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Notas

INTRODUCCIÓN

ADAMA

NORAIDA

KAKENYA

EDNA

NATALIA

BIBI

KHADIJA

RICHARD

RAJINI

FALCAO

INTRODUCTION

1 UNFPA. 2005. "The Case for Investing in Young People as part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy" UNFPA. Nueva York

2 PNUD. 2002. "Arab Human Development Report 2002". UNDP. p.30

3 La Cava, G., C. Clert and P. Lytle "Investing in Youth Empowerment and Inclusion: A Social Development Approach Insights from the ECA and LAC regions" Social Development Papers. Banco Mundial. Paper No. 60 / February 2004. p.5.

4 Balbo, M. (ed). 2005. "International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, Sao Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok." UN Habitat/Cooperazione Sviluppo/Universita luav di Venezia, p. 307.

5 UNICEF. 2005. "i Los Chicos Siempre Ganan! [Teenagers always win!]; FIFA - UNICEF Under 17 World Cup Peru 2005; Using the power of football to think about the adolescents who are off the field, too" presentado en UNICEF Peru Web site: http://www.unicef.org/peru/media/noticias_017eng.html, visitado el 26 de junio de 2006.

6 Basado en un estudio del Institute for Public Affairs in Baláz, V., A.M. Williams & D. Kollár. 2004. "Temporary versus Permanent Youth Brain Drain: Economic Implications." International Migration 42 (4). IOM. 3-34.

7 Naciones Unidas. 2006. "Trends in Total Migrant Stock: the 2005 Revision" (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005) División de Población de las Naciones Unidas, Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales, p.1.

8 Naciones Unidas. 2006.

9 Banco Mundial, inédito, "World Development report 2007, Development and the Next Generation", Banco Mundial. Washington D.C.

10 Olimova, S. and I. Bosc. 2003. "Labour Migration from Tajikistan" International Organization for Migration and the Sharq Scientific Research Center. July 2003.

11 Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Naciones Unidas. 2004. 2004. "La Juventud en Iberoamerica, Tendencias y Urgencias" UN CEPAL y Organización Iberoamericana de la Juventud. Santiago, Chile.

12 Banco Mundial, inédito.

13 Naciones Unidas. 2006. p.3.

14 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. " Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries" National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

15 Lloyd. ed. 2005. p. 313.

16 Action Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. "Migrant Children: Human Rights, Protection and Services in the Member Countries of the Regional Conference on Migration: The Mexico-Canada Joint Study on Migrant Children in the Region." Action Canada for Population and Development y Colegio de Michoacán, octubre de 2002, p.10.

17 Action Canada for Population and Development y Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. p. 11

18 Action Canada for Population and Development y Colegio de Michoacán 2002.

19 Caouette, Therese M. 2001. "Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth. Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand". A participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children (UK). p. 45

20 BBC News Online. "African Migrants' elusive dream" BBC News, 26 de abril de 2004.

21 La detención y deportación de menores indocumentados es reportada por varias fuentes incluyendo: Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. pp. 17-18. y Human Rights Watch. "World Report 2002" Web site: http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/children.html visitado el 23 de junio de 2006.

22 Adjei, Elizabeth. 2006 "Impact of female migration on countries of origin: the case of Ghana" - paper from the UNFPA-IOM workshop on female migration, Nueva York, 2 y 3 de mayo de 2006.

23 King, Russell, and Vullnetari, Julie. 2003. "Migration and Development in Albania" Working paper issued by the Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty. Sussex Centre for Migration Research. pp. 27-29.

24 Zachariah, K.C. and S. Irudaya Rajan. 2001. "Gender Dimensions of Migration in Kerala: Macro and Micro Evidence - A subtle transformation has occurred among the wives of the migrants that will leave a lasting imprint on Keralan society." in Asia-Pacific Population Journal, septiembre 2001. p.49.

25 Adepoju, Aderanti. 2005 "Migration in West Africa" Comisión Mundial sobre las Migraciones Internacionales. septiembre 2005. p.1.

26 Silvia Scarpa, 2005. "Child Trafficking: The Worst Face of the World." Global Migration Perspectives, No. 40, septiembre 2005. p. 8.

ADAMA

1 Oficina de las Naciones Unidas para el África Occidental. 2005 . "Youth Unemployment and Regional Insecurity in West Africa." UNOWA Issues Paper. deciembre, p.5.

2 Tattersall, Nick for Reuters. 2006. "Mauritania, Spain scramble to stem migrant crisis." 17 de marzo 2006. Web site: http://today.reuters.com/News/CrisesArticle.aspx?storyId=L17510705 visitado el 14 de junio de 2006.

3 Kabbani, N. and E. Kothari. 2005. "Youth Employment in the MENA Region: A Situational Assessment." Social Protection Discussion Paper N 0534. The World Bank. September 2005, p. 3.

4 OIT. 2005. "Youth: Pathways to decent work" Report VI: Promoting youth employment - Tackling the challenge. Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, 93a. sesión, 2005, tema 6 del programa. OIT. Ginebra. p.6.

5 UNICEF. 2000. in "Investing in Youth Empowerment and Inclusion: A Social Development Approach", p. 3.

6 OIT 2005, p. 4.

7 OIT 2005.

NORAIDA

1 Organización Internacional del Trabajo. 2004. Facts on Child Labor. Según estimaciones de la OIT, el servicio doméstico es la forma más común de trabajo infantil para niñas menores de 16 años. Ginebra. OIT.

2 Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas. 2005. "International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting" Nueva York : UNFPA 2005

3 Banco Mundial. 2006. Fact Sheet: Migration, Remittance and Female Migrant Workers. Washington, DC: Banco Mundial. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/
fact_sheet-migrant_workers_en_jan06.pdf, visitado el 25 de mayo de 2006.

4 Asis, Maruja M.B. 2006. "The Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia." Scalabrini Migration Center - Manila. Ponencia presentada durante el 50° período de sesiones de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer, Nueva York, 27 de febrero a 10 de marzo de 2006.

5 Human Rights Watch. 2004. Bad Dreams: Exploitation and Abuse of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia. Nueva York: Human Rights Watch, p. 47.

6 Moreno-Fontes Chammartin. 2005.

7 UNIFEM. Folleto "Gendered Vulnerabilities, Discrimination and Abuse throughout the Migration Cycle and its Impacts".

8 Human Rights Watch. 2004. Child Domestics: The World's Invisible Workers. Web site: hrw.org/English/docs/2004/06/10/africa8789_txt.htm, visitado el 7 de febrero de 2006.

KAKENYA

1 Los estudiantes que se desplazan para continuar sus estudios en el extranjero no son necesariamente considerados migrantes.

2 UNESCO.2006. Global Education Digest 2006: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Montreal. Web site: http://www.uis.unesco.org/TEMPLATE/pdf/ged/2006/GED2006.pdf visitado el 6 de mayo de 2006, p. 33-34.

3 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. " Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries" National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 4.

4 Lloyd. 2005.

5 Lloyd. 2005. p. 72.

6 UNESCO 2006.

7 UNESCO 2006, p. 34.

8 UNESCO 2006, p. 35.

9 UNESCO 2006 p. 37

10 UNESCO 2006 p 20

11 UNESCO, 2006. p. 39

12 UNESCO2006. p. 40.

13 Comisión Económica y Social para el Asia Occidental, Naciones Unidas. "Review of the Youth Situation in the ESCWA Region from the Perspective of Human Resources Development" Nueva York, diciembre de 2000, p.18,23

14 UNESCO 2006. p. 41.

15 Naciones Unidas. "Migración Internacional y Desarrollo". Informe del Secretario General. Asamblea General, sexagésimo período de sesiones. mayo de 2006.

EDNA

1 AVERT, HIV AIDS in Zambia, the epidemic and its impact. Web site: http://www.avert.org/aids-zambia.htm visitado el 15 de junio de 2006.

2 IOM. 2004. Programme Info Sheet. Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS. IOM. Geneva. http://www.iom.int/documents/publication/en/iom_hiv_brochure_july_2004.pdf, visitado el 30 de mayo de 2006

3 UNAIDS. 2004. "Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2004" UNAIDS. Geneva. p. 93.

4 Family Health International. "HIV Prevention in Mobile Populations", Feature story Web site: http://www.fhi.org/en/HIVAIDS/pub/fact/mobilepop.htm, isitado el 5 de junio de 2006.

5 ONUSIDA, UNICEF and ONUSIDA. 2004. "Children on the Brink 2004: A joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action." Web site: www.unicef.org/publications/index_22212.html,visitado el 15 de junio de 2006.

6 UNFPA. CST Bangkok Website - http://cst.bangkok.unfpa.org/393_2233.asp visitado el 15 de junio de 2006.

NATALIA

1 UNICEF.2004."A Child-Rights Approach on i UNICEF.2004."A Child-Rights Approach on International Migration and Trafficking: A UNICEF Perspective." United Nations Children's Fund, (UN/POP/MIG/2004/9) 18 de octubre de 2004. p. 56.

2 Organización Internacional del Trabajo. "A Future Without Child Labour" Ginebra: Organización Internacional del Trabajo.

3 Silvia Scarpa, 2005. "Child Trafficking: The Worst Face of the World." Global Migration Perspectives, No. 40, Septiembre de 2005.

4 Scarpa. 2005.

5 International Federation Terre des Hommes, FRCCF and Casa Dei Diritti Sociali Focus. 2005. "An Increase in Prostitution among Romanian Minors in Rome: Results of a Three-Month Research Project on Unaccompanied Romanian Children in Rome". Terre des Hommes Foundation.

6 Scarpa. 2005.

7 Scarpa. 2005.

8 Scarpa. 2005.

9 Scarpa. 2005.

10 Taylor and Aghatise. 2002. "Employment Creation for Youth in Africa: The Gender Dimension" University of Benin, January 2003, p 8.

11 UNICEF. 2004. p. 3.

12 UNICEF. 2004, p. 57.

13 UNICEF. 2004, p. 4.

14 UNICEF. 2004.

BIBI

1 OMS. 2006. "Working Together for Health: The World Health Report 2006" OMS, Ginebra. p. 101

2 A los países miembros de la OCDE.

3 Mishra, Prachi. 2006. "Emigration and Brain Drain: Evidence From the Caribbean" IMF, Working Paper WP/06/25, p. 5, 16 and 17.

4 OMS. 2006. p. 102

5 OMS. 2006. p. 98

6 OMS. 2006. p 99

7 Bump, Micah. 2006. "Ghana: Searching for Opportunities at Home and Abroad" Featured by Institute for the Study of International Migration. March 2006 Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=381, visitado el 23 de junio de 2006.

8 OMS. 2006. p. 101

9 OMS. 2006.

KHADIJA

1 Los Países Bajos tienen leyes estrictas que prohíben la práctica del pago desigual a hombres y mujeres por el mismo trabajo. Una investigación de su Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales y Empleo en 2003 encontró que, pese a la ley, en ciertas instancias existen diferencias de remuneración entre hombres y mujeres.

2 Comisión Mundial sobre las Migraciones Internacionales. "Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for action." Global Commission on International Migration. Octubre de 2005.

3 Bledsoe, C. 2004. "Reproduction at the Margins: Migration and Legitimacy in the New Europe." Demographic Research, Special Collection 3, Article 4, pp, p.104

4 UNFPA, International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting. Marrakech, Morocco. May 2005, p. 92.

5 UNFPA, 2005

6 Berry, John B., et all, 2006. Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts, Manwah New Jersey, LEA Publishers. p.221

7 Berry 2006

8 Martin, Philip. L., "Managing Migration in the 21st Century" Institute of European Studies, Comparative Immigration and Integration Program, University of California, Berkeley, 2002. p.15

9 EU 2004 Policy Briefs: The Ministerial Integration Conference on "Turning Principles into Actions", Groningen, 9-11 November 2004 "Radicalisation & European Ethnic Minority Youth" by Hunter, Shireen. 2004. p. 38

10 EU 2004 Policy Briefs. p. 41

11 Spencer, Sarah. 2005. "The Challenge of Integration in Europe" Chapter for "Managing Migration: A Policy Agenda for Economic Progress and Social Cohesion." Ed. Papademetriou, D. G. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, 2006

12 Spencer 2005

13 Integrated Strategies for Children and Young People in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, European Conference, 23-25th November, 2004, p.43.

14 Sitio Web del Consejo de Europa, visitado el 31 de enero de 2006, Conference on "Integrated Chilhood and Youth Policies in Europe - needs of disadvantaged neighbourhoods", Estrasburgo, 30 de enero a 1° de febrero de 2006, www.coe.int/t/dc/press/news/20060130

RICHARD

1 Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados. 2006. "2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR." Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees p 7. Hay 8,4 millones de refugiados bajo la responsabilidad del ACNUR y otros 4,3 millones bajo el oops. Se calcula que las mujeres y niños de menos de 18 años representan alrededor de la mitad de esa cifra. Para el OOPS, las estimaciones de la proporción de mujeres y niños están basados en cifras del año 2000 (los datos más recientes). UNRWA. Statistical Profiles.

2 Newman, Jesse. 2005. "Protection Through Participation" Background paper to the "Voices out of Conflict: Young People Affected by Forced Migration and Political Crisis" Conference, Cumberland Lodge, 26-28 March 2004. RSC Working Paper No. 20. Oxford: Refuge Studies Centre. Web site: http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/workingpaper20.pdf, Visitado el 1° de febrero de 2006.

3 Save the Children. 2005. "Protecting Children in Emergencies: Escalating Threats to Children Must Be Addressed." Policy Brief 1.1 (2005). Westport: Save the Children. Web site: http://www.savethechildren.org/advocacy/images/policy_brief_final.pdf, Visitado el 1° de febrero de 2006.

4 Naciones Unidas. 2004. Our Bodies-Their Battle Ground: Gender-Based Violence in Conflict Zones. New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Web site: http://www.irinnews.org/webspecials/GBV/feahea.asp, visitado el 1 de febrero de 2006.

5 Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2005. Adolescent Refugee Reproductive Health. New York: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. Web site: http://www.rhrc.org/pdf/adolesce.pdf, Visitado el 1° de febrero de 2006.

6 Barker, Gary and Christine Ricardo. 2005. "Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence." The World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction - Paper No. 26, Junio de 2005.

RAJINI

1 Zachariah, K.C. and S. Irudaya Rajan. 2001. "Gender Dimensions of Migration in Kerala: Macro and Micro Evidence - A subtle transformation has occurred among the wives of the migrants that will leave a lasting imprint on Keralan society." in Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Septiembre de 2001

2 Banco Mundial. 2005. "When Money Really Matters - Remittances Vital to South Asia."
Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/
0,,contentMDK:20587408~menuPK:324175~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:
223547,00.html, visitado el 16 de junio de 2006.

3 Producto Interno Bruto.

4 Mishra, Prachi. 2006. "Emigration and Brain Drain: Evidence from the Caribbean." Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund Working Paper (WP/06/25).

5 Mishra. 2006 La Commission on Filipinos Overseas calcula que 30 millones de filipinos, entre 34 y 55 por ciento de la población total, depende directamente de las remesas de los trabajadores migrantes (1997). La Commission calcula remesas de $10.600 millones en 2005. La cantidad de trabajadores migrantes filipinos fue de 9.816.770, de los cuales el 72 por ciento eran mujeres.

7 Black, Richard. 2003. "Soaring Remittances Raises New Issues" Feature Story, Migration Information Source, Washington D.C. Migration Policy Institute, June 2003 Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/about.cfm, visitado el 15 de mayo de 2006.

8 Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Naciones Unidas. 2006. Social Panorama of Latin America 2005. Santiago: Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe.

9 Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Naciones Unidas. 2006.

10 Lindley, Anna. 2005. "Influence of Remittances and Diaspora Donations on Education." Paper presented at Conference on Somali Remittances, Washington, DC, 1-2 December 2005. Web site: http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/html/FinancialSectorWeb.nsf/(attachmentweb)
/LindleyConferencePaper/$FILE/LindleyConferencePaper.pdf, visitado el 16 de junio de 2006.

11 Bosc, Igor and Saodat Olimova. 2003. "Labour Migration from Tajikistan." Geneva: International Organization for Migration in cooperation with the Sharq Research Center. Web site: http://www.iom.int/documents/publication/en/tajik%5Fstudy%5Foct%5F03.pdf, visitado el 16 de junio de 2006.

12 Andrade-Eekhoff, Katharine. 2006. "Migration and Development in El Salvador: Ideals Versus Reality." Migration Information Source. Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=387, visitado el 16 de junio de 2006.

13 Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Naciones Unidas. 2006.

FALCAO

1 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005. "African Soccer Goes Global." Feature story: The Globalist. November 21, 2005. Web site: http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=4915 visitado el 9 de junio de 2006.

2 Pratt, Terry. 2006. "The match of the Day Guide to the 2006 World Cup". Interact Publishing. London.

3 Milanovic, Branko. 2006. "Learning About Globalization by Watching A Soccer Game." Taipei Times, February 12, 2006. Web site: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=18064&
prog=zgp&proj=zted, accessed 31 May 2006.

4 http://www.sportnetwork.net/main/s379/st96621.htm

5 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

6 BBC News Online "Blatter condemns European clubs" December 17, 2003. Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/africa/3326971.stm, visitado el 15 de junio de 2006.

7 "EU: Immigration, Co-Development, Soccer." Feature story: Migration News, University of California at Davis. Web site: http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=2326_0_4_0, visitado el 9 de junio de 2006./p>

8 Ibid.

9 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

10 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

11 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.



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