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United Nations. 2006.
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This chapter benefits in many ways from a valuable contribution made to this Report by UN-Habitat (See: Bazoglu, N., and Mboup, G. 2007. “Shelter and Urban Poverty: Nature and Scope.” Draft paper prepared for this Report.).
Kessides, C. 2006. The
Urban Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction
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Champion, T., and G. Hugo. 2004. “Introduction: Moving Beyond the Urban-Rural Dichotomy.” Ch. 1 in:
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An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 1996
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Figures on urban poverty are imprecise and often under-estimated because many aspects of poverty are simply not measured. Surveys either fail to consider the specificity of urban conditions (for instance, the inability to grow or forage for food, the higher monetary cost of non-food needs, the higher incidence of homelessness, harassment, eviction or arrest in their “illegal” homes or livelihoods), or present incomplete information (for instance, by not measuring the adequacy of sanitation facilities). Official UN statistics suggest that, in 2005, there were some 998 million people living in “slums” in the world. See: UN-Habitat. 2006a.
State of the World’s Cities 2006/7: The Millennium Development Goals and Urban Sustainability
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Satterthwaite, D. 2004.
The Under-estimation of Urban Poverty in Low- and Middle-Income Nations
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UNCHS (Habitat). 2001.
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UN Millennium Project. 2005a.
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Montgomery, M. 2005. “The Place of the Urban Poor in the Cairo Programme of Action and the Millennium Development Goals,” p. XXIV-5. Ch. 24 in:
United Nations Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals: New York: 17-19 November 2004
(ESA/P/WP.192), by the United Nations. 2005a. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
See: McGranahan, G., et al. 2001.
The Citizens at Risk: From Urban Sanitation to Sustainable Cities.
Bartone, C. R. 2001. “Urban Environmental Management and the Poor.” Environmental Strategy Background Paper
Urban Development, Infrastructure Group. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Website:
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Human Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis
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Mboup, G. 2004. “Cost of Water by Welfare Groups in Addis Ababa: Indicators for Accessibility, Affordability and Non-discrimination.” Paper presented at the Right to Water and Indicators Workshop, Heinrich Boell Foundation, Berlin, Germany, 25-26 October 2004; UN-Habitat. 2004. “The Preliminary Report of the Urban Inequities Survey, Addis Ababa.” Nairobi: UN-Habitat; and UN-Habitat 2006a.
African Population and Health Research Center, Inc. 2002.
Population and Health Dynamics in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements
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Montgomery, M. R., et al., Panel on Urban Dynamics, National Research Council (eds.). 2003.
Cities Transformed: Demographic Change and Its Implications in the Developing World
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Thompson, J., et al. 2000. “Waiting at the Tap: Changes in Urban Water Use in East Africa over Three Decades.”
Environment and Urbanization
12(2): 37-52 Cited in: Kessides 2006, p. 18.
United Nations 1995, Objective 3.16.
Human Development Report 2003: Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty
, p. 85. New York: Oxford University Press.
Basu, A. 2002. “Why does Education Lead to Lower Fertility: A Critical Review of Some of the Possibilities.
UN-Habitat. 2007. Urban Indicators Database. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
Heintz, J. 2006. “Globalization, Economic Policy and Employment: Poverty and Gender Implications,” p. 15. Employment Strategy Papers. No. 2006/3. Geneva: ILO.
Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World
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Kabeer, N., and S. Mahmud. 2004. “Globalization, Gender, and Poverty: Bangladeshi Women Workers in Export and Local Markets.”
Journal of International Development
16(1): 93-109; Benería, L. 2003.
Gender, Development and Globalization: Economics as if All People Mattered
. London: Routledge; Elson, D. 1996. “Appraising Recent Developments in the World Market for Nimble Fingers.” Pp. 35-55 in:
Confronting State, Capital, and Patriarchy: Women Organizing in the Process of Industrialization
, edited by A. Chhachhi and R. Pittin. 1996. New York: St. Martin’s Press; and Elson, D., and R. Pearson. 1981. “Nimble Fingers make Cheap Workers: An Analysis of Women’s Employment in Third World Export Manufacturing.”
7: 87-107. All cited in: Heintz 2006, p. 45.
Chen, M., et al. 2005.
Progress of the World’s Women 2005: Women, Work and Poverty
. New York: UNIFEM; Carr, M., M. A. Chen, and J. Tate. 2000. “Globalization and Home-Based Workers.”
6(3): 123-42; and Chen, M., J. Sebstad, and L. O’Connell. 1999. “Counting the Invisible Workforce: The Case of Homebased Workers.”
27(3): 603-610. All cited in: Heintz 2006, p. 54.
AFL-CIO. n.d. “Women in the Global Economy.” Washington, D.C.: AFL-CIO. Website:
, accessed 16 February 2007.
UN-Habitat 2006a, p. 125.
Ibid., p. 9.
Heintz 2006, p. 1.
Ibid., p. 11.
International Center for Research on Women. May 2006. “Reducing Women’s and Girls’ Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS by Strengthening their Property and Inheritance Rights.”
ICRW Information Bulletin
. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. (The International Center for Research on Women [ICRW], in partnership with the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS [GCWA/UNAIDS] and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], is implementing the Reducing Women’s and Girls’ Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS by Strengthening their Property and Inheritance Rights grants programme.)
International Center for Research on Women. June 2004. “To Have and To Hold: Women’s Property and Inheritance Rights in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.”
ICRW Information Bulletin
. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.
Michaud, A. 2002. “How Gender-sensitive is Your City?” in
See: Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2007. “Women in National Parliaments: Situation as of 31 January 2007.” Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union. Website:
, accessed 12 February 2007.
United Cities and Local Governments. 2005. “Local Government Statement to Beijing+10: Women in Local Decision Making: Leading Global Change.” Barcelona, Spain: United Cities and Local Governments. Website:
, accessed 21 February 2007.
Chen, et al. 2005.
WHO. 2005. “What Evidence is there about the Effects of Health Care Reforms on Gender Equity, Particularly in Health,” p. 10. Health Evidence Network Report. Copenhagen: Regional Office for Europe, WHO.
See: UNFPA and the Population Reference Bureau. 2005.
Country Profiles for Population and Reproductive Health: Policy Developments and Indicators 2005
, p. 10. New York and Washington, D.C.: UNFPA and the Population Reference Bureau.
Montgomery, M. R., et al., Panel on Urban Dynamics, National Research Council (eds.) 2003, p. 82.
Montgomery, M. 2004. “The Place of the Urban Poor in the Cairo Programme of Action and the Millennium Development Goals,” p. 7. Paper presented at the Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, New York, 17–19 November 2004, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
Montgomery, M. R., et al., Panel on Urban Dynamics, National Research Council (eds.) 2003, p. 82.
Montgomery 2004, p. 1.
Smaoun, S. 2005. “Even in the Best of Times, Women Are Constantly in Danger.”
UNFPA. 2006. “Women’s Economic Empowerment: Meeting the Needs of Impoverished Women,” p. 17. Workshop Report. New York: UNFPA.
Kishor, S., and K. Johnson. 2004.
Profiling Domestic Violence: A Multi-Country Study
, p. 39. Calverton, Maryland: Measure DHS and ORC MACRO.
Smaoun, S. 2000. “Violence Against Women in Urban Areas: An Analysis of the Problem from a Gender Perspective,” pp. 29-30. Urban Management Programme Working Paper Series. No. 17. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-Habitat.
Ibid., pp. 31-32.
Hindin, M. J., and L. S. Adair. 2002. “Who’s at Risk: Factors Associated with Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines.”
Social Science and Medicine
McCloskey, L. A., C. Williams, and U. Larsen. 2005. “Gender Inequality and Intimate Partner Violence among Women in Moshi, Tanzania.” Paper presented at the Twenty-fifth IUSSP International Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-23 July 2005. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.
UNFPA and the Population Reference Bureau 2005, p. 10.
UN Millennium Project. 2006.
Public Choices, Private Decisions: Sexual and Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals
, p. 3. New York: UNDP.
Ibid., p. 12.
Montgomery 2004, p. 9.
Bazoglu and Mboup 2007; and UNFPA and the Population Reference Bureau 2005, p. 10.
See: Montgomery 2004; and UN Millennium Project 2006, p. 3.
UN-Habitat 2006a, p. 16.
Mosley, W. H., and L. C. Chen. 1984. “An Analytical Framework for the Study of Child Survival in Developing Countries.”
Pp. 25-45 in: Child Survival: Strategies for Research. Population and Development Review
Buvé, A., K. Bishikwabo-Nsarhaza, and G. Mutangadura. 2002. “The Spread and Effect of HIV-1 Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa.”
UN-Habitat 2006a, Figure 3.4.1.
Miranda, D. de S. 2000. “Reflexões sobre o papel da cultura na Cidade de São Paulo.”
For further readings on urbanization and culture, see: Massey, D. S. 1996. “The Age of Extremes: Concentrated Affluence and Poverty in the Twenty-first Century,” p. 409.
33(4): 395-412; Gill, R. 2000. “Cities and Ethnicity: A Case of De-Ethnicization or Re-Ethnicization?”
49(2): 211-228; and Roy, S. K. 2005. “Urban Development: A Critique.”
Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society
Reader, I. 1989. “Review Article: Recent Japanese Publications on Religion,” p. 300.
Japanese Journal of Religious Studies
For further discussion of new religious movements, see: Ellingsen, T. 2004. “The Resurgence of Religion in the Age of Globalization,” p. 4. Paper presented at the 5th Pan-European International Relations Conference: “Constructing World Orders,” the Hague, the Netherlands, 9-11 September 2004. Colchester, United Kingdom: European Consortium on Public Relations Standing Group on International Relations; Dawson, L. L. 1998. “The Cultural Significance of New Religious Movements and Globalization: A Theoretical Prolegomenon,” p. 584.
Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion
37(4): 580-595; and Emerson, M. O., and D. Hartman. 2006. “The Rise of Religious Fundamentalism,” p. 133.
Annual Review of Sociology
Moser, C. O. N. 2004. “Urban Violence and Insecurity: An Introductory Roadmap.”
Environment and Urbanization
16(2): 3-16; Moser, C. O. N., and C. McIIwaine. 2006. “Latin American Urban Violence as a Development Concern: Towards a Framework for Violence Reduction,” p. 42.
. 34(1): 89–112; Arriagada, I., and L. Godoy. 2000. “Prevention or Repression: The False Dilemma of Citizen Security”, p. 113.
. No. 70. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean; and Rolnik, R. 2001. “Territorial Exclusion and Violence: The Case of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.”
Hagedorn, J. M. 2005. “The Global Impact of Gangs,” p. 160.
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice
Estimate by the InterAmerican Development Bank (IDB). See: Burki, J. S., and G. Perry. 1998.
Beyond the Washington Consensus: Institutions Matter
, p. 23. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in:
Crime, Democracy, and Development in Latin America
, p. 1, by W. C. Prillaman. 2003. Policy Papers on the Americas Series. Vol. 14, Study 6. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Briceño-León, R. 2005. “Urban Violence and Public Health in Latin America: A Sociological Explanatory Framework,” p. 1644.
Cadernos Saúde Pública
21(6): 1629-1648; and Moser, C. O. N., and D. Rodgers. 2005.
Change, Violence and Insecurity in Non-Conflict Situations
, p. vi. Working Paper. No. 245. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Moser and Rodgers 2005, pp. 19-20.
Ibid., p. 21.
For further information on young people and urbanization, see: UNFPA. 2007.
Growing Up Urban. Supplement to The State of World Population 2007
. New York: UNFPA.
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 2003.
Youth Explosions in Developing World Cities: Approaches to Reducing Poverty and Conflict in an Urban Age
. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
For more information, see: UNFPA 2007.
Engle, P. L. 2000. “Urban Women: Balancing Work and Childcare.” 2020
: Brief No. 08. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute. See also: UNESCO. n.d. “Overview: Growing Up in Cities.” Geneva: A UNESCO-MOST Project. Website:
, accessed 27 February 2007.
This section is based on: Guzman, J. M. 2006. “Urbanization and Ageing in Developing Countries.” Draft paper prepared for this Report.
Calculations made using data from: United Nations. 2005b.
The Diversity of Changing Population Age Structures in the World
(UN/POP/PD/2005/1). United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Social and Economic Implications of Changing Population Age Structure, Mexico City, 31 August–2 September 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, United Nations.
Cutler, S. J., and J. Hendricks. 2001. “Emerging Social Trends.” Ch. 25 in:
Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences
, Fifth Edition, edited by R. H. Binstock and L. K. George. 2001. San Diego, California: Academic Press.
UNCHS (Habitat). 1993.
Improving the Quality of Life of Elderly and Disabled People in Human Settlements: Volume I: A Resource Book of Policy and Programmes from around the World
(H/284/93E). Nairobi: UNCHS (Habitat).
In the four big cities study, it has been stated that: “Developing programs that identify vulnerable older people without violating their civil liberties is a crucial challenge . . .” — Rodwin, V. G., M. K. Gusmano, and R. N. Butler. 2006. “Growing Older in World Cities: Implications for Health and Long-Term Care Policy,” p. 4. Ch. 1 in:
Growing Older in World Cities: New York, London
, Paris, and Tokyo, edited by V. G. Rodwin and M. K. Gusmano. 2006. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Press.
Kessides, C. 2005. “Contributions of Urban Development to Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Draft. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Enabling Shelter Strategies: Review of Experience from Two Decades of Implementation
. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-Habitat.
Carolini, G. 2006. “Community Organizations of the Urban Poor: Realizing the MDGs and Planning for Urban Population Growth.” Draft paper prepared for this Report.
d’Cruz, C., and D. Satterthwaite. 2005. “Building Homes, Changing Official Approaches: The Work of Urban Poor Organizations and their Federations and their Contributions to Meeting the Millennium Development Goals in Urban Areas,” p. 1. IIED Poverty Reduction in Urban Areas Series. Working Paper. No. 16. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Baumann, T., J. Bolnick, and D. Mitlin. 2005. “The Age of Cities and Organizations of the Urban Poor: The Work of the South African Homeless People’s Federation and the People’s Dialogue on Land and Shelter,” pp. i-ii. IIED Working Paper 2 on Poverty Reduction in Urban Areas. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.
Warah, R. 2002. “Afghan Women’s Struggle Behind the Veil.”
Racelis, M. 2005. “Recasting Urban Power Relations.”
7: 16-17. New York: International Poverty Centre, UNDP.
UNDP 2006b, p. 63.
Cities Alliance. 2006.
Annual Report 2006
, p. 11. Washington, D. C.: Cities Alliance.
Our Future: Sustainable Cities: Turning Ideas into Action
. (HSP/WUF/3/2), p. 27. Background Paper. World Urban Forum III, Vancouver, Canada, 19 –23 June 2006. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
Patel, S., and D. Mitlin. 2002. “Sharing Experiences and Changing Lives.”
Community Development Journal
37(2): 125-136. Cited in: Carolini 2006, p. 11.
See: Shack/Slum Dwellers International. n.d. “International Advocacy.” Cape Town, South Africa: Shack/Slum Dwellers International. Website:
, accessed 7 February 2007; and the Huairou Commission. n.d. “Grassroots Women on the Move: Acting Locally, Speaking Globally.” Brooklyn, New York: Huairou Commission. Website:
, accessed on 7 February 2007.
UN Millennium Project. 2005b.
A Home in the City
. Task Force on Improving the Lives of Slum Dwellers. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.
Ibid., p. 3.
See: The World Bank. n.d. “Poverty Reduction Strategies.” Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Website:
, accessed 8 February 2007.
UN-Habitat 2006b, pp. 36-37.
Notes (Chapter 1)
Notes (Chapter 3)
The Promise of Urban Growth
People In Cities: Hope Countering Desolation
Rethinking Policy on Urban Poverty
The Social and Sustainable Use of Space
Urbanization and Sustainability in the 21st Century
A Vision for a Sustainable Urban Future: Policy, Information and Governance