Notes for boxes
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Cohen, B. 2006. "Urbanization in Developing Countries: Current Trends, Future Projections, and Key Challenges for Sustainability," p. 78.
Technology in Society
For a comprehensive discussion of the concept of governance as applied to urban areas, see: Montgomery, M. R., et al., Panel on Urban Dynamics, National Research Council (eds.). 2003.
Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World
, pp. 355-409. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; and the World Bank. 2000.
Cities in Transition: World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy
. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
The World Bank 2000, p. 35.
Montgomery, M. R., et al., Panel on Urban Dynamics, National Research Council (eds.) 2003.
In view of further climate change—as underlined by the recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change—including probable future rises in mean sea levels, low-elevation coastal areas, which are home to 360 million urbanites, merit specific attention. See: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007.
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Summary for Policy Makers. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Website:
, accessed 14 February 2007.
UN Millennium Project. 2006.
Public Choices, Private Decisions: Sexual and Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals
, p. 72. New York: UNDP.
Women and Urban Crisis: Gender Sensitive Strategies for Managing Critical Urban Environments in the South and East
, p. 14. Paris: MOST-UNESCO.
An authoritative World Bank study found much higher than expected inequalities on such measures as infant and child mortality, maternal mortality, malnutrition and fertility. See: Gwatkin, D., et al. 2000.
Socio-economic Differences in Health, Nutrition and Population: 45 Countries
. Washington, D.C.: Health, Nutrition and Population Department, the World Bank.
Ibid.; and Gwatkin, D. R., A. Wagstaff, and A. S. Yazbeck. 2005.
Reaching the Poor with Health, Nutrition and Population Services: What Works, What Doesn't, and Why
. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
These results have been described as indicating an "absolute system failure" in reproductive health care for poor and vulnerable people. See: Campbell-White, A., T. Merrick, and A. Yazbeck. 2007. "Reproductive Health: The Missing MDG: Poverty, Health and Development in a Changing World." Preliminary draft. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
UN Millennium Project 2006, p. 61.
This section is partly based on: Torres, H. G. 2006. "Socioeconomic and Demographic Information for Urban Social Policies." Draft paper prepared for this Report.
The World Bank. 2003.
World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People
, p. 22. Washington, D.C., and Oxford: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.
Lyons, M., C. Smuts, and A. Stephens. 2001. "Participation, Empowerment and Sustainability: (How) Do the Links Work?"
38(8): 1233-1251; and Mitlin, D., and J. Thompson. 1995. "Participatory Approaches in Urban Areas: Strengthening Civil Society or Reinforcing the Status Quo?"
Environment and Urbanization
UNCHS (Habitat). 2000. Women and Urban Governance, p. 35. Policy Dialogue Series. No. 1. Nairobi: UNCHS (Habitat).
Mitlin and Thompson 1995.
Court, J., and L. Cotterrell. 2006.
What Political and Institutional Context Issues Matter for Bridging Research and Policy: A Literature Review and Discussion of Data Collection Approaches
. ODI Working Paper. No. 269. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Crewe, E., and J. Young. 2002.
Bridging Research and Policy: Context, Evidence and Links.
ODI Working Paper. No. 173. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Notes (Chapter 5)
Notes for Boxes
The Promise of Urban Growth
People In Cities: Hope Countering Desolation
Rethinking Policy on Urban Poverty
The Social and Sustainable Use of Space
Urbanization and Sustainability in the 21st Century
A Vision for a Sustainable Urban Future: Policy, Information and Governance