Introduction Introduction Chapter 5 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Notes for Indicators Notes
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Noties for quotations Notes for quotations
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Notes for boxes Notes for boxes
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Indicators Indicators
NOTES Printer Friendly printer friendly version
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 4

  • End-2005 data reported in UNHCR. 2006a. 2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, pp. 3, 7, and 8. Geneva: UNHCR. There are 8.4 million refugees under the responsibility of UNHCR and another 4.3 million under UNRWA. Women and children under 18 years of age are estimated to each represent roughly half of the totals. On age and sex data, see also: UNHCR. 2006b. The State of the World's Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, p. 20. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press. For UNRWA, estimates of the proportion of women and children are based on 2000 (latest available) data. UNRWA. Statistical Profiles. Web site: www.un.org/unrwa/publications/pdf/figures.pdf, accessed 5th May 2006.

  • For discussion on women refugees' socio-economic and political roles, see: UNFPA. 2005A. "Women and Young People in Humanitarian Crises." Ch. 8 in: The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals, by UNFPA. 2005b. New York: UNFPA.

  • According to UNHCR's report to the standing committee (2000), older refugees form a much larger proportion of UNHCR caseload than is usually acknowledged (8.5 per cent) and may be higher in some caseloads (30 per cent). Women make up the majority of these older persons. See: Goveas, J. 2002. "Building on the Past, Rebuilding the Future: Older Refugees and the Challenge of Survival," p. 15. Forced Migration Review No. 14: 15-16.

  • See Article 1(A) in: United Nations. 1951. "Draft Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees" (429 [V])," p. 48. Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly during Its Fifth Session. New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/documents/ga/res/5/ares5.htm accessed 1 February 2006.

  • International human rights instruments preceding the 1951 Refugee Convention that safeguard these rights include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 14(1), "Everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution" (United Nations. 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Adopted and Proclaimed by General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948. New York: United Nations); and the 1949 Geneva Conventions and two protocols.

  • UNHCR. 2003a. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Prevention and Response. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNHCR. 1991. Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • See: United Nations. n.d.(a) Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Article 29. New York: United Nations. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/92.htm, accessed 3 June 2006; United Nations. n.d.(b) Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), Article 76. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/93.htm, accessed 3 June 2006; United Nations. n.d.(c) Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), Article 4. New York: United Nations. Web site: http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/94.htm, accessed 17 May 2006; and UNHCR. 2005. Conclusions Adopted by the Executive Committee on the International Protection of Refugees 1975-2004 (Conclusion No. 1-101), p. 242. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/publ/opendoc.pdf?tbl=PUBL&id=41b041534, accessed 1 February 2006. In 2003, UNHCR's Executive Committee reaffirmed the need to combat sexual and gender-based violence, urging states "to cooperate in eliminating all forms of discrimination, sexual exploitation and violence against female refugees and asylum-seekers, and to promote their active involvement in decisions affecting their lives and communities." See: UNHCR. 2003b. "Conclusion on Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation (No. 98 [LIV] - 2003)," para. c(2). Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/excom/opendoc.htm?tbl=EXCOM&id=3f93b2c44, accessed 3 June 2006.

  • United Nations. 1998. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (A/CONF.183/9). New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/law/icc/statute/romefra.htm, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • These commitments are made in: United Nations. 1999. Resolution 1261 (1999): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4037th meeting, on 25 August 1999 (S/RES/1261 (1999). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2000a. Resolution 1314 (2000): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4185th meeting, on 11 August 2000 (S/RES/1314 (2000). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2001. Resolution 1379 (2001): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4423rd meeting, on 20 November 2001 (S/RES/1379 (2001). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 2003a. Resolution 1460 (2003): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4695th meeting, on 30 January 2003 (S/RES/1460 (2003). New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2000b. Resolution 1325 (2000): Adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, on 31 October 2000 (S/RES/1325 [2000]), para. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • See: United Nations. 2005. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/60/L.1)] 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome, para. 116. New York: United Nations.

  • UNHCR. 2004a. Protracted Refugee Situations (EC/54/SC/CRP.14), p. 10. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNAIDS and UNHCR. 2005. Strategies to Support the HIV-Related Needs of Refugees and Host Population (UNAIDS/05.21E). UNAIDS Best Practices Collection. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • UNRWA. 2003. "Jordan Refugee Camp Profiles." Web site: www.un.org/unrwa/refugees/jordan.html, accessed 17 April 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2003c. "Refugee Youth." From the Foreign Land. No. 19. Warsaw: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.pl/english/newsletter/19/mlodzi_uchodzcy_problemy_i_wyzwania.php, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. UNHCR Policy on Refugee Women and Guidelines on Their Protection: An Assessment of Ten Years of Implementation, p. 28. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/pdf/unhcr.pdf., accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 21 April 2004. "Feature: Refugee Girls Balance Between Babies and Books." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=4086732e2, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Martin, S. F. 2004. "Women and Migration" (CM/MMW/2003/WP.1), p. 28. Paper prepared for the Consultative Meeting on "Migration and Mobility and How This Movement Affects Women, Malmö, Sweden, 2-4 December 2003. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • Bensalah, K., et al. n.d. "Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis." Thematic study prepared for Education for All 2000 Assessment, World Education Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26-28 April 2000. Paris: UNESCO. Web site: www2.unesco.org/wef/en-leadup/findings_emergency%20summary.shtm, accessed 1 February 2006. The programme existed through end of 2005. See: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. 2004. "GTZ in Pakistan." Eschborn, Germany: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit. Web site: www.gtz.de/en/weltweit/europa-kaukasus-zentralasien/1176.htm, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2002a. "Liberia." Pp. 222-229 in: UNHCR Global Report 2002, by UNHCR. 2002b. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • Williamson, K. 2004. "AIDS, Gender and the Refugee Protection Framework." RSC Working Paper Series. No.19. Oxford, United Kingdom: Refugee Studies Centre. Web site: www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/workingpaper19.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • "Purchase Vibrant, Handmade Eyeglass Cases and Support a Ghana Refugee Community." n.d. Newtown, Connecticut: Unite for Sight. Web site: www.uniteforsight.org/ordercase.php, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 11 July 2005. "Class Distinctions for Urban Refugee Girls in Uganda." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=42d274f24, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNIFEM. 2005. Fuel Provision and Gender-Based Violence: Fuel Efficiency as a Prevention Strategy. New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.womenwarpeace.org/issues/violence/fuelandgbv.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Based on camp assessments by UNHCR in both 1997 and 2000. See: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children 2002.

  • Ibid. Based on UNHCR assessments.

  • Preliminary sample of reports over a one-month period. See: Vann, B. 2002. Gender-Based Violence: Emerging Issues in Programs Serving Displaced Populations, p. 59. Arlington, Virginia: Reproductive Health for Refugees Consortium.

  • For a case example of this phenomenon, as well as the inter-generational and cultural effects of empowerment programmes for women refugees, see: Turner, S. 2000. "Vindicating Masculinity: The Fate of Promoting Gender Equality." Forced Migration Review. No. 9: 8-9.

  • Newman, J. 2005. "Protection Through Participation: Young People Affected by Forced Migration and Political Crisis." RSC Working Paper Series. No. 20. Oxford, United Kingdom: Refuge Studies Centre, University of Oxford. Web site: www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/RSCworkingpaper20.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2005. "Don't Forget Us": The Education and Gender-Based Violence Protection Needs of Adolescent Girls from Darfur in Chad. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/pdf/Td_ed2.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Newman 2005, p. 24.

  • UNHCR. 2002c. Note for Implementing and Operational Partners by UNHCR and Save the Children-UK on Sexual Violence and Exploitation: The Experience of Refugee Children in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone Based on Initial Findings and Recommendations from Assessment Mission: 22 October-30 November 2001. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.pdf?id=3c7cf89a4&tbl=PARTNERS, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations. 2003b. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [on the report of the Fifth Committee (A/57/604/Add.1)]: 57.306: Investigation into Sexual Exploitation of Refugees by Aid Workers in West Africa (A/RES/57/306). New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2003c. Secretary-General's Bulletin: Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13). New York: United Nations.

  • In 2005 there were 296 investigations and 170 dismissals and repatriations, including six commanders and two entire units. See: United Nations. 24 February 2006. "Problem of Sexual Abuse by Peacekeepers Now Openly Recognized, Broad Strategy in Place to Address It, Security Council Told" (SC/8649). Press release. New York: United Nations.

  • Adrian-Paul, A. 2004. "HIV/AIDS," p. 36. Pp. 32-48 in: Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action, by Women Waging Peace and International Alert. Washington and London: Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert. Web site: www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/toolkit/chapters/HIV_AIDS.pdf , accessed 25 March 2005.

  • UNHCR. 17 March 2005. "UNHCR, UNFPA Fund Surgery for Refugee and Local Women in Chad." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=4239519f4, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Refugees International. 21 April 2005. "Chad: Strengthen the Response to Gender-Based Violence." Press release. Washington, D. C.: Refugees International. Web site: www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/5654/, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children 2005.

  • UNFPA. 2004 and 2005. UNHCR/UNFPA Training on Clinical Management of Rape Survivors. Internal UNFPA travel reports. New York: UNFPA.

  • Vann, B., M. Beatty, and L. Ehrlich. 2004. "Supporting Displaced Communities to Address Gender-Based Violence." Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 28-29. Web site: www.fmreview.org/mags1.htm, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 June 2005. "Empowering Communities One Village at a Time." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=42c3bfa04, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 March 2004. "Feature: UNHCR, Refugees Work Together to Prevent Rape." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=40697ab57, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Save the Children. 2003. State of the World's Mothers 2003: Protecting Women and Children in War and Conflict. Westport, Connecticut: Save the Children.

  • UNHCR. 30 November 2005a. "Ugandan Police Undergo Special Training on Eliminating Violence Against Women." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=438d85774, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • As per sources listed in this section and a large-scale study based on 688,733 persons living in 52 post-emergency phase camps in 7 countries. See: Hynes, M., et al. 2002. "Reproductive Health Indicators and Outcomes Among Refugee and Internally Displaced Persons in Postemergency Phase Camps." The Journal of the American Medical Association 288(5): 595-603.

  • McGinn, T. 2000. "Reproductive Health of War-Affected Populations: What Do We Know?" International Family Planning Perspectives 26(4): 174-180.

  • Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2003. Conference 2003: Reproductive Health from Disaster to Development: Brussels, Belgium, October 7-8 2003: Proceedings, p. 55. Web site: www.rhrc.org/pdf/conf_procdings_forWEB.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 30 November 2005b. "New Report Calls for Integrated Approach to HIV/AIDS Involving Both Refugees and Their Host Communities." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=438dc0294, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNFPA. 2001. Populi 28(1).

  • Based on a UNICEF survey cited in: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2005. "Safe Motherhood and Emergency Obstetric Care." New York: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. Web site: www.rhrc.org/rhr%5Fbasics/sm_emoc.html, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Wax, E. 13 November 2003. "Cycle of War is Spreading AIDS and Fear in Africa." The Washington Post. See also: Amnesty International. 1 December 2004. "Democratic Republic of Congo: HIV: The Longest Lasting Scar of War." Amnesty News. New York: Amnesty International. Web site: http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAFR620262004?open&of=ENG-COD, accessed 17th May 2006.

  • Kaiser, R., et al. 2002a. "HIV Sero-prevalence and Behavioral Risk Factor Survey in Sierra Leone."Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Kaiser, R., et al. 2002b. "HIV/STI Sero-prevalence and Risk Factor Survey in Yei, South Sudan." Atlanta. Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003; and Spiegel, P., and E. De Jong. 2003. "HIV/AIDS and Refugees/Returnees: Mission to Angola." Luanda, Angola: UNHCR.

  • UNFPA. 6 September 2005. "Addressing the Urgent Needs of Togo's Refugees." Press release. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=666&Language=1, accessed 1 February 2006; and Khane, M., UNFPA Representative in Ghana. 24 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • International Rescue Committee. 2004. "Semi-Annual Report: Integrated HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Program in Sherkole and Yarenja Refugee Camps, Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia." New York: International Rescue Committee.

  • Nicholson, E. 2004. "Women Health Volunteers in Iran and Iraq." Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 47.

  • Jaffer, F. H., S. Guy, and J. Niewczasinksi. 2004. "Reproductive Health Care for Somali Refugees in Yemen." Forced Migration Review. No. 19: 33-34.

  • International Rescue Committee 2004.

  • UNHCR. 2004b. UNHCR Resettlement Handbook and Country Chapters. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect?id=3d4545984, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Jacobsen, K. 2003. "Local Integration: The Forgotten Solution." Migration Information Source. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=166, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Since 1999, approximately 1,000 permissive residency permits have been issued. See: UNHCR. 14 October 2005. "New Permits Allow Indonesian Refugees to Move On In Papua New Guinea." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=434fd2e34, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. n.d. "Protecting Refugees: What is Resettlement?" Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect?id=3bb2eadd6, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2000. Untapped Potential: Adolescents Affected by Armed Conflict: A Review of Programs and Policies. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

  • United States Department of State. 2004. "Liberians Considered for Resettlement: Focus is on Female Heads of Household." U. S. Refugee Admissions Program News 2(2). Web site: www.state.gov/g/prm/rls/33753.htm, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • UNHCR. 11 March 2005. "Colombian Refugees Get Chance to Start Anew in Brazil." UNHCR News Story. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&page=home&id=4231994a4, last accessed 14 April 2006.

  • Canadian Council for Refugees. 1998. Best Settlement Practices: Settlement Services for Refugees and Immigrants in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Council for Refugees. Web site: www.web.net/~ccr/bpfina1.htm#7.%20BEST%20PRACTICE%20EXAMPLES, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Refugee Council of Australia. 2002. Australian Mentoring Programs for Refugee and Humanitarian Entrant:. May 2005. Glebe, Australia: Refugee Council of Australia. Web site: www.refugeecouncil.org.au/docs/current/mentoring.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.

  • Canadian Council for Refugees 1998.

  • See the web site of the EU Networks on Reception, Integration and Voluntary Repatriation of Refugees: http://refugeenet.org/about/partners.html, accessed 5 June 2006.

  • RAINBO. n.d. "The African Immigrant Program." New York: Research, Action, and Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women. Web site: www.rainbo.org/Rainbo/aip.html., accessed 1 February 2006.


CONTENTS