NOTES
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

INTRODUCTION

  • UNFPA. 3 September 2004. "Immigration and Justice," p. 6. Statement by Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Under Secretary-General, United Nations, and Executive Director of the United Nations Population Fund, at the Forum Barcelona, Human Movements and Immigration: World Congress: A Challenge for the 21st Century. New York: UNFPA.

  • United Nations. 2006. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3), para. 129. New York: United Nations.

  • Thouez, C. 2004. "The Role of Civil Society in the Migration Policy Debate," p. 5. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 12. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and Florini, A. M. (ed.). 2000. The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society, p. 226. Tokyo: Japan Center for International Exchange and Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Cited: Thouez 2004, p. 11, footnote 27.

  • United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, Objective 10.2(a). New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations. 2005. In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/2005), para. 8. New York: United Nations.

  • Experts and human rights organizations express concern that the emphasis on managing migration can objectify migrants, without due attention to migrants as subjects of human rights. See Thouez 2004, pp. 7 and 14.

  • ILO. 2001. "The Asylum-Migration Nexus: Refugee Protection and Migration Perspectives from ILO," para. 27. Geneva: International Migration Branch. ILO. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RSDLEGAL&id=3f33797e6, accessed 20 April 2006.

  • United Nations 2006, para. 85.


CHAPTER 1

  • United Nations. 2004. World Economic and Social Survey 2004: International Migration (E/2004/75/Rev.1/Add.1, ST/ESA/291/Add.1), p. 3. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid., pp. 3-4.

  • An international migrant is defined as: “Any person who changes his or her country of usual residence. A person’s country of usual residence is that in which the person lives, that is to say, the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest. Temporary travel abroad for purposes or recreation, holiday, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage does not entail a change in the country of usual residence.” See: United Nations Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Web site: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_dict_xrxx.asp?def_code=336, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • United Nations. 2006a. Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision: CD-ROM Documentation (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005/Doc). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; and United Nations. 2006b. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3). New York: United Nations. Such figures omit an unknown number of undocumented migrants, who may or may not be counted in official data.

  • United Nations 2006b, paras. 1 and 23.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 25.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 42.

  • Ibid., paras. 46 and 48.

  • United Nations. 2003. “Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 1960-2000: The 2003 Revision,” p. 1. Diskette with Data and Documentation. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2006b, pp. 3-4. After discounting the number of residents from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics who became “international migrants” when their States of residence became independent in 1991, the decrease is from 41 million in the 1975-90 period to 36 million in the 1990-2005 period.

  • Ibid., p. 4.

  • Ibid., p. 3.

  • Ibid., para. 10.

  • Ibid., p. 4.

  • IOM. 2005. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 173. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • UNFPA. 2005. International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting: Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005. New York: UNFPA.

  • Global Commission on International Migration. 2005. Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action: Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, p. 36. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • IOM 2005, p. 249.

  • Ibid., p. 168.

  • In this regard, see, inter alia: Pellegrino, A. 2004. Migration from Latin America to Europe: Trends and Policy Challenges. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 16. Geneva: IOM; Martin, P. 2004. “Migration,” pp. 447-448. Ch. 8 in: Global Crises, Global Solutions, edited by B. Lomborg. 2004. Cambridge, United Kingdom; and The Center for Immigration Studies. 23 November 2004. “Immigrant Population at Record High in 2004.” Bulletin of the Center for Immigration Studies.

  • Robinson, R. 2005. “Beyond the State-Bounded Immigrant Incorporation Regime: Transnational Migrant Communities: Their Potential Contribution to Canada’s Leadership Role and Influence in a Globalized World.” Paper prepared for the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation. Ottawa: The North-South Institute.

  • Pellegrino, A. 2003. La migración internacional en América Latina y el Caribe: tendencies y perfiles de los migrantes, pp. 21-24. Serie población y desarrollo. No. 35. Santiago, Chile: División de Población, CELADE, Naciones Unidas; and United Nations 2004, p. 154.

  • As reflected in selected country databases. On the propensity of youth to migrate, see: Lloyd, C. B. (ed.). 2005. Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, p. 313. Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.

  • Castillo, M. Á. 2003. Migraciones en el hemisferio: Consecuencias y relación con las políticas sociales, p. 16. Serie población y desarrollo. No. 37. Santiago, Chile: División de Población, CELADE, Naciones Unidas.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 98.

  • Adams, R. H., Jr. 2003. “International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain: A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries,” p. 3. Policy Research Working Paper. No. 3069. Washington, D.C.: Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, Poverty Reduction Group, The World Bank.

  • Liang, Z., et al. 2005. “Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China,” p. 8. Paper presented at Session 14 of the 25th International Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-23 July 2005. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Web site: http://iussp2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=52177, last accessed 27 March 2006.

  • Barré, R, et al. 2004. “Scientific Diasporas: How can Developing Countries Benefit from Their Expatriate Scientists and Engineers.” Institute de Recherche pour le Developement. Paris: Institut de recherche pour le développement. Cited in: “Brain Strain: Optimising Highly Skilled Migration from Developing Countries,” p. 9, by B. L. Lowell, A. Findlay, and E. Stewart. 2004. Asylum and Migration Working Paper. No. 3. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Web site: www.ippr.org/ecomm/files/brainstrain.pdf, last accessed 10 May 2006. Also see: Sriskandarajah, D. 1 August 2005. “Reassessing the Impacts of Brain Drain on Developing Countries.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=324, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Adams 2003, p. 18

  • Dovlo, D. 2005. “Migration and the Health System: Influences on Reaching the MDGs in Africa (and other LDCs).” Pp. 67-79 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • UNFPA 2005, p. 68.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 24.

  • UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme. 2004. Meeting the Challenges of Migration: Progress Since the ICPD, p. 36. New York and Geneva: UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme.

  • Awases, M., et al. 2004. Migration of Health Professionals in Six Countries: A Synthesis, p. 40. Brazzaville, Congo: World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 24. See also: UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, p. 109. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Study cited in: Thouez, C. 2005, p. 46. “The Impact of Remittances on Development.” Pp. 41-52 in: UNFPA 2005. See also: Lowell, B. L. 1 June 2003. “Skilled Migration Abroad or Human Capital Flight?” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=135, last accessed 31 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 78.

  • Lowell 1 June 2003.

  • Ratha, D. 2003. “Workers’ Remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance,” p. 158. Pp. 157-175 in: Global Development Finance 2003: Striving for Stability in Development Finance, by The World Bank. 2003. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank; and Winters, L. A. 2003. “The Economic Implications of Liberalizing Mode 4 Trade.” Pp. 59-92 in: Moving People to Deliver Services, edited by A. Mattoo and A. Carzaniga. 2003. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.

  • Lowell 1 June 2003.

  • UNFPA 2005, p. 8. It should be noted that the term “brain waste” is also used to refer to the fact that highly qualified migrants, such as doctors or lawyers, often end up as taxi drivers or waiters in their country of destination. For instance, this is the sense in which it is used in: Özden, Ç. 2005. “Educated Migrants: Is There Brain Waste?” Pp. 227-244 in: International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain, edited by Ç. Özden and M. Schiff. 2005. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

  • Researchers state that some countries with a broad, flexible human resource base and low levels of both adult education and emigration, such as Brazil and China, would actually benefit from increased skill emigration. See, for example: Lowell, Findlay, and Stewart 2004, p. 9; and Beine, M., F. Docquier, and H. Rapoport. 2003. “Brain Drain and LDCs’ Growth: Winners and Losers.” IZA Discussion Paper. No. 819. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Cited in: United Nations 2006b, para. 79.

  • O’Neil, K. 1 September 2003. “Brain Drain and Gain: The Case of Taiwan.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=155, last accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Skeldon R. 2005. “Linkages between Migration and Poverty: The Millennium Development Goals and Population Mobility,” p. 59. Pp. 55-63 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 39 and 146.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002. “International Migration and Globalization,” p. 230-232. Ch. 8 in: Globalization and Development (LC/G.2157[SES.29/3]), by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 31.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 25.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 2002; United Nations 2004, p. x; and Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 1.

  • Article 5 of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families defines the terms ‘documented’ and ‘regular’ as follows: “. . . migrant workers and members of their families: (a) Are considered as documented or in a regular situation if they are authorized to enter, to stay and to engage in a remunerated activity in the State of employment pursuant to the law of that State and to international agreements to which that State is a party; (b) Are considered as non-documented or in an irregular situation if they do not comply with the conditions provided for in subparagraph (a) of the present article.” See: United Nations. 1990. “International Convention on The Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families: Adopted by the General Assembly at its 45th session on 18 December 1990 (A/RES/45/158).” New York: United Nations. For the purposes of this report, the terms ‘irregular’ and ‘undocumented’ migrants will be used interchangeably.

  • Papademetriou, D. G. 1 September 2005. “The Global Struggle with Illegal Migration: No End in Sight.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?id=336, last accessed 27 March 2006.

  • Koser, K. 2005. “Irregular Migration, State Security and Human Security: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 3. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Council of Europe. 2004. “Regional Conference on Migration: Migrants in Transit Countries Sharing Responsibilities in Management and Protection: Pro¬ceedings, Istanbul, 30 September-1 October 2004” (2004MG-RCONF[2004]9e), pp. 45, and 48-49. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

  • “Unmarked Graves Across the US Border.” 28 February 2006. IPS UN Journal 14(32): 4.

  • Forced migration is defined as: “A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects)”, as found in: IOM 2005, p. 459. See also: Castles, S. 1 May 2004. “Confronting the Realities of Forced Migration,” p. 2. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=222, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2006a. 2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, p. 3. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • United Nations 2006b, p. 3.

  • UNHCR. 2005a. 2004 Global Refugee Trends: Overview of Refugee Populations, New Arrivals, Durable Solutions, Asylum Seekers and other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, p. 2. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNHCR. 2006b. The State of the World’s Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, p. 70. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press.

  • UNHCR. 2005b. Refugees by Numbers. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/basics/opendoc.pdf?id=416e3eb24&tbl=BASICS&page=basics, accessed 7 April 2006.

  • United Nations 2006a.

  • UNHCR. 17 March 2006. “Number of Asylum Seekers Halved Since 2001, Says UNHCR.” Press release. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=441a7d714, accessed 26 March 2006; and UNHCR. 1 March 2005. “Asylum Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries 2004: Overview of Asylum Applications Lodged in Europe and Non-European Industrialized Countries in 2004,” pp. 3-4. Geneva: UNHCR. Cited in: UNHCR 2006b, p. 57.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 41.

  • Castles 1 May 2004, p. 2.

  • The World Bank. 2006. Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration, p. 85 and 88. Washington, D. C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank.

  • Ibid., p. 90.

  • Bajpai, N., and N. Dagupta. 2004. “Multinational Companies and Foreign Direct Investment in China and India,” p. 15. CGSD Working Paper. No. 2. New York: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University. Web site: www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/cgsd/documents/bajpai_mncs_china_india_000.pdf, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Based on analysis of data of 72 countries. See: Adams, R. H., Jr., and J. Page 2003. “The Impact of International Migration and Remittances on Poverty.” Paper prepared for DFID/World Bank Conference on Migrant Remittances, London, 9-10 October 2003. Washington, D. C.: Poverty Reduction Group, the World Bank.

  • Martine, G. 2005. A globalização inacabada: migrações internas e pobreza no século 21. São Paulo em Perspectiva 9(3): 3-22. São Paulo: Fundação Seade. See also: UNFPA. 2003. Population and Poverty: Achieving Equity , Equality and Sustainability, p. 115. New York: UNFPA.

  • The World Bank 2003. Cited in: “Remittances Fact Sheet.” Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Web site: www.un-instraw.org/en/index.php?option=content&task=blogcategory&id=76&Itemid=110, accessed 27 May 2006.

  • Belarbi, A. 2005. “Flux Migratoires au Maroc Impact Économique, Social et Culturel de la Migration: Sur le Développement du Pays,” p. 192. Pp. 181-197 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. November 2005. “The Number of Poor People in Latin America has Fallen by 13 Million Since 2003,” p. 3. ECLAC Notes. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Web site: www.eclac.cl/prensa/noticias/notas/0/23580/NOTAS43ING.pdf, accessed 19 May 2006.

  • Duran, J., et al. 1996. “International Migration and Development in Mexican Communities.” Demography 33(2): 249-264. Quoted in: United Nations 2004, p. 103.

  • Piper, N. 2005. “Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 12. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Ramamurthy, B. 2003. “International Labour Migrants: Unsung Heroes of Globalization.” Sida Studies. No. 8. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

  • Thouez 2005, p. 43.

  • United Nations 2004, pp. 105-107.

  • Thouez 2005.

  • Ibid.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 178.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 28.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 178-179.

  • Ibid.

  • For instance, the World Bank states that: “Part 1 of the volume shows that migration and remittances (a) reduce poverty of recipient households, (b) increase investment in human capital (education and health) and other productive activities, (c) reduce child labor and raise child education, and (d) increase entrepreneurship. Additional findings include the fact that (a) the impact of remittances on investment in human capital and other productive activities is greater than that from other sources of income, and (b) income gains may also accrue to households without migrants. Based on these studies, migration and remittances appear to have a positive impact on the development and welfare of the sending countries. Cited in: Özden and Schiff 2005, p. 14. See also: United Nations 2004; and United Nations. 2005. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 98. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; and Global Commission on International Migration 2005.

  • IOM 2005, p. 178.

  • De Vasconcelos, P. 2005. “Improving the Development Impact of Remittances” (UN/POP/MIG/2005/10). Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • World Bank 2006, p. 94.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 28.

  • Vargas-Lundius, R. “Remittances and Rural Development.” Paper prepared for the Twenty-Seventh Session of IFAD’s Governing Council, Rome, 18-19 February 2004. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development. Web site: www.ifad.org/events/gc/27/roundtable/pl/discussion.pdf, last accessed 27 May 2006.

  • Republic of France. “Workshop 2: Co-development and Migrants’ Remittances,” International Conference on “Solidarity and Globalization: Innovative Financing for Development and against Pandemic,” 28 February-1 March 2006. Web site: www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/de/IMG/pdf/06-0430.pdf, accessed 30 May 2006; and García Zamora, R. 2006. “El Uso de las Remesas Colectivas en México: Avances y Desafíos.” Paper presented at the UNFPA-sponsored seminar, “Usos y Potencialidades de las Remesas. Efectos Diferenciales en hombres y mujeres latinoamericanos,” held in the framework of the International Forum on the Nexus between Political and Social Sciences, UNESCO, Government of Argentina and Government of Uruguay, 23 February 2006, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina.

  • IOM 2005, p. 177.

  • Hugo, G. 1999. Gender and Migrations in Asian Countries, p. 200. Gender and Population Studies Series. Liège, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

  • Levitt, P. 1996. “Social Remittances: A Conceptual Tool for Understanding Migration and Development.” Working Paper Series. No. 96.04. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University: Cited in: United Nations 2005, p. 24. The term “social remittances” is sometimes used also as a counterpoint to “economic remittances”. In that context, it refers to small “social” investments made by the diaspora in favor of social improvements such as health clinics, schools, road repairs or small businesses in the migrants’ countries of origin.

  • IOM 2005, p. 223.

  • Martine 2005.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 118.

  • See, for example: Ratha 2003.

  • Smith, J. P., and B. Edmonston (eds.). 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Panel on the Demographic and Economic Impacts of Immigration, National Research Council. Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press; and Borjas, G. 2003. “The Labour Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Re-Examining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(4): 1335-1374. Both cited in: United Nations 2006b, para. 64.

  • Ratha 2003.

  • Mohanty, S. A., et al. 2005. “Health Care Expenditures of Immigrants in the United States: A Nationally Representative Analysis.” American Journal of Public Health 95(8): 1431-1438. Data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s 1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

  • Note the report’s finding that plentiful immigration was one of the United States’ clear comparative advantages over Europe and Japan: “The hesitancy of key US partners to substantially liberalize their immigration policies—especially if combined with continuing reluctance to undertake major reforms of their pension and social welfare systems—will place them at a competitive economic disadvantage with the United States.” See: Director of Central Intelligence, Government of the United States. 2001. “Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States” (NIE 2001-02D), p. 30. A National Intelligence Estimate Report. Washington, D. C.: Director of Central Intelligence, Government of the United States.

  • In reference to an assessment of migration flows since EU enlargement in May 2004. See: Commission of the European Communities. 2006. “Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Report on the Functioning of the Transitional Arrangements Set Out in the 2003 Accession Treaty (period 1 May 2004-30 April 2006).” Brussels: Commission of the European Communities; and “Europe’s labour Mobility: When East Meets West,” p. 47. 11-17 February 2006. The Economist.

  • United Nations. 2000a. Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations? (ESA/P/WP.160) New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid.

  • Ibid.

  • Ibid.

  • Tarmann, A. 2000. “The Flap over Replacement Migration.” Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau. Web site: www.prb.org/Template.cfm? Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=5023, last accessed 27 April 2006.

  • Coleman, D. 2001. “‘Replacement Migration’, or Why Everyone’s Going to Have to Live in Korea: A Fable for Our Times from the United Nations.” Revised draft. Oxford, United Kingdom: Department of Social Policy and Social Work. University of Oxford.

  • McNicoll, G. 2000. “Reflections on ‘Replacement Migration.’” People and Place 8(4): 1-13.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 54.

  • Ibid., paras. 55 and 56; and Balbo, M. (ed.) 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, p. 25. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia.

  • IOM 2005, p. 15.

  • Sachs, J. D. 2003. “Increasing Investments in Health Outcomes for the Poor: Second Consultation in Macroeconomics and Health: October 2003: Mobilization of Domestic and Donor Resources for Health: A Viewpoint.” Geneva: WHO.

  • WHO. 2003. International Migration, Health and Human Rights, p. 21. Health and Human Rights Publication Series. No. 4. Geneva: WHO.

  • Ibid., pp. 20-21. To date, only two international treaties expressly recognize the right of irregular migrants to health: The Rural Workers Organizations Convention (1975) and the Convention on Migrant Workers (1990). General Comment No. 14 on the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (2000) of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights also maintains that: “States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, including ...asylum seekers and illegal immigrants, to preventive, curative and palliative health services.” See: United Nations. 2000b. Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment No. 14 (2000): The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Article 12 Of The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) (E/C.12/2000/4), para. 34. New York: United Nations.

  • IOM, WHO, and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Health and Migration: Bridging the Gap, p. 24. International Dialogue on Migration. No. 6. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 55.

  • Anarfi, J. K. 2005. “Reversing the Spread of HIV/AIDS: What Role Has Migration?” Pp. 99-109 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • Hamers, F. F., and A. M. Downs. 2004. “The Changing Face of the HIV Epidemic in Western Europe: What are the Implications for Public Health Policies?” The Lancet 364(9428): 83-94. See also: Carballo, M., and M. Mboup. 2005. “International Migration and Health: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration.” Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNAIDS and WHO. 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2005 (UNAIDS/05.19E). Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 59.

  • It should be noted that although the Philippines has a law banning mandatory HIV testing for migrants, host country employers often require it. See: Osias, T. 4 April 2005. “Philippine Statement by Mr. Tomas Osias, Executive Director, Commission on Population and Development.” Statement to the 38th Session of the Commission on Population and Development. New York: Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. Web site: www.un.int/philippines/statements/20050404.html, accessed April 5, 2006.

  • Shtarkshall, R., and V. Soskolne. 2000. Migrant Populations and HIV/AIDS: The Development and Implementation of Programmes: Theory, Methodology and Practice. Geneva: UNESCO / UNAIDS. Cited in: “International Migration and HIV/AIDS,” by International Coalition on AIDS and Development. 2004. Web site: http://icad-cisd.com/content/pub_details.cfm?id=126&CAT=9&lang=e, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Based on a survey carried out in July-September 2004. See: Merten, M. n.d. “Shock Figures On HIV/Aids in the Workplace. Mail and Guardian. See the web site of the South African Business Coalition on HIV and AIDS: www.redribbon.co.za/business/default.asp, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • IOM and Southern African Migration Project. 2005. HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda, pp. 10 and 11. Geneva: IOM.

  • UNAIDS 2004, p. 109. Cited in: IOM and Southern African Migration Project 2005, p. 23.

  • UNAIDS and WHO 2005.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations. 2001. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/S-26/L.2)]: S-26/2. Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (A/RES/S-26/2), para. 50. New York: United Nations.

  • IOM, UNAIDS, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. 2003. “Mobile Populations and HIV/AIDS in the Southern African Region: Recommendations for Action: Deskreview and Bibliography on HIV/AIDS and Mobile Populations,” p. 16. Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.queensu.ca/samp/sampresources/migrationdocuments/documents/2003/unaids.pdf , accessed 14 February 2006.

  • IOM. March 2004. “Staff and Inmates at Bangkok’s SuanPlu Immigrant Detention Centre Learn about HIV/AIDS and TB Prevention,” pp. 14-15. IOM News. Geneva: IOM.

  • United Nations 2006b, p. 3.

  • See, for instance: Smith and Edmonston 1997; Massey, D. S., et al. 1998. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the end of the Millennium. International Studies in Demography. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 2002; Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 98; IOM 2005; Özden and Schiff 2005; UNFPA 2005; United Nations 2004; United Nations 2005; and World Bank 2006.

  • Grillo. R. 2005. “Backlash Against Diversity? Identity and Cultural Politics In European Cities,” p. 3. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working Paper. No. 14. Oxford, United Kingdom: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.

  • Ibid., p. 5.

  • See the web site of the Department of Canadian Heritage, Government of Canada: http://www.canadian¬heritage.gc.ca/progs/multi/index_e.cfm, last accessed 7 June 2006.

  • Vertovec, S. and S. Wessendorf. 2005. “Migration and Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Diversity in Europe: An Overview of Issues and Trends.” Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working Paper. No. 18. Oxford, United Kingdom: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.

  • Oxford Analytica. 19 July 2005. “European Union: EU Struggles on Skilled Migration;” and Grillo 2005, pp. 11 and 28.

  • Grillo 2005, p. 41.


CHAPTER 2

  • United Nations. 2006. “Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2005 Revision” (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005). Spreadsheet. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • S. Chant is recognized for undertaking the first systematic effort in 1992 to bring a gender analysis to bear on the understanding of international migration (Chant, S. 1992. Gender and Migration in Developing Countries. London and New York: Bellhaven Press). See, among others: Kofman, E., et al. 2000. Gender and International Migration in Europe: Employment, Welfare and Politics. London and New York: Rutledge. Cited in: 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 15, by the United Nations. 2005a. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 30; and Hugo, G. 20 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 18.

  • O’Neil, K., K. Hamilton, and D. Papademetriou. 2005. “Migration in the Americas: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 19. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Tutnjevic, T. 2002. Gender and Financial/Economic Downturn. InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction Working Paper. No. 9. Geneva: Recovery and Reconstruction Department, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • For example, this has been found by studies among emigrants from Kerala, India, where 28 per cent of migrant women were degree holders compared to 9 per cent of men; migrants to South Africa from Lesotho, Zimbabwe and Mozambique; and Mexico, where men with more education stayed, while women with more education migrated. Based on a survey of 10,000 households in Kerala State. See: Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2003. “Dynamics for International Migration in India: Its Economic and Social Implications,” p. 18. Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Development, Bangkok, 27-29 August 2003. Bangkok: Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific; Dodson, B. 1998. Women on the Move: Gender and Cross-border Migration to South Africa, p. 1. Migration Policy Series. No. 9. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen’s University; and Kanaiaupuni, S. M. 1999. “Reframing the Migration Question: An Empirical Analysis of Men, Women, and Gender in Mexico,” p. 11. CDE Working Paper. No. 99-15. Madison, Wisconsin: Center for Demography and Ecology, the University of Wisconsin – Madison.

  • Piper, N. 2005. “Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 19. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • A Moldova survey found a higher rate of separation and divorce among women migrating than those that stayed behind. See: IOM. 2005a. “Migration and Remittances in Moldova.” p. 22. Geneva: IOM. In Guatemala, more than 25 per cent of migrant women are single, divorced or separated. See: IOM. 2004. “Survey on the Impact of Family Remittances on Guatemalan Homes.” Working Notebooks on Migration. No. 19. Guatemala City: IOM.

  • United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World (Sales No. E.05/III.Y.1), p. 113. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development; and United Nations 2005a, p. 27.

  • Kofman, E., P. Raghuram, and M. Merefield. 2005. Gendered Migrations: Towards Gender Sensitive Policies in the UK, pp. 24-25. Asylum and Migration Working Paper. No. 6. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

  • The right to voluntarily choose a spouse is recognized in various international human rights conventions, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 16), the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (Article 23), the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 10), the Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (Article 16).

  • Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 27 October 2004. “Promoting Human Rights, Respecting Individual Dignity: New Measures To Tackle Forced Marriage.” Press release. London: Home Office, Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Web site: http://press.home¬office.gov.uk/press-releases/Promoting_Human_Rights,_Respecti?version=1, accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Australian Government. 2 August 2005. “New Laws to Protect Australian Children from Forced Marriages Overseas.” Media release. Canberra, Australia: Minister of Justice and Customs (Honourable Chris Elison), Australian Government. Web site: www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/justiceministerHome.nsf/Page/ Media_Releases_2005_3rd_Quarter_2_August_2005_New_laws_to_protect_ Australian_children_from_forced_marriages_overseas, accessed 27 April 2006.

  • United Nations. 2005b. Violence against Women: Report of the Secretary-General (A/60/137). New York: United Nations.

  • Republic of France. 5 November 2005. “Latest News: Immigration: France’s Minister of the Interior Presents a Plan Aimed at Tackling Illegal Immigration.” Paris: Republic of France Government Portal. Web site: www.premier-ministre.gouv.fr/en/information/latest-news_97/ immigration-france-minister-of_53042.html?var_recherche=marriage, accessed 17 May 2006. See also: Associated Press. 24 March 2006. “France: Marriage Age for Women Raised to 18.” The New York Times.

  • Tsay, C.-L. 2004. “Marriage Migration of Women from China and Southeast Asia to Taiwan.” Pp. 173-191 in: (Un)tying the Knot: Ideal and Reality in Asian Marriage, edited by G. W. Jones and K. Ramdas. 2004. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Cited in: “Recent Trends in International Migration in the Asia Pacific” (ESID/SIIM/13), p. 12, by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNFPA, IOM, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development. 2005. Regional Seminar on the Social Implications of International Migration, 24-26 August 2005, Bangkok. Bangkok: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNFPA, IOM, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

  • Wang, H., and S. Chang. 2002. “The Commodification of International Marriages: Cross-border Marriage Business in Taiwan and Viet Nam.” International Migration 40(6): 93-114.

  • Lee, H.-K. 2003. “Gender, Migration and Civil Activism in South Korea.” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 12(1-2): 127-154. Cited in: “Recent Trends in International Migration in Asia and the Pacific,” p. 34, by M. M. B. Asis. 2005. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 20(3): 15-38.

  • Piper, N., and M. Roces. 2003. “Introduction: Marriage and Migration in an Age of Globalization.” Pp. 1-21 in: Wife or Worker: Asian Women and Migration, edited by N. Piper and M. Roces. 2005. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield; and Constable, N. 2005. “Introduction: Cross-Border Marriages.” Pp. 1-16 in: Gender and Mobility in Transnational Asia, edited by N. Constable. 2005. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cited in: “Transnational Migration, Marriage and Trafficking at the China-Vietnam Border,” p. 3, by L. B. Duong, D. Bélanger, and K. T. Hong. 2005. Paper prepared for the Seminar on Female Deficit in Asia: Trends and Perspectives, Singapore, 5-7 December 2005. Paris: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 30.

  • Rybakovsky, L., and S. Ryazantsev. 2005. “International Migration in the Russian Federation” (UN/POP/MIG/2005/11), p. 3. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ryklina, V. 11-17 October 2004. “Marriage on Export.” Newsweek. No. 19: 58. Cited in: Rybakovsky and Ryazantsev 2005, p. 11.

  • Global Survival Network. 1997. “Bought and Sold.” Documentary. Washington, D. C.: Global Survival Network. Cited in: “International Matchmaking Organizations: A Report to Congress.” Washington, D. C.: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security, Government of the United States. Web site: http://uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/repsstudies/Mobrept.htm, accessed on 9 February 2006.

  • The International Marriage Broker Act also limits the number of fiancée visas for which individuals can apply. See: 109th Congress of the United States of America. 2005. “Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act” (H.R. 3402.). Washington, D. C.: Congress of the United States. Web site: www.online-dating-rights.com/pdf/IMBRA2005.pdf, accessed 27 April 2006.

  • Sanghera, J. 2004. “Floating Borderlands and Shifting Dreamscapes: The Nexus between Gender, Migration and Development.” Pp. 60-69 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland: Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/09-j.sanghera.pdf, accessed 4 May 2006.

  • Pessar, P. R. 2005. “Women, Gender, and International Migration Across and Beyond the Americas: Inequalities and Limited Empowerment” (UN/POP/ EGM-MIG/2005/08), p. 4. Paper prepared for the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Develop¬ment in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, 30 November-2 December 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid.

  • Asis, M. 24 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • Sabban, R. 2002. United Arab Emirates: Migrant Women in the United Arab Emirates: The Case of Female Domestic Workers, p. 26. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 10. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 34.

  • Boyd, M., and D. Pikkov. 2005. Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States, pp.18-19. Occasional Paper. No. 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • In 2003, Filipinas represented 78 per cent of all foreign workers entering Japan on entertainment visas. See: Orozco, M. 2005. “Regional Integration: Trends and Patterns of Remittance Flows within Southeast Asia.” Southeast Asian Workers Remittance Study. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank. Cited in: “Gender, Poverty Reduction and Migration,” p. 7, by I. Omelaniuk. 2005. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABOUTUS/Resources/Gender.pdf, last accessed 18 May 2006; and Gaikokujin Torokusha Tokei ni tsuite (Statistics on Foreign Residents). “Number of Non-Japanese Residents by Qualification (1993-2004).” Tokyo: Immigration Bureau, Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan. Web site: http://web-japan.org/stat/stats/21MIG21.html, accessed 1 May 2006.

  • Piper, N. 2004. “Gender and Migration Policies in Southeast and East Asia: Legal Protection and Sociocultural Empowerment of Unskilled Migrant Women,” p. 218. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25(2): 216-231.

  • Matsuda, M. 2002. “Japan: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants,” p. 3. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 5. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Lee, J. 2004. “Republic of Korea.” Ch. 7 in: No Safety Signs Here: Research Study on Migration and HIV Vulnerability from Seven South and North East Asian Countries, p. 123, by UNDP and Asia Pacific Migration Research Network. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Sex work as percentage of GDP estimates range from 2 per cent to 14 per cent for the four countries studied. See: ILO. 19 August 1998. “Sex Industry Assuming Massive Proportions in Southeast Asia.” Press release. Geneva and Manila: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inf/pr/1998/31.htm, accessed 14 March 2006.

  • Summarized from: Hochschild, A., and B. Ehrenreich (eds.). 2002. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, pp. 277-280. New York: Owl Books, Henry Holt and Company.

  • Kofman, E. 2005a. “Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes,” p. 32. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 2005, p. 120.

  • Thomas-Hope, E. 2005. “Current Trends and Issues in Caribbean Migration, in Regional and International Migration in the Caribbean and its Impacts on Sustainable Development.” Port of Spain, Trinidad: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 13.

  • Kofman, E. 2005b. “Gendered Global Migrations: Diversity and Stratification,” p. 653. International Feminist Journal of Politics 6(4): 643-665.

  • Sala, G. A. 2005. “Trabajadores Nacidos en Los Paises del MERCOSUR residentes en el Brasil,” p. 28. Twenty-fifth Annual Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-25 July 2005. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Web site: iussp2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=52266, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • Redfoot, D. L., and A. N. Houser. 2005. “We Shall Travel On”: Quality of Care, Economic Development, and the International Migration of Long-Term Care Workers, p. xxi. Washington, D. C.: Public Policy Institute, American Association of Retired People.

  • Aiken, L. H., et al. 2004. “Trends In International Nurse Migration,” p. 70. Health Affairs 23(3): 69-77.

  • Buchan, J., T. Parkin, and J. Sochalski. 2003. “International Nurse Mobility: Trends and Policy Implications,” p. 18. Geneva: Royal College of Nurses, World Health Organization, and the International Council of Nurses.

  • Based on UNFPA analysis of: Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2005. “Statistical Analysis of the Register: 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2005,” p. 10. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  • Redfoot and Houser 2005, p. xii.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 13; and Piper 2005, p. 9.

  • Tevera, D., and L. Zinyama. 2002. Zimbabweans Who Move: Perspectives on International Migration in Zimbabwe, p. 4. Migration Policy Series. No. 25. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen’s University.

  • Struder, I. R. 2002. “Migrant Self-Employment in a European Global City: The Importance of Gendered Power Relations and Performance of Belonging of Turkish Women in London.” Research Papers in Environmental and Spatial Analysis. No. 74. London: Department of Geography, London School of Economics and Political Science. Cited in: Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005. p. 13.

  • Clean Clothes Campaign. September 2002. “Mauritius: No Paradise for Foreign Workers.” Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Clean Clothes Campaign. Web site: www.cleanclothes.org/publications/02-09-mauritius.htm, accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Note that 95 per cent of the workforce is from Myanmar, 70 per cent of which is female. See: Arnold, D. 2004. “The Situation of Burmese Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand,” pp. 3, 4 and 21. Southeast Asia Research Centre. Working Paper Series. No. 71. Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR): Southeast Asia Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong.

  • United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. n.d. “Fact Sheet.” Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Web site: www.un-instraw.org/en/index.php?option=content&task=blogcategory&id=76&Itemid=110, accessed 21 March 2006; and IOM. 2003. World Migration 2003: Managing Migration: Challenges and Responses for People on the Move, p. 7. Geneva: IOM.

  • Estimated remittances to the Philippines in 2005 totalled US$13 billion, based on: The World Bank. 2006a. Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration. Washington, D. C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. Remittances totalled US$6 billion in 1997, 1999, 2000 and 2001. See: The World Bank. 2006b. “Workers Remittances, Compensation of Employees, and Migrant Transfers (US$ Million).” Spreadsheet. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGEP2006/Resources/RemittancesDataGEP2006.xls, accessed 1 May 2006; and UNIFEM. 2004a. “Women Migrant Workers’ Capacity and Contribution,” p. 2. Ch. 8 in: Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia: A Briefing Kit, by UNIFEM. 2004b. New York and Bangkok: Regional Program on Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia, UNIFEM.

  • Murison, S. 2005. “Evaluation of DFID Development Assistance: Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Phase II Thematic Evaluation: Migration and Development.” Working Paper. No. 13. Glasgow: Evaluation Department, Department for International Development; Sørensen, N. N. 2004. “The Development Dimension of Migrant Transfers.” DIIS Working Paper. No. 16. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies; Department for International Development and the World Bank. 2003. “International Conference on Migrant Remittances: Development Impact, Opportunities for the Financial Sector and Future Prospects: Report and Conclusions,” 9-10 October 2003, London, United Kingdom. London: Department for International Development; and Jolly, S., E. Bell, and L. Narayanaswamy. 2003. “Gender and Migration in Asia: Overview and Annotated Bibliography.” Bibliography. No. 13. Prepared for the Department of International Development, United Kingdom. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

  • IOM. 2005b. Dynamics of Remittance Utilization in Bangladesh,” pp. 31-32. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 18. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 35.

  • Ramirez, C., M. G. Dominguez, and J. M. Morais. 2005. Crossing Borders: Remittances, Gender and Development, pp. 32-33. INSTRAW Working Paper. Santo Domingo: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

  • Flynn, D., and E. Kofman. 2004. “Women, Trade, and Migration,” p. 68. Gender and Development 12(2): 66-72. See also: Department for International Development and the World Bank 2003.

  • Wong, M. 2000. “Ghanaian Women in Toronto’s Labour Market: Negotiating Gendered Roles and Transnational Household Strategies.” Canadian Ethnic Studies 32(3): 45-74.

  • Comments by Carmen Moreno, Director of the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, at the Commission on Population and Development’s 39th Session, 5th April 2006. See: United Nations. 5 April 2006. “Feminization of Migration, Remittances, Migrants’ Rights, Brain Drain among Issues, as Population Commission Concludes Debate.” News release. New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/News/Press/docs/ 2006/pop945.doc.htm, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • See Fonkoze web site: www.fonkoze.org, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • ADOPEM is the Asociación Dominicana para el Desarrollo de la Mujer. See: Suki, L. 2004. “Financial Institutions and the Remittances Market in the Dominican Republic.” New York: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, The Earth Institute, Columbia University; and Women’s World Banking. 2005. “Remittances and Gender: Linking Remittances to Asset Building Products for Microfinance Clients.” Presentation at the International Forum on Remittances, 28-30 June 2005, Washington, D. C. Washington, D. C.: Multilateral Investment Fund and the Inter-American Development Bank Web site: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=561728, accessed 3rd March 2006.

  • See: Inter-American Development Bank. n.d. “MIF at Work: MIF Strategy and Program on Remittances.” Web site: www.iadb.org/mif/remittances/mif/index.cfm?language=EN&parid=1, accessed 28th April 2006.

  • IOM 2005b, p. 48. The bank, which was established by migrant women who had returned home, advises other migrant women to set-up bank accounts in their own name in order to ensure they have decision-making power over how the funds are to be spent upon return.

  • See, for example: UNFPA. 2006. “Usos y Potencialidades de las Remesas. Efectos Diferenciales en hombres y mujeres latinoamericanos,” held in the framework of the International Forum on the Nexus between Political and Social Sciences, UNESCO, Government of Argentina and Government of Uruguay, 23 February 2006, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina.

  • Ramirez, Dominguez, and Morais 2005.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 24.

  • As of May 2006, elections were slated for July 2006. See: Bouwen, D. 13 February 2006. “Elections: Congo: A Lending Hand from Women in Belgium.” Inter Press Service News Agency. Web site: www.ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=32138, accessed 28 May 2006.

  • Hildebrandt, N., and D. J. McKenzie. 2005. “The Effects of Migration on Child Health in Mexico.” Stanford, California: Department of Economics, Stanford University. Cited in: Omelaniuk 2005, p. 12.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2004. Enhancing the Efficiency of Overseas Workers Remittances: Technical Assistance Report, p. 60. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • Referring to Tendeparaqua in the Huaniqueo municipality of Michoacan. See: Orozco, M. 2003. “Hometown Associations and Their Present and Future Partnerships: New Developments Opportunities,” p. 38. Washington, D. C.: Inter-American Dialogue, 2003.

  • Goldring, L. 2001. “The Gender and Geography of Citizenship in Mexico-U.S. Transnational Spaces.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 7(4): 501-537. Cited in: Pessar 2005, p. 7. See also: Santillán, D., and M. E. Ulfe. 2006. Destinatarios y Usos de Remesas: Una Oportunidad para las Mujeres Salvadoreñas. Mujer y Desarrollo Serie. No. 78. Santiago, Chile, and Eschborn, Germany: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 18.

  • Lenz, I., and H. Schwenken. 2003. “Feminist and Migrant Networking in a Globilising World: Migration, Gender and Globalisaton.” Pp.164-168 in: Crossing Borders and Shifting Boundaries: Vol. 1: Gender, Identities and Networks, edited by I. Lenz, et al. 2003. Opladen, Germany: Leske und Budrich.

  • Biehl, J. K. 2 March 2005. “The Whore Lived Like a German.” Spiegel Online. Web site: www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,344374,00.html, accessed 24 February 2006.

  • IOM. 2005c. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 46. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 276.

  • Hugo, G. 1999. Gender and Migrations in Asian Countries. Gender and Population Studies Series. Liège, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population; and Hugo, G. 2000. “Migration and Women’s Empowerment.” Chapter 12 in: Women’s Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo, edited by H. B. Presser and G. Sen. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Cited in: United Nations 2005a, p. 2.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Grasmuck, S., and P. R. Pessar. 1991. Between Two Islands: Dominican International Migration. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Cited in: United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. 1994. Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; and Jones-Correa, M. 1998. “Different Paths: Gender, Immigration and Political Participation,” p. 338. International Migration Review 32(2): 326-349.

  • Jones-Correa 1998. Cited in: “Gender and Migration: Supporting Resources Collection,” p. 21, by S. Jolly. 2005. BRIDGE Gender and Migration Cutting Edge Pack. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Web site: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/CEP-Mig-SRC.pdf, accessed 6 October 2005.

  • Pessar 2005, p. 4.

  • Zachariah, K. C., E. T. Mathew, and S. I. Rajan. 2001. “Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala.” International Migration 39(2): 43-57. Geneva: IOM. Cited in: Omelaniuk 2005, p. 14.

  • Adepoju, A. 1 September 2004. “Changing Configurations of Migration in Africa.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=251, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • Rahman, M. 2004. “Migration Networks: An Analysis of Bangladeshi Migration to Singapor.” Asian Profile 32(4): 367-390. Cited in: Piper 2005, p. 26.

  • Yayasan Pengembangan Pedesaan. 1996. “The Impact of Women’s Migration to the Family in Rural Areas (Dampak dari Migrasi terhadap Keluarga di Pedesaan).” Paper presented at the workshop on Women Migration in Indonesia, 11-13 September 1996, Jakarta, Indonesia. Cited in: “Trends, Issues and Policies Towards International Labor Migration: An Indonesian Case Study” (UN/POP/MIG/2005/02), pp. p.11, 12 and 16, by C. M. Firdausy. 2005. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Sørensen 2004, p. 14.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 16.

  • United Nations. 2000. Reports, Studies and Other Documentation for the Preparatory Committee and the World Conference: Discrimination Against Migrants: Migrant Women: In Search of Remedies. World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (A/CONF.189/PC.1/19), p. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • Caballero, M., et al. 2002. “Migration, Gender and HIV/AIDS in Central America and Mexico.” Paper presented at the 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 7-12 July 2002.

  • Médecins sans Frontières. 2005. Violence et immigration: Rapport sur l’immigration d’origine subsaharienne (ISS) en situation irrégulière au Maroc, pp. 7, 14, and 20. Geneva: Médecins sans Frontières.

  • “Eyewitness: Migrants Suffer in Morocco.” 14 October 2005. BBC News. Web site: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4342594.stm, accessed 1 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 65.

  • Crush, J., and V. Williams. 2005. “International Migration and Development: Dynamics and Challenges in South and Southern Africa” (UN/POP/MIG/2005/05). Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. (For further reading, see: Crush, J., and V. Williams (eds.) n.d. “Criminal Tendencies: Immigrants and Illegality in South Africa.” Migration Policy Brief. No. 10. Cape Town, South Africa: Southern African Migration Project.)

  • Crush and Williams 2005, p. 15; and Crush and Williams n.d., pp. 11 and 15.

  • Asis, M. M. B. 2006. “Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia.” Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations.

  • See, for example: Ramirez, Dominguez, and Morais 2005, p. 28; and Boyd and Pikkov 2005, pp. 9-11. .

  • FASILD. 2002. Femmes immigrées et issues de l’immigration. Paris: FASILD. Cited in: Kofman 2005a, p. 39.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 37.

  • Inglis, C. 1 March 2003. “Mothers, Wives, and Workers: Australia’s Migrant Women.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=108, accessed 10 April 2006.

  • IOM 2005c, p. 110.

  • IOM 2005b, p. 18.

  • Omelaniuk 2005, p. 6.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2001. Women in Bangladesh: Country Briefing Paper, p. 3. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • Asis 2006, p. 2.

  • United States Department of State. 2006. “Nepal: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices.” Washington, D. C.; Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State. Web site: www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61709.htm, accessed 5 May 2006.

  • See, for example: Grant, S. 2005. “International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 12 Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and Omelaniuk, I. 2006. “Trafficking in Human Beings: CEE and SE Europe,” p. 6. Paper submitted to the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 27 February-10 March 2006, New York: Commission on the Status of Women, United Nations.

  • Asis 2006.

  • Calavita, K. 2006. “Gender, Migration, and Law: Crossing Borders and Bridging Disciplines.” “Gender and Migration Revisited: Special Issue.” International Migration Review 40(1): 104-132; Chell-Robinson, V. 2000 “Female Migrants in Italy: Coping in a Country of New Immigration.” Pp. 103- 123 in: Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, edited by F. Anthias and G. Lazaridis. 2000. New York: Berg; Ribas-Mateos, N. 2000. “Female Birds of Passage: Leaving and Settling in Spain.” Pp. 173-197 in: Anthias and Lazaridis 2000; and Rubio, S. P. 2003 “Immigrant Women in Paid Domestic Service: The Case of Spain and Italy.” Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 9(3): 503-517. All cited in: Pessar 2005, p. 4.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 7.

  • Boyd and Pikkov 2005.

  • United Nations. 2005c. “Good Practices in Combating and Eliminating Violence against Women: Report of the Expert Group Meeting,” p. 15, 17-20 May 2005, Vienna, Austria. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. iv.

  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2004. Labour Market Integration Remains Insecure for Foreign and Immigrant Women. Brussels: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Web site: www.oecd.org/document/27/0,234,en_2649_37457_29871963_1_1_1_37457,00.html, accessed 11th May 2006.

  • Based on data from Census 2001 Statistics. See: South African Institute of International Affairs. 2006. “South Africa: A Response to the APRM Questionnaire on Progress Towards Addressing Socio-Economic Development Challenges,” p. 35. Parliament’s Report of the Joint Ad Hoc Committee on Economic Governance and Management, p. 35. Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs. Web site: www.iss.co.za/AF/RegOrg/nepad/aprm/saparlrep/part6.pdf, accessed 30 May 2006.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 13.

  • Sabban 2002 , p. 11.

  • See the various studies cited in: Progress of the World’s Women 2005: Women, Work and Poverty, p. 34, by M. Chen, et al. 2005. New York: UNIFEM.

  • Grieco, E. 22 May 2002. “Immigrant Women.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=2, accessed 20 March 2006.

  • Boyd and Pikkov 2005, p. 11.

  • Ibid., p. 28.

  • Cited in: Age Plus Project. 2005. Older Migrant Women: Facts, Figures, Personal Stories, an Inventory in Five EU Countries, pp. 14 and 22. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Age Plus.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Rudiger, A., and S. Spencer. 2003. “Social Integration of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: Policies to Combat Discrimination,” p. 36. Paper presented at the Economic and Social Aspects of Migration Conference Jointly Organized by the European Commission and the OECD, 21-22 January 2003, Brussels, Belgium. Paris: OECD.

  • Sabban 2002 , p. 24.

  • Anderson, B. 2001. “Why Madam Has So Many Bathrobes: Demand for Migrant Domestic Workers in the EU.” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 92(1): 18-26. Cited in: “Women in International Trade and Migration: Examining the Globalized Provision of Care Services,” p. 13, by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2005. Gender and Development Discussion Paper Series. No. 16. Bangkok: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. 2001. Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: The University of California Press.

  • See, for example: Bollini, P., and H. Siem. 1995. “No Real Progress Towards Equity: Health of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities on the Eve of the Year 2000.” Social Science and Medicine 41(6): 819-828; Bottomley, G. and de Lepervanche, M. 1990. “The Social Context of Immigrant Health and Illness.” Pp. 39-46 in: The Health of Immigrant Australia: A Social Perspective, edited by J. Reid and P. Trompf. 1990. Sydney, Harcourt Brace; Parsons, C. 1990. “Cross-cultural Issues in Health Care.” Pp. 108-153 in: Reid and Trompf 1990; and Uniken-Venema, H. P., et al. 1995. “Health of Migrants and Migrant Health Policy: The Netherlands as an Example.” Social Science and Medicine 41(6): 809-818.

  • Bollini, P. 2000. “The Health of Migrant Women in Europe: Perspectives for the Year 2000.” Pp. 197-206 in: Migration, Frauen, Gesundheit, Perspektiven im europäischen Kontext, edited by M. David, T. Borde, and H. Kentenich. 2000. Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse Verlag.

  • Waterstone, M., S. Bewley, and C. Wolfe. 2001. “Incidence and Predictors of Severe Obstetric Morbidity: Case Control Study.” British Medical Journal 322(7294): 1089-1093.

  • Carballo, M., and A. Nerukar. 2001. “Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(7 Supplement): 556-560.

  • Based on a clinical study of women who delivered between 1988 and 1995 in one hospital. See: Zeitlin, J., et al. 1998. “Socio-demographic Risk Factors for Perinatal Mortality: A Study of Perinatal Mortality in the French District of Seine-Saint-Denis.” Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 77(8): 826-835. Cited in: Carballo, M., et al. 2004. Migration and Reproductive Health in Western Europe. Based on data from various hospitals in selected parts of the country. The rate of perinatal mortality for babies born to German mothers is approximately 5.2 per cent and among non-nationals approximately 7 per cent. The incidence of congenital abnormalities is also higher among immigrants. See: Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • African immigrant women giving birth in hospitals, for example, have an incidence of premature births almost twice as high as in Spanish women, and low-weight rates are also approximately double those of women born in Spain. Over 8 per cent of babies born to women from Central and South America are underweight and 6.3 per cent are born prematurely. See: Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • Mora, L. 2003. “Las Fronteras de la Vulnerabilidad: Género, Migración y Derechos Reproductivos.” Paper presented at the Hemispheric Conference on International Migration: Human Rights and Trafficking in Persons in the Americas, 20-22 November 2002, Santiago de Chile. Santiago de Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Carballo, et al. 2004, p. 15.

  • Spycher, C., and C. Sieber. 2001. “Contraception in Immigrant Women.” Ther Umsch 58(9): 552-554. Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.
  • Carballo and Nerukar 2001.
  • Eskild, A., et al. 2002. “Induced Abortion among Women with Foreign Cultural Background in Oslo.” Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 122(14): 1355-1357. Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.

  • Medda, E., et al. 2002. “Reproductive Health of Immigrant Women in the Lazio Region of Italy.” Annali dell’Istituto superiore di sanità 38(4): 357-65 Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.

  • Rice, P. L. 1994 (ed.). Asian Mothers, Australian Birth: Pregnancy, Childbirth and Childbearing: The Asian Experience in an English-speaking Country. Melbourne, Australia: Ausmed Publications.

  • Carballo, et al. 2004, p. 14.

  • Darj, E., and G. Lindmark. 2002. “Not All Women Use Maternal Health Services: Language Barriers and Fear of the Examination are Common.” Lakartidningen 99(1-2): 41-44.

  • Balbo, M. (ed.) 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, p. 129. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia. The Women’s Coordinating Unit of the Municipal Health Secretariat is working to refine practices and promote more viable outreach. This includes targeting indigenous migrant populations in their native Quechua and Aymara languages. See: Beck, A. P., Sviluppo/Universita luav di Venezia. 2005. Interviewed in: Balbo 2005, pp. 219 and 223.

  • Findings of a survey of 700 migrants conducted by Mahidol University’s Institute for Population and Social Research with funding from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and UNFPA. See: UNFPA. 30 August 2005. “Survey Reveals Acute Need for Reproductive Health Care in Thailand’s Migrant Communities Affected by Tsunami.” Press release. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=661&Language=1, accessed 30 May 2006.

  • IOM. 2001. “The Reproductive Health of Immigrant Women.” Migration and Health Newsletter, No. 2. Geneva: IOM.

  • Brummer, Daan. 2002. Labour Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, p. 6. Geneva: Regional Office for Southern Africa, IOM; and United Nations 2005a, p. 72.

  • Based on an IOM/CARE study in: IOM, UNAIDS, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. 2003. “Mobile Populations and HIV/AIDS in the Southern African Region: Recommendations for Action: Deskreview and Bibliography on HIV/AIDS and Mobile Populations.” Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.queensu.ca/samp/sampresources/migrationdocuments/documents/2003/unaids.pdf, accessed 14 February 2006.

  • Lot, F., et al. 2004. “Preliminary Results from the New HIV Surveillance Systems in France.” Eurosurveillance 9(4). Cited in: UNAIDS and WHO. 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2005 (UNAIDS/05.19E), p. 69. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • FUNDESIDA is a foundation collaborating in a joint programme with the Costa Rican Social Security Fund. See: “Costa Rica: Female Labour Migrants and Trafficking in Women and Children,” p. 13, by A. Garcia, et al. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 2. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Weeramunda, A. J. 2004. “Sri Lanka,” pp. 138-139. Ch. 8 in: No Safety Signs Here: Research Study on Migration and HIV Vulnerability from Seven South and North East Asian Countries, by UNDP and Asia Pacific Migration Research Network. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Dias, M., and R. Jayasundere. 2002. “Sri Lanka: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour,” pp. 12-13. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 9. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Piper 2005, p. 33.

  • Thiam, M., R. Perry, and V. Piché. 2003. “Migration and HIV in Northern Senegal.” Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau. Web site: www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=9699, last accessed 10 March 2006.

  • UNAIDS. 1998. Gender and HIV/AIDS, pp. 2 and 4. UNAIDS Technical Update. Geneva: UNAIDS; and UNAIDS. 1999. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Taking Stock of Research and Programmes, pp.14-15. UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates for 2005. See: Upton, R. L. 2003. “‘Women have No Tribe’: Connecting Carework, Gender, and Migration in an Era of HIV/AIDS in Botswana,” p. 315. Gender and Society 17(2): 314-322.

  • See, for example: United Nations 2005b. General Assembly resolution 58/143 of 22 December 2003 on violence against migrant workers asked the Secretary-General in the 60th Session to report on the problem of violence against women migrant workers and on the implementation of the resolution. (See: United Nations. 2004. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: 58.143: Violence Against Migrant Workers (A/RES/58/143). New York: United Nations.

  • Sin Fronteras. 2005. “Sin Fronteras: Violencia y Mujeres Migrantes en México.” México City: Sin Fronteras.

  • Weeramunda 2004, p. 135.

  • UNFPA. 2005. The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals. New York: UNFPA; and Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M.Gottemoeller. 1999. “Ending Violence against Women.” Population Reports. Series L. No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. Cited in: Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 113, by the UN Millennium Project. 2005. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan. Another estimate, based on findings from 48 population-based surveys, placed this figure at between 16 and 50 per cent (See: Krug, E., et al. (eds.). 2002. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: WHO).

  • See: Mama, A. 1993. “Woman Abuse in London’s Black Communities.” Pp. 97-134 in: Inside Babylon: The Caribbean Diaspora in Britain, edited by W. James and C. London: Verso; Condon, S. 2005. “Violence Against Women in France and Issues of Ethnicity.” In: Family Violence and Police Reaction, edited by M. Malsch and W. Smeenk. Forthcoming. Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashford; and Jaspard, M. et al. 2003. Les Violences envers les Femmes en France: Une Enquete Nationale. Paris: La Documentation Francaise. All cited in: “Gender, Age and Generations: State of the Art Report Cluster C8,” pp. 33 and 38, by R. King, et al. 2004. Brighton, United Kingdom: Sussex Centre for Migration and Population Studies, University of Sussex.

  • The large scale survey was conducted in Washington, D. C., by AYUDA in the 1990s providing the foundation upon which the United States Congress included protections for battered immigrant women in the 1994 Violence Against Women Act. See: Hass, G., N. Ammar, and L. Orloff. 2006. “Battered Immigrants and U.S. Citizen Spouses,” p. 3. Washington, D. C.: Legal Momentum.

  • Ibid., p. 2. For the figure of 22.1 per cent, see: Tjaden, P., and N. Thoenne., 2000. Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Research Report. Washington, D. C.: National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • See citations on page 367 in: Raj, A., and Silverman, J. 2002. “Violence Against Immigrant Women: The Roles of Culture, Context, and Legal Immigrant Status on Intimate Partner Violence.” Violence Against Women 8(3): 367-398.

  • Based on a survey of 168 women in the 1990s. Dasgupta, S. 2000. “Charting the Course: An Overview of Domestic Violence in the South Asian Community in the United States,” p. 175. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 9(3): 173-185.

  • The remaining percentage of femicides was categorized as “unknown”. See: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2004. Femicide in New York City: 1995-2002. New York: Bureau of Injury Epidemiology, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Web site: www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/ip/femicide1995-2002_report.pdf, accessed 26 March 2006.

  • Government of Germany. 2004. Health, Well-Being and Personal Safety of Women in Germany: A Representative Study of Violence against Women in Germany: Summary of Central Research Results, p. 27. Bonn: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Government of Germany.

  • Mora 2003, p. 24.

  • The sample included 13,341 women from 10 provinces. See: Smith, E. 2003. Nowhere to Turn: Responding to Partner Violence Against Immigrant and Visible Minority Women, p. viii. Report submitted to the Department of Justice, Sectoral Involvement in Departmental Policy Development. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Social Development.

  • See the citations on page 2 of: Hass, Ammar, and Orloff 2006.

  • Government of the United States. 2000. “Violence Against Women Act of 2000 as passed by the Senate and House of Representatives.” Web site: www.acadv.org/VAWAbillsummary.html, accessed 12 February 2006.

  • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. Third Report on Sweden Adopted on 17 December 2004 and Published on 14 June 2005 (CRI [2006] 26), paragraph 88. Strasbourg, France: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. Cited in: “Integration of Immigrant Women in Europe: Report: Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Rapporteur: Mrs Gülsün Bilgehan, Turkey, Socialist Group (Doc. 10758),” by the Council of Europe. 7 December 2005. Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/workingdocs/doc05/edoc10758.htm, accessed 12 April 2006.

  • United Nations 2005b.

  • See the MOSAIC web site: www.mosaicbc.com/, accessed 26 January 2006.

  • WHO. 2000. “Female Genital Mutilation.” Fact Sheet. No. 241. Geneva: WHO; and Dooley, M., and R. Stephenson. 2005. “When Cultures Collide: Female Genital Mutilation within Immigrant Communities in Developed Countries: A Literature Review,” p. 20. Atlanta, Georgia: Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University.

  • Powell, R., et al. 2002. “Female Genital Mutilation, Asylum Seekers and Refugees: The Need for an Integrated UK Policy Agenda.” Forced Migration Review. No. 14: 35.

  • Dooley and Stephenson 2005; and Population Reference Bureau. 2005. “Abandoning Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Information from Around the World.” CD-ROM. Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau.

  • WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome. 2006. “Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome: WHO Collaborative Prospective Study in Six African Countries.” The Lancet 367(9525): 1835-1841.

  • Boland, R., Research Associate, Harvard School of Public Health. 3 April 2006. Personal Communication.

  • Bosch, X. 2001. “Female Genital Mutilation in Developed Countries.” The Lancet 358(9288): 1177-1179. Cited in: Dooley and Stephenson 2005, pp. 25-26; Population Reference Bureau 2005; and UNFPA Office in Copenhagen. 28 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • Thierfelder, C., M. Tanner, and C. M. K. Bodiang. 2005. “Female Genital Mutilation in the Context of Migration: Experience of African Women with the Swiss Health Care System.” European Journal of Public Health 15(1): 86-90.

  • See the Sauti Yetu web site: www.sautiyetu.org/viewer/home/index.asd, accessed 13 March 2006.

  • United Nations. 2001. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: Working Towards the Elimination of Crimes Against Women Committed in the Name of Honour (A/RES/55/66). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 55/68. 2001. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, Including Crimes Identified in the Outcome Document of the Twenty-Third Special Session of the General Assembly, Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-First Century (A/RES/55/68). New York: United Nations. Note the subsequent resolutions passed in 2002: A/RES/57/181 on 18 December 2002; and A/RES/57/179 on 19 December 2002; and in 2004: A/RES/59/167 on 20 December 2004 and A/RES/59/165 on 20 December 2004.

  • Council of Europe. 2003. “So-called ‘Honour Crimes’” (9720). Report of the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men. Parliamentary Assembly: Rapporteuse: Mrs. Cryer, United Kingdom, SOC. Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe.

  • Brandon, J. 19 October 2005. “Britain Grapples with ‘Honor Killing’ Practice.” Christian Science Monitor.

  • Kvinnoforum. 2003. “A Resource Book for Working Against Honour Related Violence,” p. 24 and 39. Based on the project “Honour Related Violence in Europe – Mapping of Occurrence, Support and Preventive Measures.” Stockholm, Sweden: Kvinnoforum.



CHAPTER 3

  • Belsar, P., M. de Cock, and F. Mehran. 2005. ILO Minimum Estimate of Forced Labour in the World, p. 33. Geneva: ILO

  • A study by the United Nations’ Office on Drugs and Crime found that 85 per cent of women, 70 per cent of children and 16 per cent of men are trafficked for sexual exploitation and the ILO estimates that 43 per cent of victims are trafficked for sexual exploitation. See: Human Security Centre, University of British Columbia. 2005. Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century, p.  88. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Article 3(a) of the United Nations Trafficking Protocol defines trafficking as follows: “’Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purposes of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.” This is the first definition of trafficking adopted by the international community. See: United Nations n.d.(a) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children: Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, article 3(a). New York: United Nations. Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/law/protocoltraffic.htm, last accessed 12 June 2006.

  • The United States Department of State estimated the profits in 2004 at $9.5 billion, not including monies that are generated upon arrival in the host country. The figure of $7-10 billion is cited in: Omelaniuk, I. 2006. “Trafficking in Human Beings: CEE and SE Europe.” Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations. The figure of $12 billion is cited in: Malarek, V.  2004. The Natashas: Inside tbe New Global Sex Trade. New York: Arcade Publishing. Cited in: “Sex Slave Trafficking Case Jolts Detroit Community,” by L. Ghiso. 2005. The Ukrainian Weekly 73(22).

  • ILO. 2005. Report of the Director-General: A Global Alliance against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: 2005 (Report I [B]), pp. 55-56. International Labour Conference, 93rd Session. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

  • ILO. 2001. Stopping Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: International Labour Conference, 89th Session, Report I (B), p. 47. Report of the Director-General. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Anti-Slavery International estimates that non-migrants are a small percentage of trafficked persons. See: Kaye, M. 2003. The Migration-Trafficking Nexus: Combating Trafficking through the Protection of Migrants’ Human Rights. London: Anti-Slavery International.

  • Boswell, C., and J. Crisp. 2004. Poverty, International Migration and Asylum, pp. 1 and 13. UNU-WIDER Policy Brief. No. 8. Helsinki, Finland: World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University. See also: United Nations. 2000. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, on  Trafficking in Women, Women’s Migration and Violence against Women, Submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1997/44 (E/CN.4/2000/68). New York: United Nations.

  • IOM. 2003a. Is Trafficking in Human Beings Demand Driven: A Multi-Country Pilot Study, p. 9. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 15. Geneva: IOM.

  • Gallagher, A. 2001. “Human Rights and the New UN Protocols on Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling: A Preliminary Analysis.” Human Rights Quarterly 23(4): 975-1004. See also: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2004. Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, p. 340. Vienna: Division for Treaty Affairs, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. For the definition of trafficking, see section 2. Smuggling of migrants is defined in Article 3 of the Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime as “the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a State Party of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident”.  See: United Nations. n.d.(b) “Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime: Entered into Force on 28 January 2004.” New York: United Nations.

  • Nicolic-Ristanovic, V., et al. 2004. Trafficking in people in Serbia. Belgrade: Victimology Society in Serbia and OSCE. Cited in: Organised Crime Situation Report 2005: Focus on the Threat of Economic Crime, by the Council of Europe. 2005a. Provisional version, December 2005. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

  • Ibid., p. 33.

  • Miko, F. T., and G. Park. 2000. “Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response.” Congressional Research Service Report. No. 98-649 C. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State.

  • Piper, N. 2005. “A Problem by a Different Name? A Review of Research on Trafficking in South East Asia and Oceania,” p. 204. Pp. 203-233 in: Data and Research on Human Trafficking: a Global Survey, by the IOM. 2005a. Geneva: IOM.

  • The Greater Mekong Subregion comprises Cambodia, the People’s Republic of China, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2003. “Human Trafficking, Regional Profile: 2003-03-11,” p. 2. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Web site: www.unodc.un.or.th/material/document/RegionalProfile.pdf, last accessed 1 June 2006.

  • Masud A., A.K.M. 2005. “Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia,”
    p. 141. Pp. 141-164 in: IOM 2005a.

  • ILO. 2002. Unbearable to the Human Heart. Child Trafficking and Action to Eliminate It, p. 17. Geneva: ILO.

  • In the past, most victims were brought from Asia and South America. See: IOM. April 2001. Trafficking in Migrants Quarterly Bulletin. Special Issue. Geneva: IOM; and Kelly, L. 2005. “‘You Can Find Anything You Want’: A Critical Reflection on Research on Trafficking in Persons within and into Europe,” p. 240. Pp. 235-265 in: IOM 2005a.

  • Chauzy, J.-P. 28 October 2005. “IOM Press Briefing Notes: Lithuania: Human Trafficking Increases since EU Accession.” Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.iom.int/en/archive/PBN281005.shtml#item3, accessed 5 May 2006. Also see: Amnesty International. n.d. “What You Should Know: Amnesty International’s Guide to UN Human Rights Council Candidates: Lithuania.” Web site: www.amnesty.org/un_hrc/lithuania.html, last accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Council of Europe 2005a, p. 34.

  • IOM identified 469 victims in 2005, which is thought to constitute as little as 10 per cent of the total (5,000) victims. Exact numbers are not known. The statistics on country of origin and age are based on a 220 rescued persons survey. See: IOM. 2006. 2005: Turkey, Trafficking and Trends, pp. 6, 11, and 20-22. Ankara, Turkey: IOM.

  • United Nations. 2006. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Report on the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Sigma Huda: Addendum: Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (E/CN/4/2006/62/Add.2). New York: United Nations.

  • IOM. April 2005. “Carletonville: Destination for Trafficked Mozambicans,” pp. 1-2. EYE on Human Trafficking. No. 6. Pretoria, South Africa: IOM.

  • ILO 2001, p. 50.

  • Kebede, E. 2002. “Ethiopia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants,” p. 6. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 3. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2006. Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns, pp. 30, and 96-97. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

  • United States Department of State. 2005. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2005, p. 71. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State.

  • ILO 2001.

  • United States Department of Justice. 2006. Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking: Fiscal Years 2001-2005. Washington, D. C.: Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice.

  • United States Department of Justice. 2005. Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons: September 2005. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of Justice.

  • The Protocol entered into force in 2003, and, as of January 2006, 97 States Party have ratified it. See: United Nations. n.d.(a).

  • Ibid., article 5.

  • Council of Europe. 2005b. Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Beings and Its Explanatory Report. Council of Europe Treaty Series. No. 197. Warsaw: Council of Europe. Web site: www.coe.int/T/E/human_rights/trafficking/PDF_Conv_197_Trafficking_E.pdf, last accessed 12 April 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Examples include: UN General Assembly resolutions, reports by the United Nations Secretary-General; the Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery of the former Human Rights Commission; and the establishment and reports of the Special Rapporteurs of the Commission on Human Rights on the Rights of Migrant Workers, on the Trafficking of Persons, and on Violence Against Women. See: United Nations. 1994. 49:166: Traffic in Women and Girls (A/RES/49/166). New York: United Nations; United Nations 2000; United Nations. 2002a. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Traffic in Women and Girls: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.4/2002/80). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2004a. Trafficking in Women and Girls: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/185). New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations. 2005a. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly (on the Report of the Third Committee [A/59/496]): 59/166: Trafficking in Women and Girls (A/RES/59/166). New York: United Nations. UN conferences include: the World Conference on Human Rights (United Nations. 1993a. Report of the World Conference on Human Rights: Report of the Secretary-General [A/CONF.157/24 (Part 1)], 14-25 June 1993, Vienna, Austria. New York: United Nations); the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (United Nations. 1995a. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, Principle 2. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations); and the Beijng Declaration and Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, China, 1995 (United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995 (DPI/1766/Wom), Strategic Objective D 3, para. 130b. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations).

  • African Union. 2004. “Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa: Adopted by the African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government.” Third Ordinary Session, 6-8 July 2004, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, para. 4, to:  “[I]nitiate, launch and engage within two years sustained public campaigns against gender based violence as well as the problem of trafficking in women and girls; Reinforce legal mechanism . . . and end impunity of crimes committed against women in a manner that will change and positively alter the attitude and behaviour of the African society.”

  • United Nations. 2005b. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: (without reference to a Main Committee [A/60/L.1]): 60/1: 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/RES/60/1), para. 111. New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. n.d.(b).

  • United Nations. 2005c. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Girls (E/CN.4/2005/71), para. 8. New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2002b. Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to the Economic and Social Council (E/2002/68/Add.1). New York: United Nations.

  • Lansink, A. 2004. “Women and Migration, Interim Report on Trafficking in Women.” Proceedings of the 71st Conference of the International Law Association: Berlin (2004). London: Committee on Feminism and International Law, International Law Association. See also: United Nations 2000.

  • Government of the United States. 2000. “Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–386),” Section 107.  Washington, D. C.: Government of the United States.

  • Reflection periods vary, for example, three months in the Netherlands, six months in Italy, and four weeks in Germany with the possibility of staying through the length of the criminal proceedings should victims cooperate. See Council of Europe 2005b; Kaye 2003, p. 10; and Kartusch, A. 2001. Reference Guide for Anti-Trafficking Legislative Review: With Particular Emphasis on South Eastern Europe, p. 64. Vienna: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights.

  • See, for example: Crawley, H., and T. Lester. 2004. Comparative Analysis of Gender-Related Persecution in National Asylum Legislation and Practice in Europe (EPAU/2004/05). Geneva: UNHCR, pp. 50-51; and the sources cited on the same pages from Human Rights Watch, UNHCR and UNHCHR.

  • Kaye 2003, pp. 9 and 10.

  • UNHCR. 2006. The State of the World’s Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, Box 1.3. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press.

  • UK Immigration Appeal Tribunal Decision. 17 May 2000. Secretary of State for the Home Department v Dzhygun Appeal No. CC-50627-99 (00TH00728). Cited in: Edwards, A.2003 “Age and Gender Dimensions in International Refugee Law,” p. 62. Ch. 1.2 in: Refugee Protection In International Law: UNHCR’s Global Consultations on International Protection, edited by E. Feller, et al. 2003. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • Kaye 2003, p. 6. See also: UNODC “Legislative Guides” 288.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Ibid., p. 31.

  • United Nations 2004a, pp. 11 and 17. For Turkey, see: IOM 2006, p. 20.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Global Alliance against Traffic in Women. 2003. Alliance News. No. 19-20: 41. Bangkok: Global Alliance against Traffic in Women.

  • Ibid., pp. 44-45.

  • UNIFEM and United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-region. 2002. Trafficking in Persons: A Gender and Rights Perspective: Briefing Kit. New York:UNIFEM.

  • United Nations 2000.

  • Acknowledgement of the links of poverty and discrimination to the increased vulnerability of women and girls to trafficking is found, for example: United Nations. n.d.(b); CEDAW General Recommendation No. 19. In: Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (A/47/38), by the United Nations. 1992. New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 1995b. Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 4-15 September 1995) (A/CONF.177/20). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 1993b. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: Note by the Secretariat (A/CONF.157/23). New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations. 6 April 2005. “Commission Hears National Delegations Outline Commitments to Uphold Women’s Rights: Commission on Human Rights Continues Debate on Integration of Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective.” Press release.
    New York: United Nations. Web site:   www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/F8287058D1E89403C1256FDC0038499E?opendocument, accessed 1 June 2006.

  • ILO 2002, p. 75.

  • See, for example: Manohar, S. 2002. “Trafficking in Women and Girls” (EGM/TRAF/2002/WP.1). Prepared for the Expert Group Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Girls, 18-22 November 2002, Glen Cove, New York. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2003a. Combating Trafficking of Women and Children in South Asia: Regional Synthesis Paper for Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank; and Asian Development Bank. 2003b. Combating Trafficking of Women and Children: Guide for Integrating Concerns into ADB Operations. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • United Nations. 2004a, pp. 10-11.

  • UNIFEM. 2006. “Report to the Forty-fifth Session of the Consultative Committee, 17-18 February 2005.” Internal document on activities in 2005. New York: UNIFEM.

  • United States Department of State 2005, p. 73. Also see: Grant, S. 2005. “International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 27. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • United Nations. 2005d. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 59. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • UNIFEM and United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-region 2002.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Cooper, J., and A. Upadhyay, UNIFEM. 12 April 2006. Personal Communication; and Imam, P. (ed.). 2005. A Fact Book on Human Trafficking. Inter-Faith Religious Leaders Forum. Bihar, India: Action against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children.

  • Truong, T.-D. 2006. Poverty, Gender and Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rethinking Best Practices in Migration Management (SHS/CCT/2006PI/H/1), p. 104. Paris: UNESCO.

  • “Domestic worker” means a person employed part-time or full-time in a household or private residence, in any of the following duties: cook, servant or waitress, butler, nurse, childminder, carer for elderly or disabled persons, personal servant, barman or barmaid, chauffeur, porter, gardener, washerman or washerwoman, guard. See: United Nations. 2004b. Specific Groups and Individuals Migrant Workers Report of the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro, Submitted Pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2003/46 (E/CN.4/2004/76), para. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • Piper, N. 2004. “Gender and Migration Policies in Southeast and East Asia: Legal Protection and Sociocultural Empowerment of Unskilled Migrant Women,” p. 218. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25(2): 216-231.

  • Sanghera, J. 2004. “Floating Borderlands and Shifting Dreamscapes: The Nexus between Gender, Migration and Development.” Pp. 60-69 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies.
    Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/09-j.sanghera.pdf, accessed 4May 2006.

  • IOM. 2003b. Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information Guide. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO. Cited in: United Nations 2005d, p. 59.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2004a. Bad Dreams: Exploitation and Abuse of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia, p. 47. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Sabban, R. 2002. United Arab Emirates: Migrant Women in the United Arab Emirates: The Case of Female Domestic Workers. GENPROM Working Paper.
    No. 10. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Khalaf, M. C. 2004. “Women’s International Labor Migration in the Arab World: Historical and Socio-economic Perspectives” (CM/MMW/2003/EP.5), p. 7.  Discussion paper prepared for the Consultative Meeting on Migration and Mobility and How This Movement Affects Women,” Malmo, Sweden, 2-4 December 2003. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, United Nations.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2005. Maid to Order: Ending Abuse Against Migrant Domestic Workers in Singapore, p. 2. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin, G. 2005. “Domestic Workers: Little Protection for the Underpaid,” p. 1. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=300, accessed 9 November 2005.

  • Kofman, E. 2005. “Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes,” p. 26. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • Carling, J. 2005. “Gender Dimensions of International Migration,” p. 16. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 35. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and IOM. 2005b. World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration. Geneva: IOM.

  • ILO 2001, p. 30.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • Sabban 2002, p. 35.

  • “Indonesia, Philippines.” January 2004. Migration News 11(1). Cited in: Human Rights Watch. 2004b. Help Wanted: Abuses against Female Migrant Workers in Indonesia and Malaysia, pp. 21 and 32-33. New York: Human Rights Watch; and Esim, S., and M. Smith (eds.). 2005. Gender and Migration in Arab States: The Case of Domestic Workers, pp. 32 and 54. Beirut, Lebanon: Regional Office for Arab States, International Labour Office, ILO. Also see: Sabban 2002, p. 38; and Human Rights Watch 2005.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • Human Rights Watch. 7 December 2005. “Singapore: Domestic Workers Suffer Grave Abuses: Migrant Women Face Debt Burden and Exploitation.” News release. New York: Human Rights Watch. Web site: http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/12/07/singap12125.htm, last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. n.d. “December 18, International Migrant’s Day: End the Exploitation, Violence and Abuse, Protect and Promote the Rights of all Women Migrant Workers.” Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. Web site: www.apwld.org/statement_migrants.htm, accessed 26 January 2006.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005.

  • Kav LaOved. 1 August 2006. “Concise Case Descriptions of Migrant Workers in Israel, 2005: Between Exploitation and Trafficking.” Tel Aviv, Israel: Kav LaOved. Web site: www.kavlaoved.org.il/katava_main.asp?news_id=1667&sivug_id=21, last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • For example: IOM. 2004. “The Feminine Face of Migrants: Exploitation of Domestic Workers in the U.S.” Geneva: Regional Office for North America and the Caribbean, IOM; Human Rights Watch. 2001. Hidden in the Home: Abuse of Domestic Workers with Special Visas in the United States. New York: Human Rights Watch; Human Rights Watch 2004a; and Esim and Smith 2005. Also see: Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005, p. 1.

  • Global Rights and American Civil Liberties Union. 2005. “Specific Groups and Individuals: Ending the Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers Employed by UN Diplomats and Staff.” Written statement jointly submitted by Global Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union, Non-governmental Organizations in Special Consultative Status, to the 61st session of the Commission on Human Rights. Washington, D. C., and New York: Global Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union.

  • United Nations 2004b.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, p. 83. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Based on a survey of 110 Filippino domestic workers. See: Marin, M. 2003. “Sexual Scripts and Shifting Spaces: Women Migrants and HIV/AIDS,” p. 19. Pp. 15-24 in: A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care: UNESCO/UNAIDS Project: Women Migrants and HIV/AIDS: An Anthropological Approach: Proceedings of the Round Table Held on 20 November 2004 at UNESCO: Paris. Paris: UNESCO.

  • United Nations 2004b.

  • Based on the contract domestic workers sign. While pregnancy per se is not grounds for deportation, domestic workers are not allowed to give birth in the country and, in practice, employers will deport  them. See: Human Rights Watch 2005, pp. 5 and 90.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004a.

  • Sanghera 2004, p. 63. While the latter refers to 400 employment agencies in Singapore, the Human Rights Watch refers to more than 600 (See: Human Rights Watch 2005).

  • “Indonesia, Philippines” January 2004.

  • Kebede 2002, p. 6.

  • Villalba, M. A. C. 2002. “Philippines: Good Practices for the Protection of Filipino Women Migrant Workers in Vulnerable Jobs.” GENPROM Working Paper. No. 8. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Dias, M. and R. Jayasundere. 2002. “Sri Lanka: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour.” GENPROM Working Paper. No. 9. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Sabban 2002. See also: Human Rights Watch 2004a;  Human Rights Watch 2004b; and Human Rights Watch 2005. Also see: Moreno-Fontes Chammartin  2005, p. 1.

  • ILO 2005, p. 51..

  • Human Rights Watch 2005, p. 2.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004b.

  • See, for example, accounts in: Human Rights Watch 2004b; Human Rights Watch 2005; and also on the CARAM Asia web site, “Migrant Voices”: www.caramasia.org/page_type_2.php?page=migrant_voices/ Regional_Summit-Migrant_Voices&title=CARAMASIA.ORG%20::%20Regional%20 SummitMigrant%20Voices, accessed 22 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2004b, para. 12

  • See, for example: Human Rights Watch 2004b.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005.

  • Human Rights Watch 7 December 2005.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004b, p. 62.

  • UNIFEM. 2005. “Report to the Forty-fifth Session of the Consultative Committee.” Internal document on activities in 2004. New York: UNIFEM; and Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005, p. 1. See also: UNIFEM. 10 December 2003. “UNIFEM Wins AGFUND’s International Prize: Recognition for Women Migrant Workers’ Issues.” New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.unifem.org/news_events/story_detail.php?StoryID=120, accessed 13 April 2006.

  • ILO 2005, p. 54; United Nations 2004b. Cited in: “The Legal and Normative Framework of International Migration:  A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 19, by S. Martin. 2005. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration. See also: United States Department of State. 2006. “Singapore: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005.” Washington, D. C.: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State. Web site: www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61626.htm, last accessed 2 June 2006.

  • ILO 2005, p. 51.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2006. World Report 2006: Events of 2005, pp. 479-480. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Human Rights Watch 2005, p. 102.

  • UNIFEM. 2002a. “A Framework for Strategic Interventions,” p. 6. Ch. 9 in: Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia: A Briefing Kit, by UNIFEM. 2002b. New York: UNIFEM.

  • See: CARAM Asia. n.d.“Domestic Workers Campaign: Introduction.” Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: CARAM Asia. Web site: http://caramasia.gn.apc.org/page.php?page=campaign/About_the_Campaign&title= CARAMASIA.ORG%20::%20Campaign%20::%20About%20the%20Campaign, Accessed March 24, 2006.

  • See: CARAM Asia. 2 December 2005. “CARAM Asia Announces the Appointment of its New Board of Directors.” Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: CARAM Asia. Web site: www.caramasia.org, last accessed 2 June 2006; and December 18 (Merelbeke, Belgium) Web site: www.december18.net/web/general/start.php?lang=EN, last accessed 2 June 2006.

  • Solidar. n.d. “Migrant Workers RESPECT!” Brussels, Belgium: Solidar. Web site: http://www.solidar.org/DocList.asp?SectionID=9 , last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • Kawar, M. 2004. “Gender and Migration: Why are Women More Vulnerable,” p. 84. Pp. 71-87 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloqium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/10-m.kawar.pdf, last accessed 2 June 2006.; and García, A. I., et al. 2002. “Female Labour Migrants and Trafficking in Women And Children,” p. 2. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 2. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • See the Break the Chain Campaign, Washington, D. C., Web site:   www.ips-dc.org/campaign/index.htm, last accessed 13 April 2006; and IOM 2004.



CHAPTER 4

  • End-2005 data reported in UNHCR. 2006a. 2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, pp. 3, 7, and 8. Geneva: UNHCR. There are 8.4 million refugees under the responsibility of UNHCR and another 4.3 million under UNRWA. Women and children under 18 years of age are estimated to each represent roughly half of the totals. On age and sex data, see also: UNHCR. 2006b. The State of the World’s Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, p. 20. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press. For UNRWA, estimates of the proportion of women and children are based on 2000 (latest available) data. UNRWA. Statistical Profiles. Web site: www.un.org/unrwa/publications/pdf/figures.pdf, accessed 5th May 2006.

  • For discussion on women refugees’ socio-economic and political roles, see: UNFPA. 2005A. “Women and Young People in Humanitarian Crises.” Ch. 8 in: The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals, by UNFPA. 2005b. New York: UNFPA.

  • According to UNHCR’s report to the standing committee (2000), older refugees form a much larger proportion of UNHCR caseload than is usually acknowledged (8.5 per cent) and may be higher in some caseloads (30 per cent). Women make up the majority of these older persons. See: Goveas, J. 2002. “Building on the Past, Rebuilding the Future: Older Refugees and the Challenge of Survival,” p. 15. Forced Migration Review No. 14: 15-16.

  • See Article 1(A) in: United Nations. 1951. “Draft Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees” (429 [V]),” p. 48. Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly during Its Fifth Session. New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/documents/ga/res/5/ares5.htm accessed 1 February 2006.

  • International human rights instruments preceding the 1951 Refugee Convention that safeguard these rights include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 14(1), “Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution” (United Nations. 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Adopted and Proclaimed by General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948. New York: United Nations); and the 1949 Geneva Conventions and two protocols.

  • UNHCR. 2003a. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Prevention and Response. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNHCR. 1991. Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • See: United Nations. n.d.(a) Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Article 29. New York: United Nations. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/92.htm, accessed 3 June 2006; United Nations. n.d.(b) Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Article 76. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/93.htm, accessed 3 June 2006; United Nations. n.d.(c) Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Article 4. New York: United Nations. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/94.htm, accessed 17 May 2006; and UNHCR. 2005. Conclusions Adopted by the Executive Committee on the International Protection of Refugees 1975-2004 (Conclusion No. 1-101), p. 242. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/publ/opendoc.pdf?tbl=PUBL&id=41b041534, accessed 1 February 2006. In 2003, UNHCR’s Executive Committee reaffirmed the need to combat sexual and gender-based violence, urging states “to cooperate in eliminating all forms of discrimination, sexual exploitation and violence against female refugees and asylum-seekers, and to promote their active involvement in decisions affecting their lives and communities.” See: UNHCR. 2003b. “Conclusion on Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation (No. 98 [LIV] - 2003),” para. c(2). Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/excom/opendoc.htm?tbl=EXCOM&id=3f93b2c44, accessed 3 June 2006.

  • United Nations. 1998. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (A/CONF.183/9). New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/law/icc/statute/romefra.htm, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • These commitments are made in: United Nations. 1999. Resolution 1261 (1999): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4037th meeting, on 25 August 1999 (S/RES/1261 (1999). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2000a. Resolution 1314 (2000): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4185th meeting, on 11 August 2000 (S/RES/1314 (2000). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2001. Resolution 1379 (2001): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4423rd meeting, on 20 November 2001 (S/RES/1379 (2001). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 2003a. Resolution 1460 (2003): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4695th meeting, on 30 January 2003 (S/RES/1460 (2003). New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2000b. Resolution 1325 (2000): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000 (S/RES/1325 [2000]), para. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • See: United Nations. 2005. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/60/L.1)] 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome, para. 116. New York: United Nations.

  • UNHCR. 2004a. Protracted Refugee Situations (EC/54/SC/CRP.14), p. 10. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNAIDS and UNHCR. 2005. Strategies to Support the HIV-Related Needs of Refugees and Host Population (UNAIDS/05.21E). UNAIDS Best Practices Collection. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • UNRWA. 2003. “Jordan Refugee Camp Profiles.” Web site: www.un.org/unrwa/refugees/jordan.html, accessed 17 April 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2003c. “Refugee Youth.” From the Foreign Land. No. 19. Warsaw: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.pl/english/newsletter/19/mlodzi_uchodzcy_problemy_i_wyzwania.php, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. UNHCR Policy on Refugee Women and Guidelines on Their Protection: An Assessment of Ten Years of Implementation, p. 28. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/pdf/unhcr.pdf., accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 21 April 2004. “Feature: Refugee Girls Balance Between Babies and Books.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=4086732e2, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Martin, S. F. 2004. “Women and Migration” (CM/MMW/2003/WP.1), p. 28. Paper prepared for the Consultative Meeting on “Migration and Mobility and How This Movement Affects Women, Malmö, Sweden, 2-4 December 2003. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • Bensalah, K., et al. n.d. “Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis.” Thematic study prepared for Education for All 2000 Assessment, World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000. Paris: UNESCO. Web site: www2.unesco.org/wef/en-leadup/findings_emergency%20summary.shtm, accessed 1 February 2006. The programme existed through end of 2005. See: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. 2004. “GTZ in Pakistan.” Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. Web site: www.gtz.de/en/weltweit/europa-kaukasus-zentralasien/1176.htm, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2002a. “Liberia.” Pp. 222-229 in: UNHCR Global Report 2002, by UNHCR. 2002b. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • Williamson, K. 2004. “AIDS, Gender and the Refugee Protection Framework.” RSC Working Paper Series. No.19. Oxford, United Kingdom: Refugee Studies Centre. Web site: www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/workingpaper19.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • “Purchase Vibrant, Handmade Eyeglass Cases and Support a Ghana Refugee Community.” n.d. Newtown, Connecticut: Unite for Sight. Web site: www.uniteforsight.org/ordercase.php, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 11 July 2005. “Class Distinctions for Urban Refugee Girls in Uganda.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=42d274f24, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNIFEM. 2005. Fuel Provision and Gender-Based Violence: Fuel Efficiency as a Prevention Strategy. New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.womenwarpeace.org/issues/violence/fuelandgbv.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Based on camp assessments by UNHCR in both 1997 and 2000. See: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children 2002.

  • Ibid. Based on UNHCR assessments.

  • Preliminary sample of reports over a one-month period. See: Vann, B. 2002. Gender-Based Violence: Emerging Issues in Programs Serving Displaced Populations, p. 59. Arlington, Virginia: Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium.

  • For a case example of this phenomenon, as well as the inter-generational and cultural effects of empowerment programmes for women refugees, see: Turner, S. 2000. “Vindicating Masculinity: The Fate of Promoting Gender Equality.” Forced Migration Review. No. 9: 8-9.

  • Newman, J. 2005. “Protection Through Participation: Young People Affected by Forced Migration and Political Crisis.” RSC Working Paper Series. No. 20. Oxford, United Kingdom: Refuge Studies Centre, University of Oxford. Web site: www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/RSCworkingpaper20.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2005. “Don’t Forget Us”: The Education and Gender-Based Violence Protection Needs of Adolescent Girls from Darfur in Chad. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/pdf/Td_ed2.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Newman 2005, p. 24.

  • UNHCR. 2002c. Note for Implementing and Operational Partners by UNHCR and Save the Children-UK on Sexual Violence and Exploitation: The Experience of Refugee Children in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone Based on Initial Findings and Recommendations from Assessment Mission: 22 October-30 November 2001. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.pdf?id=3c7cf89a4&tbl=PARTNERS, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations. 2003b. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [on the report of the Fifth Committee (A/57/604/Add.1)]: 57.306: Investigation into Sexual Exploitation of Refugees by Aid Workers in West Africa (A/RES/57/306). New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2003c. Secretary-General’s Bulletin: Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13). New York: United Nations.

  • In 2005 there were 296 investigations and 170 dismissals and repatriations, including six commanders and two entire units. See: United Nations. 24 February 2006. “Problem of Sexual Abuse by Peacekeepers Now Openly Recognized, Broad Strategy in Place to Address It, Security Council Told” (SC/8649). Press release. New York: United Nations.

  • Adrian-Paul, A. 2004. “HIV/AIDS,” p. 36. Pp. 32-48 in: Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action, by Women Waging Peace and International Alert. Washington and London: Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert. Web site: www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/toolkit/chapters/HIV_AIDS.pdf , accessed 25 March 2005.

  • UNHCR. 17 March 2005. “UNHCR, UNFPA Fund Surgery for Refugee and Local Women in Chad.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=4239519f4, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Refugees International. 21 April 2005. “Chad: Strengthen the Response to Gender-Based Violence.” Press release. Washington, D. C.: Refugees International. Web site: www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/5654/, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children 2005.

  • UNFPA. 2004 and 2005. UNHCR/UNFPA Training on Clinical Management of Rape Survivors. Internal UNFPA travel reports. New York: UNFPA.

  • Vann, B., M. Beatty, and L. Ehrlich. 2004. “Supporting Displaced Communities to Address Gender-Based Violence.” Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 28-29. Web site: www.fmreview.org/mags1.htm, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 June 2005. “Empowering Communities One Village at a Time.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=42c3bfa04, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 March 2004. “Feature: UNHCR, Refugees Work Together to Prevent Rape.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=40697ab57, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Save the Children. 2003. State of the World’s Mothers 2003: Protecting Women and Children in War and Conflict. Westport, Connecticut: Save the Children.

  • UNHCR. 30 November 2005a. “Ugandan Police Undergo Special Training on Eliminating Violence Against Women.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=438d85774, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • As per sources listed in this section and a large-scale study based on 688,733 persons living in 52 post-emergency phase camps in 7 countries. See: Hynes, M., et al. 2002. “Reproductive Health Indicators and Outcomes Among Refugee and Internally Displaced Persons in Postemergency Phase Camps.” The Journal of the American Medical Association 288(5): 595-603.

  • McGinn, T. 2000. “Reproductive Health of War-Affected Populations: What Do We Know?” International Family Planning Perspectives 26(4): 174-180.

  • Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2003. Conference 2003: Reproductive Health from Disaster to Development: Brussels, Belgium, October 7-8 2003: Proceedings, p. 55. Web site: www.rhrc.org/pdf/conf_procdings_forWEB.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 November 2005b. “New Report Calls for Integrated Approach to HIV/AIDS Involving Both Refugees and Their Host Communities.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=438dc0294, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNFPA. 2001. Populi 28(1).

  • Based on a UNICEF survey cited in: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2005. “Safe Motherhood and Emergency Obstetric Care.” New York: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. Web site: www.rhrc.org/rhr%5Fbasics/sm_emoc.html, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Wax, E. 13 November 2003. “Cycle of War is Spreading AIDS and Fear in Africa.” The Washington Post. See also: Amnesty International. 1 December 2004. “Democratic Republic of Congo: HIV: The Longest Lasting Scar of War.” Amnesty News. New York: Amnesty International. Web site: http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR620262004?open&of=ENG-COD, accessed 17th May 2006.

  • Kaiser, R., et al. 2002a. “HIV Sero-prevalence and Behavioral Risk Factor Survey in Sierra Leone.”Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Kaiser, R., et al. 2002b. “HIV/STI Sero-prevalence and Risk Factor Survey in Yei, South Sudan.” Atlanta. Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003; and Spiegel, P., and E. De Jong. 2003. “HIV/AIDS and Refugees/Returnees: Mission to Angola.” Luanda, Angola: UNHCR.

  • UNFPA. 6 September 2005. “Addressing the Urgent Needs of Togo’s Refugees.” Press release. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=666&Language=1, accessed 1 February 2006; and Khane, M., UNFPA Representative in Ghana. 24 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • International Rescue Committee. 2004. “Semi-Annual Report: Integrated HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Program in Sherkole and Yarenja Refugee Camps, Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia.” New York: International Rescue Committee.

  • Nicholson, E. 2004. “Women Health Volunteers in Iran and Iraq.” Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 47.

  • Jaffer, F. H., S. Guy, and J. Niewczasinksi. 2004. “Reproductive Health Care for Somali Refugees in Yemen.” Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 33-34.

  • International Rescue Committee 2004.

  • UNHCR. 2004b. UNHCR Resettlement Handbook and Country Chapters. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect?id=3d4545984, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Jacobsen, K. 2003. “Local Integration: The Forgotten Solution.” Migration Information Source. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=166, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Since 1999, approximately 1,000 permissive residency permits have been issued. See: UNHCR. 14 October 2005. “New Permits Allow Indonesian Refugees to Move On In Papua New Guinea.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=434fd2e34, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. n.d. “Protecting Refugees: What is Resettlement?” Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect?id=3bb2eadd6, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2000. Untapped Potential: Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict: A Review of Programs and Policies. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

  • United States Department of State. 2004. “Liberians Considered for Resettlement: Focus is on Female Heads of Household.” U. S. Refugee Admissions Program News 2(2). Web site: www.state.gov/g/prm/rls/33753.htm, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 11 March 2005. “Colombian Refugees Get Chance to Start Anew in Brazil.” UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=4231994a4, last accessed 14 April 2006.

  • Canadian Council for Refugees. 1998. Best Settlement Practices: Settlement Services for Refugees and Immigrants in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Council for Refugees. Web site: www.web.net/~ccr/bpfina1.htm#7.%20BEST%20PRACTICE%20EXAMPLES, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Refugee Council of Australia. 2002. Australian Mentoring Programs for Refugee and Humanitarian Entrant:. May 2005. Glebe, Australia: Refugee Council of Australia. Web site: www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/current/mentoring.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Canadian Council for Refugees 1998.

  • See the web site of the EU Networks on Reception, Integration and Voluntary Repatriation of Refugees: http://refugeenet.org/about/partners.html, accessed 5 June 2006.

  • RAINBO. n.d. “The African Immigrant Program.” New York: Research, Action, and Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women. Web site: www.rainbo.org/Rainbo/aip.html., accessed 1 February 2006.



CHAPTER 5

  • United Nations. 2005a. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/60/L.1)] 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome, para. 62. New York: United Nations. See also: Global Commission on International Migration. 2005. Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action: Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, p. vii. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNFPA. 2005. The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals, p. 21. New York: UNFPA.

  • Note, for example, the Lima Process, Berne Initiative’s International Agenda for Migration Management; the Hague Process on the Future of Refugee and Migration; the Regional Conference on Migration (Puebla Process); the 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean; the Asia-Pacific Consultations; the Bali Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime; the South American Migration Dialogue; and the Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa. The Global Commission on International Migration “observes that certain parts of the globe are not as yet covered by regional processes, including the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, the Great Lakes region of Africa, the Caribbean, and certain parts of Asia and South Asia”. See: Global Commission on International Migration 2005, pp. 70-71.

  • The 2000 UN Millennium Declaration explicitly called for attention to the rights of migrants, of women, and of minorities. See: United Nations. 2000. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2: United Nations Millennium Declaration (A/RES/55.2), para. 25. New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations 2005a, para. 62.

  • United Nations. 1990. “International Convention on The Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families: Adopted by the General Assembly at its 45th session on 18 December 1990 (A/RES/45/158).” New York: United Nations.

  • The status of Ratification and Reservations can be found on the Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/countries/ratification/13.htm, accessed April 10, 2005. As of May 2006, 15 countries have signed the Convention, signaling their intent to ratify it. The top 10 receiving countries by 2005, in order, were: the United States of America, Russian Federation, Germany, Ukraine, France, Saudi Arabia, Canada, India, the United Kingdom and Spain. See: United Nations. 2006. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3), Table 2, p. 5. New York: United Nations.

  • See information about the Global Campaign and its Steering Committee on the Web site: www.migrantsrights.org/about_campaign_engl.htm, last accessed 7 June 2006.

  • The right to form and join unions, for example, was recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 23), as well as the ICCPR (Article 22) and ICESCR (Article 8). The principle of equal treatment in working conditions is enshrined in the Migrant Workers Convention, Article 25, which also covers “weekly rest”. The right to leisure is found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 24) and the ICCPR (Article 7). See also Box 3 in Chapter 1 of this report on the Migrant Workers Convention.

  • International human rights law allows states to restrict certain rights—mainly political and economic—to citizens only.

  • The 1949 Migration for Employment Convention, No. 97 and the 1975 Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, No. 143. In addition, note should be taken of the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

  • Grant, S. 2005. “International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” pp. 2 and 22. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • For a recent report on related initiatives, see: United Nations. 2005b. Report of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Related Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights (E/CN.4/2005/91). New York: United Nations. See also: Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 46.

  • In Article 12(1) of the Convention, State Party “recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health”. See: United Nations. 1966. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Adopted and Opened for Signature, Ratification and Accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966. New York: United Nations.

  • Ruiz, P. 7 September 2005. “Arranca Fox el Seguro Popular para Migrantes: Milenio Diario.” Mexico City: Office of the President of the Republic of Mexico. Web site: www.presidencia.gob.mx/buscador/index.php?contenido=20655&imprimir=true; and Valadez, B. 12 July 2005. “Lanzará Vicente Fox Seguro Popular para los migrantes: Milenio Diario.” Mexico City: Office of the President of the Republic of Mexico. Web site: www.presidencia.gob.mx/buscador/?contenido=19425&imprimir=true, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Co-sponsors of the initiative are the European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection (SANCO). Results and recommendations of the project were presented at a conference in December 2004. See: Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. n.d.(a) “European Recommendations: The Amsterdam Declaration Towards Migrant Friendly Hospitals in an ethno-culturally diverse Europe.” Vienna, Austria:Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. Web site: www.mfh-eu.net/public/european_recommendations.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006; and Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. n.d.(b) “The Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project: In a Nutshell.” Vienna, Austria: Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. Web site: http://www.mfh-eu.net/public/home.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006. As a result of this initiative, the Amsterdam Declaration Towards Migrant-Friendly Hospitals in an Ethno-Culturally Diverse Europe, was launched in 2004 by all partners of the project.

  • Note, however, that if a patient is confirmed as undocumented, and can prove that he or she has been living in the country for more than twelve months, he or she will not be charged for past care, but only for any further treatment; and that reporting illegal status to the authorities is undertaken on a case-by-case basis and subject to both medical and public interest considerations. See: Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 2004. “Regulation 1: Provides Definitions of Words and Terms Used in Other Regulations,” Ch. 6.2, and “Confidentiality,” p. 40, in: Implementing the Overseas Visitors Hospital Charging Regulations: Guidance for NHS Trust Hospitals in England. London: Department of Health, Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Web site: www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/10/60/24/04106024.pdf, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • The complaint was in collaboration with Ligue des droits de l’Homme (LDH), le Groupe d’information et de soutien des immigrés (GISTI) and Groupe d’information et de soutien des immigrés. 13 March 2005. “Couverture médicale des sans-papiers: la France rappelée à l’ordre par le Conseil de l’Europe.” Web site: www.gisti.org/doc/actions/2005/ame/index.html, last accessed 3 June 2006; as well as: The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants. n.d. “The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants Aims to Promote Respect for the Basic Social Rights of Undocumented Migrants within Europe.” Brussels, Belgium: The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants. Web site: www.picum.org, accessed 12 April 2006.

  • Scott, P. 2004. “Undocumented Migrants in Germany and Britain: The Human ‘Rights’ and ‘Wrongs’ Regarding Access to Health Care.” Electronic Journal of Sociology. Web site: www.sociology.org/content/2004/tier2/scott.html, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • IOM. 2005a. IOM Gender and Migration News. Issue No. 24. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid.

  • Kofman, E. 2005. “Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes,” p. 10. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • IOM. 2005b. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 234. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • See the Sistema de Informacion Estadistica sobre las Migraciones en Mesoamerica web site, “Consulta de Estadísticas”: www.siemca.iom.int/
    scripts/foxisapi.dll/Siemca.Consultas.Process?Method=Consultas, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • See: Government of Nepal. “Tenth Plan,” para. 4, p. 520. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal.  Web site: www.npc.gov.np/tenthplan/the_tenth_plan.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006; and UNIFEM. 10 December 2003. “UNIFEM wins AGFUND’s International Prize.” Press release. Web site: www.unifem.org.in/press_release.htm, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Taran, P. 2004. “Decent Work, Labour Migration: New Challenges for the 21st Century.” Pp. 12-17 in: International Migration and Development: A Round Table Presentation, p. 14, by UNFPA. 2004. New York: UNFPA; and Jolly, S. 2005. “Gender and Migration: Supporting Resources Collection.” BRIDGE Gender and Migration Cutting Edge Pack, p. 39. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Web site: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/CEP-Mig-SRC.pdf, accessed 6 October 2005.

  • Boyd, M., and D. Pikkov. 2005. Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States, p. 9. Occasional Paper. No. 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD); Kofman 2005, p. 16; Omelaniuk, I. 2005. “Gender, Poverty Reduction and Migration,” p. 5. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABOUTUS/Resources/Gender.pdf, last accessed 28 May 2006; and Hugo, G. 20 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • The humane and orderly management of migration is the motto of IOM’s mission statement. See the web site of IOM: www.iom.int/en/who/main_mission.shtml, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • Piper, N. 2005a. “Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration,” p. 42. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNIFEM. 6 April 2006. Personal Communication.

  • Jolly 2005, p. 40.

  • Grant 2005, pp. 22 and 24.

  • ILO. 2003. Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information Guide: Booklet 5: Back Home: Return and Reintegration, p. 22. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Scalabrini Migration Center. 1997. “Pre-departure Information Programs for Migrant Workers.” A research project conducted by the Scalabrini Migration Center for IOM. Quezon City, the Philippines: Scalabrini Migration Center. Note this report includes a review of the pre-departure orientation seminars from 1992 to 1997.

  • The video series is also available in Spanish and French for use in Latin America and Africa. See: IOM. 2005c. “All Within Your Power To Choose.” Migration: December 2004, p. 10. Geneva: IOM; and IOM. 2004. The Power to Choose. Web site: www.iom.org.ph/info/PTC.pdf, accessed 8 March 2006.

  • Pearson, E. 2003. “Study on Trafficking in Women in East Africa,” p. 23. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit; and summary of IOM’s counter-trafficking project for Ethiopia, 25 May 2001. Cited in: “Ethiopia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants,” p. 34, by E. Kebede. 2002. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 3. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • United Nations. 2005c. Violence against Women: Report of the Secretary-General (A/60/137). New York: United Nations.

  • Council of Europe. 7 December 2005. “Integration of Immigrant Women in Europe: Report: Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men  Rapporteur: Mrs. Gülsün Bilgehan, Turkey, Socialist Group ([Doc. 10758).” Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/workingdocs/doc05/edoc10758.htm, accessed 12 April  2006.

  • Farah, H., I, and C. Sánchez G. 2002. “Bolivia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants,”
    p. 48. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 1. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Thouez, C. 2004. “The Role of Civil Society in the Migration Policy Debate,” pp. 2 and 5. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 12. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration

  • See: Migrant’s Rights International’s Web site: www.migrantwatch.org, accessed May 11, 2006.

  • Orloff, L., Immigrant Women Program, Legal Momentum. Quoted in: “More Services Reach Abused Immigrant Women,” by J. Terzieff. 2005. Women’s Enews. Web site: www.womensenews.org/article.cfm?aid=2407, accessed 14 November 2005.

  • Kawar, M. 2004. “Gender and Migration: Why are Women More Vulnerable,” p. 85. Pp. 71-87 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/10-m.kawar.pdf, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Platform of International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants n.d.

  • D’Alconzo, G., S. La Rocca, and E. Marioni. 2002. “Italy: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour,” p. 49. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 4. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Piper, N. 2005b “Transnational Politics and Organizing of Migrant Labour in South-East Asia: NGO and Trade Union Perspectives,” pp. 88 and 93. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 20(3): 87-110.

  • Kawar 2004, p. 84; and Piper 2005b, p. 97. The Action Plan can be found at the Confederation’s Web site: www.icftu.org/displaydocument.asp?Index=991213176&Language=EN, accessed 11 May 2006.

  • Piper 2005a, p. 37.

  • ILO. 1998. “Unit 2: Gender Issues in the World of Work.” OnLine Gender Learning & Information Module. Geneva: South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team., ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/mdtmanila/training/unit2/migngpex.htm, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Yamanaka, K., and N. Piper. 2005. Feminized Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Policies, Actions and Empowerment, p. 28. Occasional Paper Gender Policy Series. No. 11. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • Kim, J. 2005. “State, Civil Society and International Norms: Expanding the Political and Labor Rights of Foreigners in Korea.” Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 14(4): 383-418.

  • Thieme, S., et al. 2005. “Addressing the Needs of Nepalese Migrant Workers in Nepal and in Delhi, India,” pp. 112-113. Mountain Research and Development 25(2): 109-114.

  • Crush, J., and W. Pendleton. 2004. Regionalizing Xenophobia: Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Southern Africa. Migration Policy Series. No. 30. Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project; and Crush. J. 2001. Immigration, Xenophobia and Human Rights in South Africa. Migration Policy Series. No. 22. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen’s University

  • As compared to a total of 52 countries who reported integration policies in 1996. See: United Nations 2006, para. 104.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 44

  • Grant 2005, pp. 7-8.

  • IOM. 2003. “Migration in a World of Global Change. New Strategies and Policies for New Realities.” Geneva: Migration Policy and Research Programme, IOM. Geneva. Cited in: Human Development Report 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today’s Diverse World, p.103, by UNDP. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Penninx, R. 1 October 2003. “Integration: The Role of Communities, Institutions, and the State,” p. 2. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=168, accessed 5 January 2006; and European Parliament. 2003.  “Immigration, Integration and Employment: European Parliament Resolution on the Communication from the Commission on immigration, integration and employment (COM(2003) 336-2003/2147 (INI)),” paras. F and  L.3. Strasbourg, France: European Parliament.

  • European Parliament 2003, paras. L.5 and L.28.

  • For a discussion of urbanization and international migration, see: Balbo, M. (ed.). 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia.

  • Ibid., p. 51.

  • Ibid., p. 10.

  • Ibid., p. 198.

  • Ibid., p. 206.

  • Ibid., pp. 77-78.

  • United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 2005. “Questions and Answers About Employer Responsibilities Concerning the Employment of Muslims, Arabs, South Asians, and Sikhs.” Washington, D. C.: United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Web site: www.eeoc.gov/facts/backlash-employer.html, accessed 11 May 2006. Also cited in: “Building Bridges to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Employment and Training,” by the United Nations. 2002. Ch. 2.9 in: Refugee Resettlement: An International Handbook to Guide Reception and Integration, by the United Nations. 2002. New York: United Nations.

  • Corcino, P. 13 April 2006. “Dominicana gana una en diputación en Italia.” La Opinion.

  • UNHCR. 29 December 2005. “A Taste of Belgian Christmas Warms Hearts of Asylum Seekers.” UNHCR News Story. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/
    vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=43b3ae084, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Balbo 2005, pp. 229-230.