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Angel, S., S. C. Sheppard, and D. L. Civco. 2005.
The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion
, p. 102. Washington, D.C.: Transport and Urban Development Department, the World Bank.
Ibid., p. 1.
This figure refers to urban settlements, including their green areas and empty spaces, as measured by (adjusted) night-time lights. It was provided by the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, alpha version (GRUMP alpha), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; International Food Policy Research Institute; the World Bank; and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 2004. Gridded Population of the World, version 3, with Urban Reallocation (GPW-UR). Palisades, New York: Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University. Website:
, last accessed 14 February 2007. It thus differs from the figures on urban density provided from a study by: Angel, S., S. C. Sheppard, and D. L. Civco (2005, p. 1.) which refer only to
the built-up areas
of cities having at least 100,000 people.
World Resources Institute. 1996.
World Resources 1996-97: A Guide to the Global Environment: The Urban Environment
, pp. 57-59. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Martine, G. 2006. “Population/-Development/Environment Trends in a Globalized Context: Challenges for the 21st Century.”
The concept of “urban sprawl” has not been clearly and consensually defined. In practice, however, average urban densities are a good summary indicator of sprawl. All exercises come up with significant variations between scores of different cities, despite the differing measures and indicators of “sprawl” that are employed. (See: Lopez, R., and H. P. Hynes. 2003. “Sprawl in the 1990s: Measurement, Distribution, and Trends.”
Urban Affairs Review
38(3): 325-355. Cited in: “Urban Sprawl and Sustainable Cities: A Review,” p. 5, by D. J. Hogan and R. Ojima. 2006. Draft paper prepared for this Report.
Angel, Sheppard, and Civco 2005, p. 102.
Angel. S. 2006. “Measuring Global Sprawl: The Spatial Structure of the Planet’s Urban Landscape,” p. 13. Unpublished paper.
Angel, Sheppard, and Civco 2005, pp. 1-2. This may actually be a low estimate of declining densities. In the United States, at least, a study of 282 metropolitan areas found that the growth of land area outpaced population growth two to one (Reported in: Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 3.).
Angel, Sheppard, and Civco 2005, pp. 1-2.
Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 6.
Arbury, J. n.d. “From Urban Sprawl to Compact City: An Analysis of Urban Growth Management in Auckland.” Master’s Thesis. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. Website:
, accessed 18 September 2006.
Ibid., p. 21.
Monte Mor, R. L. 2006. “O que é o urbano no mundo contemporâneo,” p. 11.
Texto para Discussão
, UFMG/Cedeplar, Belo Horizonte. Website:
, last accessed 18 December 2006. Cited in: Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 16.
Richardson, H. W., and C.-H. C. Bae (eds.). 2004.
Urban Sprawl in Western Europe and the United States
. Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate. Cited in: Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 3.
Pumain, D. 2004. “Urban Sprawl: Is There a French Case?” Pp. 137-157 in: Richardson and Bae 2004.
Munoz, F. 2003. “Lock Living: Urban Sprawl in Mediterranean Cities.”
20(6): 381-385. Cited in: Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 8.
Roca, J., M. C. Burns, and J. M. Carreras. 2004. “Monitoring Urban Sprawl around Barcelona’s Metropolitan Area with the Aid of Satellite Imagery.” Paper prepared for the 20th ISPRS Congress, Istanbul, Commission 1, Turkey, 12-23 July 2004. Istanbul, Turkey: International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; and Munoz 2003. Both cited in: Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 8.
Rio de Janeiro’s “Cidade de Deus” (City of God), made famous by a movie of that name, was created when the residents of well-located favelas were removed to a new settlement on the outskirts of the city in order to permit the construction of high rise apartments for the wealthy in the original favela locations.
Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 8.
This and the following section have greatly benefited from: Tacoli, C. 2006. “A Note on Sprawl and Peri-urbanization.” Draft note prepared for this Report.
Allen, A. 2003. “Environmental Planning and Management of the Peri-urban Interface: Perspectives on an Emerging Field,” p. 136.
Environment and Urbanization
15(1): 135-148; Simon, D., D. McGregor, and K. Nsiah-Gyabaah. 2004. “The Changing Urban–rural Interface of African Cities: Definitional Issues and an Application to Kumasi, Ghana,” p. 235.
Environment and Urbanization
16(2): 235-248; and Parkinson, J., and K. Tayler. 2003. “Decentralized Wastewater Management in Peri-urban Areas in Low-income Countries,” p. 75.
Environment and Urbanization
Deliberate strategies of letting land lie vacant while urban infrastructure approaches and increases its value “. . . may be more specific to developing countries, where zoning, tax structures and the lack of more profitable and secure investments increase the appeal of investment in land.” — Hogan and Ojima 2006, pp. 6-7.
See: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment. n.d. “Environmental Change in Urban Areas: A SCOPE Project.” Website:
, last accessed 14 February 2007.
Tacoli, C. 1999. “Understanding the Opportunities and Constraints for Low-Income Groups in the Peri-Urban Interface: The Contribution of Livelihood Frameworks,” p. 7. Draft for Discussion. London: Peri-urban Interface Project, Development Planning Unit, University College London.
Leaf, M. 2002. “A Tale of Two Villages: Globalization and Peri-urban Change in China and Vietnam.”
Webster, D. 2002.
On the Edge: Shaping the future of Peri-Urban East Asia
. Asia/Pacific Research Center Discussion Paper. Stanford, California: Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University
Webster, D., et al. 2003.
Emerging Third Stage Peri-urbanization: Functional Specialization in the Hangzhou Peri-urban Region
. Stanford, California: Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University.
Allen 2003, p. 137; Ducrot, R., et al. 2004. “Articulating Land and Water Dynamics with Urbanization: An Attempt to Model Natural Resources Management at the Urban Edge,” p. 87.
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems
28(1-2): 85-106; and Kombe, W. J. 2005. “Land Use Dynamics in Peri-urban Areas and Their Implications on the Urban Growth and Form: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania,” p. 120.
Allen, A., N. da Silva, and E. Corubolo. 1999. “Environmental Problems and Opportunities of the Peri-urban Interface and Their Impact upon the Poor,” p. 1. Draft for Discussion. London: Peri-urban Interface Project, Development Planning Unit, University College London; and Simon, McGregor, and Nsiah-Gyabaah 2004, pp. 238 and 242.
Rostam, K. 1997. “Industrial Expansion, Employment Changes and Urbanization in the Peri-urban Areas of Klang-Langat Valley, Malaysia.”
“Activities typically undertaken outside the urban boundaries include disposal of solid wastes in landfills and sewage in surface water, quarries for construction materials, timber for firewood and construction, etc.” — Tacoli, C. 27 November 2006. Personal communication.
Parkinson and Tayler 2003, p. 75; and Kombe 2005, p. 114.
Tacoli 1999, p. 7.
See the “environmental transition” concept outlined by: McGranahan, G., et al. 2001.
The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities
. London: Earthscan.
Songsore, J., and G. McGranahan. 1998. “The Political Economy of Household Environmental Management: Gender, Environment, and Epidemiology in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area.”
Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 18.
United Nations. 2006.
Implementation of the Outcome of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) and Strengthening of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat): Report of the Secretary General
(A/61/262), para. 26(d). New York: United Nations.
Angel, Sheppard, and Civco 2005, pp. 11-13.
Ibid., pp. 91 and 95.
Ibid., p. 101.
Ibid., p. 101. Such preparations would include: securing the public lands and public rights-of-way that are necessary to serve future urban growth; protecting sensitive lands from building, and investing in minimal infrastructure such as transport grids, water supply, sewerage and drainage networks to accommodate growth.
Hogan and Ojima 2006, p. 12; and International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Change. 2005.
SciencePlan: Urbanization and Global Environmental Change
. IHDP Report. No. 15. Bonn, Germany: International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Change.
Hogan and Ojima 2006, pp. 7 and 16.
See also: The World Bank. 2000.
Cities in Transition. World Bank Urban and Local Government Strategy
, p. 105. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. This study suggests the use of the term “commutershed” to refer to a self-defined economic area that represents a particular local and subregional economy in the minds of its participants.
Notes (Chapter 3)
Notes (Chapter 5)
The Promise of Urban Growth
People In Cities: Hope Countering Desolation
Rethinking Policy on Urban Poverty
The Social and Sustainable Use of Space
Urbanization and Sustainability in the 21st Century
A Vision for a Sustainable Urban Future: Policy, Information and Governance