ENDNOTES

INTRODUCTION

ADAMA

NORAIDA

KAKENYA

EDNA

NATALIA

BIBI

KHADIJA

RICHARD

RAJINI

FALCAO

INTRODUCTION

1 UNFPA. 2005. “The Case for Investing in Young People as part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy” UNFPA. New York.

2 UNDP. 2002. “Arab Human Development Report 2002”. UNDP. p.30.

3 La Cava, G., C. Clert and P. Lytle “Investing in Youth Empowerment and Inclusion: A Social Development Approach Insights from the ECA and LAC regions” Social Development Papers.World Bank. Paper No. 60 / February 2004. p.5.

4 Balbo, M. (ed). 2005. “International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, Sao Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok.” UN Habitat/Cooperazione Sviluppo/Universita luav di Venezia, p. 307.

5 UNICEF. 2005. “i Los Chicos Siempre Ganan! [Teenagers always win!]; FIFA – UNICEF. Under 17 World Cup Peru 2005; Using the power of football to think about the adolescents who are off the field, too” featured at UNICEF Peru Web site: http://www.unicef.org/peru/media/noticias_017eng.html, accessed June 26, 2006.

6 Based on a survey by the Institute for Public Affairs in Baláz, V., A.M. Williams & D. Kollár. 2004. “Temporary versus Permanent Youth Brain Drain: Economic Implications.” International Migration 42 (4). IOM. 3-34.

7 United Nations. 2006. “Trends in Total Migrant Stock: the 2005 Revision” (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005) UN Population Division, DESA. p.1.

8 United Nations. 2006.

9 World Bank, forthcoming, “World Development report 2007, Development and the Next Generation”, World Bank. Washington D.C.

10 Olimova, S. and I. Bosc. 2003. “Labour Migration from Tajikistan” International Organization for Migration and the Sharq Scientific Research Center. July 2003.

11 UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2004. “La Juventud en Iberoamerica, Tendencias y Urgencias” UN CEPAL and Organizacion Iberoamericana de la Juventud. Santiago, Chile.

12 World Bank. Forthcoming.

13 United Nations. 2006. p.3.

14 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. “Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries” National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies – The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

15 Lloyd. ed. 2005. p. 313.

16 Action Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. “Migrant Children: Human Rights, Protection and Services in the Member Countries of the Regional Conference on Migration: The Mexico-Canada Joint Study on Migrant Children in the Region.” Action Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán, October 2002, p.10.

17 Action Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. p. 11

18 Action Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán 2002.

19 Caouette, Therese M. 2001. “Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The Lives of Migrant Children and Youth. Along the Borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand”. A participatory Action Research Project of Save the Children (UK). p. 45

20 BBC News Online. “African Migrants’ elusive dream” BBC News, 26 April 2004.

21 The detention and deportation of unaccompanied, undocumented minors is reported in various sources, including: Canada for Population and Development and the Colegio de Michoacán. 2002. pp. 17-18. and Human Rights Watch. “World Report 2002” Web site: http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/children.html, accessed June 23, 2006.

22 Adjei, Elizabeth. 2006 “Impact of female migration on countries of origin: the case of Ghana” – paper from the UNFPA-IOM workshop on female migration, New York 2-3 May 2006.

23 King, Russell, and Vullnetari, Julie. 2003. “Migration and Development in Albania” Working paper issued by the Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty. Sussex Centre for Migration Research. pp. 27-29.

24 Zachariah, K.C. and S. Irudaya Rajan. 2001. “Gender Dimensions of Migration in Kerala: Macro and Micro Evidence - A subtle transformation has occurred among the wives of the migrants that will leave a lasting imprint on Keralan society.” in Asia-Pacific Population Journal, September 2001. p.49.

25 Adepoju, Aderanti. 2005 “Migration in West Africa” Global Commission on International Migration. September 2005. p.1.

26 Silvia Scarpa, 2005. “Child Trafficking: The Worst Face of the World.” Global Migration Perspectives, No. 40, September 2005. p. 8.

ADAMA

1 United Nations Office for West Africa. 2005 . “Youth Unemployment and Regional Insecurity in West Africa.” UNOWA Issues Paper. December, p.5.

2 Tattersall, Nick for Reuters. 2006. “Mauritania, Spain scramble to stem migrant crisis.” 17 March 2006. Web site: http://today.reuters.com/News/CrisesArticle.aspx?storyId=L17510705, last accessed June 14, 2006.

3 Kabbani, N. and E. Kothari. 2005. “Youth Employment in the MENA Region: A Situational Assessment.” Social Protection Discussion Paper N 0534. The World Bank. September 2005, p. 3.

4 ILO. 2005. “Youth: Pathways to decent work” Report VI: Promoting youth employment – Tackling the challenge International Labour Conference, 93rd Session, 2005, Sixth item on the agenda. ILO, Geneva. p.6.

5 UNICEF. 2000. in “Investing in Youth Empowerment and Inclusion: A Social Development Approach”, p. 3.

6 ILO 2005, p. 4.

7 ILO.2005.

NORAIDA

1 International Labour Organization. 2004. Facts on Child Labour. ILO estimates that domestic work is the most common form of child labour for girls under the age of 16. Geneva. ILO.

2 United Nations Population Fund. 2005. “International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting” New York : UNFPA 2005

3 World Bank. 2006. Fact Sheet: Migration, Remittance and Female Migrant Workers. Washington, DC: World Bank. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/
fact_sheet-migrant_workers_en_jan06.pdf, accessed May 25, 2006

4 Asis, Maruja M.B. 2006. “The Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia.” Scalabrini Migration Center – Manila. Paper presented at the Fiftieth Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, 27 February – 10 March 2006.

5 Human Rights Watch. 2004. Bad Dreams: Exploitation and Abuse of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia. New York: Human Rights Watch, p. 47.

6 Moreno-Fontes Chammartin. 2005.

7 UNIFEM. Brochure “Gendered Vulnerabilities, Discrimination and Abuse throughout the Migration Cycle and its Impacts”

8 Human Rights Watch. 2004. Child Domestics: The World’s Invisible Workers. Web site: hrw.org/English/docs/2004/06/10/africa8789_txt.htm, accessed February 7, 2006.

KAKENYA

1 Students who move to pursue their studies abroad are not necessarily considered migrants.

2 UNESCO.2006. Global Education Digest 2006: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Montreal. Web site: http://www.uis.unesco.org/TEMPLATE/pdf/ged/2006/GED2006.pdf Accessed May 6, 2006. p. 33-34.

3 Lloyd, Cynthia B. ed. 2005. “ Growing up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries” National Research Council and Institute of Medicine of the National Academies – The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. p. 4.

4 Lloyd. 2005.

5 Lloyd. 2005. p. 72.

6 UNESCO 2006.

7 UNESCO 2006,. p. 34.

8 UNESCO 2006, p. 35.

9 UNESCO 2006 p. 37

10 UNESCO 2006 p 20

11 UNESCO, 2006. p. 39

12 UNESCO2006. p. 40.

13 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia “Review of the Youth Situation in the ESCWA Region from the Perspective of Human Resources Development” New York, December 2000, p.18,23

14 UNESCO 2006. p. 41.

15 United Nations. “International migration and development” Report of the Secretary-General. Sixtieth session General Assembly. May 2006. p. 14

EDNA

1 AVERT, HIV AIDS in Zambia, the epidemic and its impact. Web site: http://www.avert.org/aids-zambia.htm accessed June 15, 2006.

2 IOM. 2004. Programme Info Sheet. Population Mobility and HIV/AIDS. IOM. Geneva. http://www.iom.int/documents/publication/en/iom_hiv_brochure_july_2004.pdf, accessed May 30, 2006

3 UNAIDS. 2004. “Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2004” UNAIDS. Geneva. p. 93.

4 Family Health International. “HIV Prevention in Mobile Populations”, Feature story Web site: http://www.fhi.org/en/HIVAIDS/pub/fact/mobilepop.htm, accessed June 5, 2006.

5 UNAIDS, UNICEF and UNAIDS. 2004. “Children on the Brink 2004: A joint report of new orphan estimates and a framework for action.” Web site: www.unicef.org/publications/index_22212.html, accessed June 15, 2006.

6 UNFPA. CST Bangkok Website - http://cst.bangkok.unfpa.org/393_2233.asp accessed June 15, 2006

NATALIA

1 UNICEF.2004.“A Child-Rights Approach on International Migration and Trafficking: A UNICEF Perspective.” United Nations Children’s Fund, (UN/POP/MIG/2004/9) October 18, 2004. p. 56.

2 International Labour Organization. 2002. “A Future Without Child Labour” Geneva: International Labour Organization, p. 32.

3 Silvia Scarpa, 2005. “Child Trafficking: The Worst Face of the World.” Global Migration Perspectives, No. 40, September 2005.

4 Scarpa. 2005.

5 International Federation Terre des Hommes, FRCCF and Casa Dei Diritti Sociali Focus. 2005. “An Increase in Prostitution among Romanian Minors in Rome: Results of a Three-Month Research Project on Unaccompanied Romanian Children in Rome”. Terre des Hommes Foundation.

6 Scarpa. 2005.

7 Scarpa. 2005.

8 Scarpa. 2005.

9 Scarpa. 2005.

10 Taylor and Aghatise. 2002. “Employment Creation for Youth in Africa: The Gender Dimension” University of Benin, January 2003, p 8.

11 UNICEF. 2004. p. 3.

12 UNICEF. 2004, p. 57.

13 UNICEF. 2004, p. 4.

14 UNICEF. 2004.

BIBI

1 WHO. 2006. “Working Together for Health: The World Health Report 2006” WHO, Geneva. p. 101

2 To OECD member countries

3 Mishra, Prachi. 2006. “Emigration and Brain Drain: Evidence From the Caribbean” IMF, Working Paper WP/06/25, p. 5, 16 and 17.

4 WHO. 2006. p. 102

5 WHO. 2006. p. 98

6 WHO. 2006. p 99

7 Bump, Micah. 2006. “Ghana: Searching for Opportunities at Home and Abroad” Featured by Institute for the Study of International Migration. March 2006 Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=381, accessed June 23, 2006.

8 WHO. 2006. p. 101

9 WHO. 2006.

KHADIJA

1 The Netherlands have strict laws that forbid practice of unequal payment of men and women for equal work. A research by the Dutch Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment in 2003 found that despite the law in some instances payment differences existed between men and women.

2 Global Commission on International Migration. “Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for action.” Global Commission on International Migration. October, 2005.

3 Bledsoe, C. 2004. “Reproduction at the Margins: Migration and Legitimacy in the New Europe.” Demographic Research, Special Collection 3, Article 4, pp, p.104

4 UNFPA, International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting. Marrakech, Morocco. May 2005, p. 92.

5 UNFPA, 2005

6 Berry, John B., et all, 2006. Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts, Mahwah New Jersey, LEA Publishers. p.221

7 Berry 2006

8 Martin, Philip. L., “Managing Migration in the 21st Century” Institute of European Studies, Comparative Immigration and Integration Program, University of California, Berkeley, 2002. p.15

9 EU 2004 Policy Briefs: The Ministerial Integration Conference on “Turning Principles into Actions”, Groningen, 9-11 November 2004 “Radicalisation & European Ethnic Minority Youth” by Hunter, Shireen. 2004. p. 38

10 EU 2004 Policy Briefs. p. 41

11 Spencer, Sarah. 2005. “The Challenge of Integration in Europe” Chapter for “Managing Migration: A Policy Agenda for Economic Progress and Social Cohesion.” Ed. Papademetriou, D. G. Migration Policy Institute, Washington, 2006

12 Spencer 2005

13 Integrated Strategies for Children and Young People in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods, European Conference, 23-25th November, 2004, p.43.

14 Council of Europe website, accessed January 31, 2006, Conference on “Integrated Chilhood and Youth Policies in Europe – needs of disadvantaged neighbourhoods”, Strasbourg, 30 january – 1 February 2006, www.coe.int/t/dc/press/news/20060130

RICHARD

1 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2006. “2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR.” Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees p 7. There are 8.4 million refugees under the responsibility of UNHCR and another 4.3 million under UNRWA. Women and children less than 18 years of age are estimated to each represent nearly half of the totals. For UNRWA, estimates of the proportion of women and children are based on 2000 (latest available) data. UNRWA. Statistical Profiles.

2 Newman, Jesse. 2005. “Protection Through Participation” Background paper to the “Voices out of Conflict: Young People Affected by Forced Migration and Political Crisis” Conference, Cumberland Lodge, 26-28 March 2004. RSC Working Paper No. 20. Oxford: Refuge Studies Centre. Web site: http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/workingpaper20.pdf, accessed February 1, 2006.

3 Save the Children. 2005. “Protecting Children in Emergencies: Escalating Threats to Children Must Be Addressed.” Policy Brief 1.1 (2005). Westport: Save the Children. Web site: http://www.savethechildren.org/advocacy/images/policy_brief_final.pdf, accessed February 1, 2006.

4 United Nations. 2004. Our Bodies—Their Battle Ground: Gender-Based Violence in Conflict Zones. New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Web site: http://www.irinnews.org/webspecials/GBV/feahea.asp, accessed February 1, 2006.

5 Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2005. Adolescent Refugee Reproductive Health. New York: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. Web site: http://www.rhrc.org/pdf/adolesce.pdf, accessed February 1, 2006.

6 Barker, Gary and Christine Ricardo. 2005. “Young Men and the Construction of Masculinity in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV/AIDS, Conflict, and Violence.” The World Bank Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention & Reconstruction - Paper No. 26, June 2005

RAJINI

1 Zachariah, K.C. and S. Irudaya Rajan. 2001. “Gender Dimensions of Migration in Kerala: Macro and Micro Evidence - A subtle transformation has occurred among the wives of the migrants that will leave a lasting imprint on Keralan society.” in Asia-Pacific Population Journal, September 2001.

2 World Bank. 2005. “When Money Really Matters – Remittances Vital to South Asia.”
Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/
0,,contentMDK:20587408~menuPK:324175~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:
223547,00.html, accessed June 16, 2006.

3 Gross Domestic Product

4 Mishra, Prachi. 2006. “Emigration and Brain Drain:
Evidence from the Caribbean.” Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund Working Paper (WP/06/25).

6 The Commission on Filipinos Overseas figures 30 million Filipinos, or 34 to 55% of the total population, directly depends on overseas workers’ remittances (1997). The Commission on Filipinos Overseas on remittances: $10.6 billion in 2005. The number of Filipino overseas workers in 2005 was 9,81,677,000, of which 72% were women.

7 Black, Richard. 2003. “Soaring Remittances Raises New Issues” Feature Story, Migration Information Source, Washington D.C. Migration Policy Institute, June 2003 Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/about.cfm, accessed May 15, 2006.

8 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2006. Social Panorama of Latin America 2005. Santiago: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

9 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2006.

10 Lindley, Anna. 2005. “Influence of Remittances and Diaspora Donations on Education.” Paper presented at Conference on Somali Remittances, Washington, DC, 1-2 December 2005. Web site: http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/html/FinancialSectorWeb.nsf/(attachmentweb)
/LindleyConferencePaper/$FILE/LindleyConferencePaper.pdf, accessed June 16, 2006.

11 Bosc, Igor and Saodat Olimova. 2003. “Labour Migration from Tajikistan.” Geneva: International Organization for Migration in cooperation with the Sharq Research Center.
Web site: http://www.iom.int/documents/publication/en/tajik%5Fstudy%5Foct%5F03.pdf, accessed June 16, 2006.

12 Andrade-Eekhoff, Katharine. 2006. “Migration and Development in El Salvador: Ideals Versus Reality.” Migration Information Source. Web site: http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=387, accessed June 16, 2006.

13 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2006.

FALCAO

1 Also called soccer.

2 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005. “African Soccer Goes Global.” Feature story: The Globalist. November 21, 2005. Web site: http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=4915, accessed June 9, 2006.

3 Pratt, Terry. 2006. “The Match of the Day Guide to the 2006 World Cup” Interact Publishing. London.

4 Milanovic, Branko. 2006. “Learning About Globalization by Watching A Soccer Game.” Taipei Times, February 12, 2006. Web site: http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=18064&
prog=zgp&proj=zted, accessed 31 May 2006.

5 http://www.sportnetwork.net/main/s379/st96621.htm

6 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

7 BBC News Online “Blatter condemns European clubs” December 17, 2003. Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/football/africa/3326971.stm , accessed June 15, 2006.

8 “EU: Immigration, Co-Development, Soccer.” Feature story: Migration News, University of California at Davis. Web site: http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more.php?id=2326_0_4_0, accessed June 9, 2006.

9 Ibid.

10 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

11 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.

12 Kapur, Devesh and John McHale. 2005.