Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

1 ONU, Division de la population. World urbanization prospects: the 2003 revision. New York : Organisation des Nations Unies, 2003.

2 Hakkert, Ralph, 2007. Three Notes on Central Issues in Poverty and Urbanization in Cities, Poverty and Environment: Attacking the Future Now, à paraître.

3 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 78.

4 David Satterthwaite The Scale of Urban Change Worldwide 1950-2000 and its Underpinnings, in Human Settlement Paper, IIED, Londres, 43 pages.

5 Ibid.

6 Population Council. Promoting healthy, safe and productive transitions to adulthood. “Reaching vulnerable youth in Ethiopia� par Erulkar, A. and T. Mekbib. Brief no. 6, mai
2005.

BING

1 BIT, 2006. Tendances mondiales de l’emploi des jeunes, Genève, octobre 2006. www.ilo.org/trends

2 ONU, Département des affaires économiques et sociales, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015.

3 ONU-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/ docs/3974_95355 )

4 Ibid.

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington.

6 Lloyd. 2005.

7 ONU, Département des affaires économiques et sociales, 2005.

8 BIT. Youth: Pathways to decent work. Report VI: Promoting youth employment – Tackling the challenge International Labour Conference, 93rd Session, 2005, Sixth item on the agenda. BIT, Genève, 2005.pp 13-14

9 ONU-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/ docs/3974_95355 )

10 ONU, Département des affaires économiques et sociales, 2005.

11 Youth Employment Network, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/yen/challenge/index.htm, consulté le 26 janvier 2007.

12 ONU, Département des affaires économiques et sociales, 2005.

GEETA

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington.

2 Banque mondiale, 2006. Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2007; Développement et générations futures. Banque mondiale, Washington, p. 161.

3 Lloyd. 2005.

4 Banque mondiale. 2006. p. 162.

5 Banque mondiale. 2006.

6 Environment and Urbanization brief “Deep democracy; transforming opportunities for the urban poor.� Environment and Urbanization. Vol. 13 Nº 2, octobre 2001.

7 Ibid.

8 Banque mondiale. 2006. p. 163.

9 Agarwal, 1994 in Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 365.

10 Cabannes, Y. 2006. Children and Young People Build Participatory Democracy in Latin American Cities. Environment and Urbanization 18(2): 195–218.

11 Ibid.

12 Banque mondiale. 2006. p. 173.

REHAM

1 Rapport du Secrétaire général, 2006. Promotion de la femme : promotion de la femme. Étude approfondie de toutes les formes de violence à l’égard des femmes. Soixante et unième session de l’Assemblée générale,6 juillet 2006.

2 Moser, C. et al. 2003 “Violence, fear and insecurity and the urban poor in Latin America�, Document pour l’étude de la Banque mondiale sur la pauvreté urbaine dans la région Amérique latine et Caraïbes.

3 ONU-HABITAT à http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375, consulté le 27 février 2007.

4 Moore, A. et al. 2005. “Coercive First Sex among Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence and Context.� Exposé présenté à la XXV conférence de l’IUSSP sur la population, 18 au 23 juillet 2005, Tours (France).

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington.

6 Jejeebhoy S, Bott S. 2003. Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People: A Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. New Delhi, Inde : Population Council.

7 OMS. 2005. Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Par García-Moreno, C. et al. 2005, p. 44.

8 Dunne M. et al. 2006. Gender Violence in Schools in the Developing World. Gender and Education 18(1): 75-98.

9 Ibid.

10 Erulkar, AS. 2004 in The Lancet, Sexual and Reproductive Health. “Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death�, par Glasier, A. et al. octobre 2006. p. 11-21.

11 Coalition mondiale sur les femmes et le sida. Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Intersections. Information Bulletin Series, No. 1.

12 The Population Council. 2004. Sexual Coercion: Young Men’s Experiences as Victims and Perpetrators. New York. The Population Council. 35.

13 Kishor, S. and K. Johnson, 2004, Profi ling Domestic Violence: A Multicountry Study, Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, Measure DHS+:66.

14 Barker, G. et M. Nasciemento. 2002. Case Study Guy to Guy, Rio de Janeiro : Instituto Promundo.

15 À http://www.mavaindia.org/, consulté le 4 mars 2007

16 À http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/16days/about.html, consulté le 4 mars 2007.

FREDDY

1 BBC News. “El Salvador y el costo de la violencia� Web site à : http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/business/barometro_economico/newsid_4708000/4708008.stm,consulté le 2 juin, 2006.

2 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories. asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007.

3 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 139

4 Ibid.

5 UN-HABITAT. Overview of Urban Crime Trends. http://ww2.unhabitat.org/Istanbul+5/56.pdf Accessed on February 23, 2007.

6 Winton, A. 2004. Young People’s Views On How to Tackle Gang Violence in “Post Confl ict� Guatemala. Environment and Urbanziation 16(2): 83-99.

7 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007.

8 Winton. A. 2004. Urban Violence: a guide to the literature. Environment and Urbanziation 16(2): 165-184.

9 Ibid.

10 Cardia, N. 2000. Urban Violence in Sao Paulo. USAID Project on Urbanization, Population Environment and Security.

11 Ibid.

12 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of
Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 391

13 Franz Vanderschueren, The Prevention of Urban Crime. Paper presented at the Africities 2000 Summit, Windhoek, May 2000

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 UN-HABITAT á http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375, consulté le 12 et le 27 février 2007.

18 Ibid.

MATY

1 http://www.unfpa.org/profi le/compare.cfm

2 Ali et al., 2003; Gueye et al, 2001; Gupta, 2000; Kuate-Defo, 1998 in Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 212.

3 Données DHS.

4 Ibid.

5 UNFPA. 2004. État de la population mondiale : Le consensus du Caire, dix ans après : la population, la santé en matière de reproduction et l’effort mondial pour éliminer la pauvreté. New York : Nations Unies.

6 Projet Objectifs du Millénaire des Nations Unies. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. New York : Équipe 3 (Éducation primaire et égalité des sexes), Projet Objectifs du Millénaire des Nations Unies.

7 Banque mondiale. 2004. “Round II Country Reports on Health, Nutrition, and Population Conditions Among the Poor and the Better-Off in 56 Countries.� Washington:
Banque mondiale.

8 ONU. 2001. Nous les enfants : examen de fi n de décennie de la suite donnée au Sommet mondial pour les enfants : Rapport du Secrétaire général (A/S-27/3). New York: ONU.

9 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 518.

10 Données DHS.

11 Calvès, 2002 in Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 216.

12 Ibid.

13 Mahy, M. and N. Gupta. 2002. Trends and Differentials in Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Analytical Studies No. 3 ORC Macro. Calverton,
Maryland (USA).

14 Base de données d’indicateurs sur le VIH/sida à http://www.measuredhs.com/hivdata/data/table_builder.
cfm?survey_type_id=&survey_pop_based=&userid=44038&usertabid=49344
consultée le 4 mars 2007.

15 Ibid.

16 ONUSIDA/OMS. Le point sur l’épidémie de sida : décembre 2006, à http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV_data/ epi2006/default.asp, consulté le 5 mars 2007.

SHIMU

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 78.

2 Ibid.

3 Satterthwaite, D. et. al. 1996. The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on the environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents. Londres :
Earthscan Publications.

4 Lloyd. 2005. p. 434.

5 Ministère éthiopien de la jeunesse et des sports, Population Council & UNFPA, Programme Brief Berhane Hewan (light for eve); a programme to support married
and unmarried adolescent girls in rural Amhara Region, Ethiopia à http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/Ethiopia_BerhaneHewanBrief2006.pdf

6 Ibid.

7 Lloyd. 2005. p. 437-8.

8 UNFPA. 2002. Reproductive Health and Employment: Implications for Young People.

9 Ibid.

10 Population Council. 2006. Biruh Tesfa: A program for poor, urban girls at risk of exploitation and abuse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Program Brief.

11 Ibid.

ANGELO

1 Parenti, M. 1999. Refl ections on the Politics of Culture. Monthly Review 50(9).

2 Malone. K. 2002. Street Life: youth, culture andcompeting uses of public space. Environment and Urbanization 14(2): 157 – 168.

3 White, S. and W. Lester. 2001. Cultural Relevance: Hip Hop Music as a Bridge in the Digital Divide. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

4 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, p. 168-171.

5 Lloyd. 2005. p. 49.

6 Ibid.

7 Banque mondiale, 2006. Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2007; Développement et générations futures. Banque mondiale, Washington, pp. 201-202.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 ONU, Département des affaires économiques et sociales, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 86.

11 Lloyd. 2005 p. 49-50.

12 Banque mondiale. 2006. p. 33.

13 Ibid.

14 Malone. 2002.