Introduction Introduction Chapter 5 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Notes for Indicators Notes
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Noties for quotations Notes for quotations
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Notes for boxes Notes for boxes
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Indicators Indicators
NOTES Printer Friendly printer friendly version
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5

  • United Nations. 2005a. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/60/L.1)] 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome, para. 62. New York: United Nations. See also: Global Commission on International Migration. 2005. Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action: Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, p. vii. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNFPA. 2005. The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals, p. 21. New York: UNFPA.

  • Note, for example, the Lima Process, Berne Initiative's International Agenda for Migration Management; the Hague Process on the Future of Refugee and Migration; the Regional Conference on Migration (Puebla Process); the 5+5 Dialogue on Migration in the Western Mediterranean; the Asia-Pacific Consultations; the Bali Ministerial Conference on People Smuggling, Trafficking in Persons and Related Transnational Crime; the South American Migration Dialogue; and the Migration Dialogue for Southern Africa. The Global Commission on International Migration "observes that certain parts of the globe are not as yet covered by regional processes, including the Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, the Great Lakes region of Africa, the Caribbean, and certain parts of Asia and South Asia". See: Global Commission on International Migration 2005, pp. 70-71.

  • The 2000 UN Millennium Declaration explicitly called for attention to the rights of migrants, of women, and of minorities. See: United Nations. 2000. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2: United Nations Millennium Declaration (A/RES/55.2), para. 25. New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations 2005a, para. 62.

  • United Nations. 1990. "International Convention on The Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families: Adopted by the General Assembly at its 45th session on 18 December 1990 (A/RES/45/158)." New York: United Nations.

  • The status of Ratification and Reservations can be found on the Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/countries/ratification/13.htm, accessed April 10, 2005. As of May 2006, 15 countries have signed the Convention, signaling their intent to ratify it. The top 10 receiving countries by 2005, in order, were: the United States of America, Russian Federation, Germany, Ukraine, France, Saudi Arabia, Canada, India, the United Kingdom and Spain. See: United Nations. 2006. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3), Table 2, p. 5. New York: United Nations.

  • See information about the Global Campaign and its Steering Committee on the Web site: www.migrantsrights.org/about_campaign_engl.htm, last accessed 7 June 2006.

  • The right to form and join unions, for example, was recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 23), as well as the ICCPR (Article 22) and ICESCR (Article 8). The principle of equal treatment in working conditions is enshrined in the Migrant Workers Convention, Article 25, which also covers "weekly rest". The right to leisure is found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 24) and the ICCPR (Article 7). See also Box 3 in Chapter 1 of this report on the Migrant Workers Convention.

  • International human rights law allows states to restrict certain rights-mainly political and economic-to citizens only.

  • The 1949 Migration for Employment Convention, No. 97 and the 1975 Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, No. 143. In addition, note should be taken of the 1998 Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

  • Grant, S. 2005. "International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," pp. 2 and 22. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • For a recent report on related initiatives, see: United Nations. 2005b. Report of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Related Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights (E/CN.4/2005/91). New York: United Nations. See also: Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 46.

  • In Article 12(1) of the Convention, State Party "recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health". See: United Nations. 1966. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Adopted and Opened for Signature, Ratification and Accession by General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966. New York: United Nations.

  • Ruiz, P. 7 September 2005. "Arranca Fox el Seguro Popular para Migrantes: Milenio Diario." Mexico City: Office of the President of the Republic of Mexico. Web site: www.presidencia.gob.mx/buscador/index.php?contenido=20655&imprimir=true; and Valadez, B. 12 July 2005. "Lanzará Vicente Fox Seguro Popular para los migrantes: Milenio Diario." Mexico City: Office of the President of the Republic of Mexico. Web site: www.presidencia.gob.mx/buscador/?contenido=19425&imprimir=true, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Co-sponsors of the initiative are the European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection (SANCO). Results and recommendations of the project were presented at a conference in December 2004. See: Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. n.d.(a) "European Recommendations: The Amsterdam Declaration Towards Migrant Friendly Hospitals in an ethno-culturally diverse Europe." Vienna, Austria:Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. Web site: www.mfh-eu.net/public/european_recommendations.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006; and Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. n.d.(b) "The Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project: In a Nutshell." Vienna, Austria: Migrant-Friendly Hospitals Project. Web site: http://www.mfh-eu.net/public/home.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006. As a result of this initiative, the Amsterdam Declaration Towards Migrant-Friendly Hospitals in an Ethno-Culturally Diverse Europe, was launched in 2004 by all partners of the project.

  • Note, however, that if a patient is confirmed as undocumented, and can prove that he or she has been living in the country for more than twelve months, he or she will not be charged for past care, but only for any further treatment; and that reporting illegal status to the authorities is undertaken on a case-by-case basis and subject to both medical and public interest considerations. See: Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 2004. "Regulation 1: Provides Definitions of Words and Terms Used in Other Regulations," Ch. 6.2, and "Confidentiality," p. 40, in: Implementing the Overseas Visitors Hospital Charging Regulations: Guidance for NHS Trust Hospitals in England. London: Department of Health, Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Web site: www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/10/60/24/04106024.pdf, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • The complaint was in collaboration with Ligue des droits de l'Homme (LDH), le Groupe d'information et de soutien des immigrés (GISTI) and Groupe d'information et de soutien des immigrés. 13 March 2005. "Couverture médicale des sans-papiers: la France rappelée à l'ordre par le Conseil de l'Europe." Web site: www.gisti.org/doc/actions/2005/ame/index.html, last accessed 3 June 2006; as well as: The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants. n.d. "The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants Aims to Promote Respect for the Basic Social Rights of Undocumented Migrants within Europe." Brussels, Belgium: The Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants. Web site: www.picum.org, accessed 12 April 2006.

  • Scott, P. 2004. "Undocumented Migrants in Germany and Britain: The Human 'Rights' and 'Wrongs' Regarding Access to Health Care." Electronic Journal of Sociology. Web site: www.sociology.org/content/2004/tier2/scott.html, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • IOM. 2005a. IOM Gender and Migration News. Issue No. 24. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid.

  • Kofman, E. 2005. "Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes," p. 10. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • IOM. 2005b. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 234. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • See the Sistema de Informacion Estadistica sobre las Migraciones en Mesoamerica web site, "Consulta de Estadísticas": www.siemca.iom.int/
    scripts/foxisapi.dll/Siemca.Consultas.Process?Method=Consultas, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • See: Government of Nepal. "Tenth Plan," para. 4, p. 520. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal.  Web site: www.npc.gov.np/tenthplan/the_tenth_plan.htm, last accessed 3 June 2006; and UNIFEM. 10 December 2003. "UNIFEM wins AGFUND's International Prize." Press release. Web site: www.unifem.org.in/press_release.htm, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Taran, P. 2004. "Decent Work, Labour Migration: New Challenges for the 21st Century." Pp. 12-17 in: International Migration and Development: A Round Table Presentation, p. 14, by UNFPA. 2004. New York: UNFPA; and Jolly, S. 2005. "Gender and Migration: Supporting Resources Collection." BRIDGE Gender and Migration Cutting Edge Pack, p. 39. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Web site: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/CEP-Mig-SRC.pdf, accessed 6 October 2005.

  • Boyd, M., and D. Pikkov. 2005. Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States, p. 9. Occasional Paper. No. 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD); Kofman 2005, p. 16; Omelaniuk, I. 2005. "Gender, Poverty Reduction and Migration," p. 5. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABOUTUS/Resources/Gender.pdf, last accessed 28 May 2006; and Hugo, G. 20 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • The humane and orderly management of migration is the motto of IOM's mission statement. See the web site of IOM: www.iom.int/en/who/main_mission.shtml, last accessed 3 June 2006.

  • Piper, N. 2005a. "Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 42. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNIFEM. 6 April 2006. Personal Communication.

  • Jolly 2005, p. 40.

  • Grant 2005, pp. 22 and 24.

  • ILO. 2003. Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information Guide: Booklet 5: Back Home: Return and Reintegration, p. 22. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Scalabrini Migration Center. 1997. "Pre-departure Information Programs for Migrant Workers." A research project conducted by the Scalabrini Migration Center for IOM. Quezon City, the Philippines: Scalabrini Migration Center. Note this report includes a review of the pre-departure orientation seminars from 1992 to 1997.

  • The video series is also available in Spanish and French for use in Latin America and Africa. See: IOM. 2005c. "All Within Your Power To Choose." Migration: December 2004, p. 10. Geneva: IOM; and IOM. 2004. The Power to Choose. Web site: www.iom.org.ph/info/PTC.pdf, accessed 8 March 2006.

  • Pearson, E. 2003. "Study on Trafficking in Women in East Africa," p. 23. Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit; and summary of IOM's counter-trafficking project for Ethiopia, 25 May 2001. Cited in: "Ethiopia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants," p. 34, by E. Kebede. 2002. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 3. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • United Nations. 2005c. Violence against Women: Report of the Secretary-General (A/60/137). New York: United Nations.

  • Council of Europe. 7 December 2005. "Integration of Immigrant Women in Europe: Report: Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men  Rapporteur: Mrs. Gülsün Bilgehan, Turkey, Socialist Group ([Doc. 10758)." Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/workingdocs/doc05/edoc10758.htm, accessed 12 April  2006.

  • Farah, H., I, and C. Sánchez G. 2002. "Bolivia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants,"
    p. 48. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 1. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Thouez, C. 2004. "The Role of Civil Society in the Migration Policy Debate," pp. 2 and 5. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 12. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration

  • See: Migrant's Rights International's Web site: www.migrantwatch.org, accessed May 11, 2006.

  • Orloff, L., Immigrant Women Program, Legal Momentum. Quoted in: "More Services Reach Abused Immigrant Women," by J. Terzieff. 2005. Women's Enews. Web site: www.womensenews.org/article.cfm?aid=2407, accessed 14 November 2005.

  • Kawar, M. 2004. "Gender and Migration: Why are Women More Vulnerable," p. 85. Pp. 71-87 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/10-m.kawar.pdf, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Platform of International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants n.d.

  • D'Alconzo, G., S. La Rocca, and E. Marioni. 2002. "Italy: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour," p. 49. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 4. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Piper, N. 2005b "Transnational Politics and Organizing of Migrant Labour in South-East Asia: NGO and Trade Union Perspectives," pp. 88 and 93. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 20(3): 87-110.

  • Kawar 2004, p. 84; and Piper 2005b, p. 97. The Action Plan can be found at the Confederation's Web site: www.icftu.org/displaydocument.asp?Index=991213176&Language=EN, accessed 11 May 2006.

  • Piper 2005a, p. 37.

  • ILO. 1998. "Unit 2: Gender Issues in the World of Work." OnLine Gender Learning & Information Module. Geneva: South-East Asia and the Pacific Multidisciplinary Advisory Team., ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/mdtmanila/training/unit2/migngpex.htm, accessed 18 May 2006.

  • Yamanaka, K., and N. Piper. 2005. Feminized Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Policies, Actions and Empowerment, p. 28. Occasional Paper Gender Policy Series. No. 11. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • Kim, J. 2005. "State, Civil Society and International Norms: Expanding the Political and Labor Rights of Foreigners in Korea." Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 14(4): 383-418.

  • Thieme, S., et al. 2005. "Addressing the Needs of Nepalese Migrant Workers in Nepal and in Delhi, India," pp. 112-113. Mountain Research and Development 25(2): 109-114.

  • Crush, J., and W. Pendleton. 2004. Regionalizing Xenophobia: Citizen Attitudes to Immigration and Refugee Policy in Southern Africa. Migration Policy Series. No. 30. Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project; and Crush. J. 2001. Immigration, Xenophobia and Human Rights in South Africa. Migration Policy Series. No. 22. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen's University

  • As compared to a total of 52 countries who reported integration policies in 1996. See: United Nations 2006, para. 104.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 44

  • Grant 2005, pp. 7-8.

  • IOM. 2003. "Migration in a World of Global Change. New Strategies and Policies for New Realities." Geneva: Migration Policy and Research Programme, IOM. Geneva. Cited in: Human Development Report 2004: Cultural Liberty in Today's Diverse World, p.103, by UNDP. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Penninx, R. 1 October 2003. "Integration: The Role of Communities, Institutions, and the State," p. 2. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=168, accessed 5 January 2006; and European Parliament. 2003.  "Immigration, Integration and Employment: European Parliament Resolution on the Communication from the Commission on immigration, integration and employment (COM(2003) 336-2003/2147 (INI))," paras. F and  L.3. Strasbourg, France: European Parliament.

  • European Parliament 2003, paras. L.5 and L.28.

  • For a discussion of urbanization and international migration, see: Balbo, M. (ed.). 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia.

  • Ibid., p. 51.

  • Ibid., p. 10.

  • Ibid., p. 198.

  • Ibid., p. 206.

  • Ibid., pp. 77-78.

  • United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 2005. "Questions and Answers About Employer Responsibilities Concerning the Employment of Muslims, Arabs, South Asians, and Sikhs." Washington, D. C.: United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Web site: www.eeoc.gov/facts/backlash-employer.html, accessed 11 May 2006. Also cited in: "Building Bridges to Economic Self-Sufficiency: Employment and Training," by the United Nations. 2002. Ch. 2.9 in: Refugee Resettlement: An International Handbook to Guide Reception and Integration, by the United Nations. 2002. New York: United Nations.

  • Corcino, P. 13 April 2006. "Dominicana gana una en diputación en Italia." La Opinion.

  • UNHCR. 29 December 2005. "A Taste of Belgian Christmas Warms Hearts of Asylum Seekers." UNHCR News Story. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/
    vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=43b3ae084, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Balbo 2005, pp. 229-230.


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