Endnotes

INTRODUCTION

1 United Nations Population Division, World urbanization prospects: the 2005 revision. New York: United Nations, 2006.

2 Hakkert, Ralph, 2007. Three Notes on Central Issues in Poverty and Urbanization in Cities, Poverty and Environment: Attacking the Future Now, forthcoming

3 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 78

4 Satterthwaite, D. 2005 The Scale of Urban Change Worldwide 1950-2000 and its Underpinnings, in Human Settlements Discussion Paper, IIED, London, 43 pages

5 Ibid.

6 Population Council. Promoting healthy, safe and productive transitions to adulthood. “Reaching vulnerable youth in Ethiopia� by Erulkar, A. and T. Mekbib. Brief no. 6 May 2005

BING

1 ILO, 2006. Global Employment Trends for Youth, Geneva, October 2006. www.ilo.org/trends

2 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015.

3 UN-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/ docs/3974_95355 )

4 Ibid.

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

6 Lloyd. 2005.

7 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005.

8 ILO. Youth: Pathways to decent work. Report VI: Promoting youth employment – Tackling the challenge International Labour Conference, 93rd Session, 2005, Sixth item on the agenda. ILO, Geneva, 2005.pp 13-14

9 UN-Habitat. The State of the World’s Cities 2006-2007: Facts on Youth (http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/ docs/3974_95355 )

10 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005.

11 Youth Employment Network, http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/strat/yen/challenge/index.htm accessed on Jan 26, 2007.

12 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005.

GEETA

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

2 World Bank, 2006. World Development Report 2007; Development and the Next Generation. The World Bank, Washington, D.C. p. 161

3 Lloyd. 2005.

4 World Bank. 2006. p. 162

5 World Bank. 2006.

6 Environment and Urbanization brief “Deep democracy; transforming opportunities for the urban poor.� Environment and Urbanization. Vol 13 No 2, October 2001

7 Ibid.

8 World Bank. 2006. p. 163

9 Agarwal, 1994 in Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 365.

10 Cabannes, Y. 2006. Children and Young People Build Participatory Democracy in Latin American Cities. Environment and Urbanization 18(2): 195–218.

11 Ibid.

12 World Bank. 2006. p.173.

REHAM

1 Report of the Secretary-General, 2006. Advancement of women: advancement of women: In-depth study on all forms of violence against women. At Sixty-first session of
the General Assembly, 6 July 2006

2 Moser, C. et al. 2003 “Violence, fear and insecurity and the urban poor in Latin America�, Paper for the World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Region Study of Urban Poverty.

3 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007

4 Moore, A. et al. 2005. “Coercive First Sex among Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence and Context.� Paper presented at the IUSSP XXV Conference on Population,18-23 July 2005, Tours, France.

5 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

6 Jejeebhoy S, Bott S. 2003. Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People: A Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. New Delhi, India: Population Council.

7 WHO. 2005. Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. By
García-Moreno, C. et al. 2005 p.44

8 Dunne M. et al. 2006. Gender Violence in Schools in the Developing World. Gender and Education 18(1): 75-98.

9 Ibid.

10 Erulkar, AS. 2004 in The Lancet, Sexual and Reproductive Health. “Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death�, by Glasier, A. et al. October 2006. p 11-21

11 Global Coalition on Women and AIDS. Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Intersections. Information Bulletin Series, No. 1.

12 The Population Council. 2004. Sexual Coercion: Young Men’s Experiences as Victims and Perpetrators. New York. The Population Council.35

13 Kishor, S. and K. Johnson, 2004, Profiling Domestic Violence: A Multicountry Study, Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, Measure DHS+:66

14 Barker, G. and M. Nasciemento. 2002. Case Study Guy to Guy, Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Promundo

15 At http://www.mavaindia.org/ Accessed 4 March 2007

16 At http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/16days/about.html Accessed 4 March 2007

FREDDY

1 BBC News. “El Salvador y el costo de la violencia� Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/business/barometro_
economico/newsid_4708000/4708008.stm
, last accessed June 2, 2006.

2 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007.

3 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 139

4 Ibid.

5 UN-HABITAT. Overview of Urban Crime Trends. http://ww2.unhabitat.org/Istanbul+5/56.pdf Accessed on February 23, 2007.

6 Winton, A. 2004. Young People’s Views On How to Tackle Gang Violence in “Post Conflict� Guatemala. Environment and Urbanziation 16(2): 83-99.

7 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007.

8 Winton. A. 2004. Urban Violence: a guide to the literature. Environment and Urbanziation 16(2): 165-184.

9 Ibid.

10 Cardia, N. 2000. Urban Violence in Sao Paulo. USAID Project on Urbanization, Population Environment and Security.

11 Ibid.

12 Lloyd, Chyntia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of
Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 391

13 Franz Vanderschueren, The Prevention of Urban Crime. Paper presented at the Africities 2000 Summit, Windhoek, May 2000

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 UN-HABITAT at http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=375 Accessed on February 27, 2007 Accessed on February 12, 2007.

18 Ibid.

MATY

1 http://www.unfpa.org/profile/compare.cfm

2 Ali et al., 2003; Gueye et al, 2001; Gupta, 2000; Kuate- Defo, 1998 in Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 212

3 DHS data

4 Ibid.

5 UNFPA. 2004. State of the World Population: The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. New York: United Nations.

6 UN Millennium Project. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. New York: Task Force on Education and Gender Equality, UN
Millennium Project.

7 The World Bank. 2004. “Round II Country Reports on Health, Nutrition, and Population Conditions Among the Poor and the Better-Off in 56 Countries.� Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

8 United Nations. 2001. We the Children: End-Decade Review of the Follow-Up to the World Summit for Children: Report of the Secretary-General (A/S-27/3). New York: United Nations.

9 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 518

10 DHS data

11 Calvès, 2002 in Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 216

12 Ibid.

13 Mahy, M. and N. Gupta. 2002. Trends and Differentials in Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa. DHS Analytical Studies No. 3 ORC Macro. Calverton, Maryland USA.

14 HIV/AIDS Survey Indicator Base at http://www.measuredhs.com/hivdata/data/table_builder.cfm?survey_
type_id=&survey_pop_based=&userid=44038&usertabid=49344
Accessed 4 March 2007

15 Ibid.

16 UNAIDS/WHO AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2006 at http://www.unaids.org/en/HIV_data/epi2006/default.asp Accessed March 5, 2007

SHIMU

1 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 78.

2 Ibid.

3 Satterthwaite, D. et. al. 1996. The Environment for Children: Understanding and acting on the environmental hazards that threaten children and their parents. London:
Earthscan Publications.

4 Lloyd. 2005. p. 434.

5 Ethiopia Ministry of Youth and Sports, Population Council & UNFPA, Programme Brief Berhane Hewan (light for eve); a programme to support married and unmarried adolescent girls in rural Amhara Region, Ethiopia at http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/Ethiopia_ BerhaneHewanBrief2006.pdf

6 Ibid.

7 Lloyd. 2005. p. 437-8

8 UNFPA. 2002. Reproductive Health and Employment: Implications for Young People.

9 Ibid.

10 Population Council. 2006. Biruh Tesfa: A program for poor, urban girls at risk of exploitation and abuse in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Program Brief.

11 Ibid.

ANGELO

1 Parenti, M. 1999. Reflections on the Politics of Culture. Monthly Review 50(9).

2 Malone. K. 2002. Street Life: youth, culture and competing uses of public space. Environment and Urbanization 14(2): 157 – 168.

3 White, S. and W. Lester. 2001. Cultural Relevance : Hip Hop Music as a Bridge in the Digital Divide. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.

4 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 168-171.

5 Lloyd. 2005. p. 49

6 Ibid.

7 World Bank, 2006. World Development Report 2007; Development and the Next Generation. The World Bank, Washington, D.C. p. 201-202

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2005. World Youth Report 2005: Young people today, and in 2015. p. 86

11 Lloyd. 2005p. 49-50

12 World Bank. 2006. p. 33

13 Ibid.

14 Malone. 2002.