999. Refl ections on the Politics of Culture. Monthly Review 50(9).

2 Malone. K. 2002. Street Life: youth, culture and competing uses of public space. Environment and Urbanization 14(2): 157 – 168.

3 White, S. and W. Lester. 2001. Cultural Relevance: Hip Hop Music as a Bridge in the Digital Divide. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii international Conference on System Sciences.

4 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 168-171.

5 Lloyd. 2005. p. 49

6 Ibid.

7 Banco Mundial, 2006. Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 2007: el desarrollo y la próxima generación. Washington, D.C. p. 201-202

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 ONU Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 86

11 Lloyd. 2005p. 49-50

12 Banco Mundial. 2006. p. 33

13 Ibid.

14 Malone. 2002.