Introduction Introduction Chapter 5 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Notes for Indicators Notes
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Noties for quotations Notes for quotations
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Notes for boxes Notes for boxes
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Indicators Indicators
NOTES Printer Friendly printer friendly version
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 3

  • Belsar, P., M. de Cock, and F. Mehran. 2005. ILO Minimum Estimate of Forced Labour in the World, p. 33. Geneva: ILO

  • A study by the United Nations' Office on Drugs and Crime found that 85 per cent of women, 70 per cent of children and 16 per cent of men are trafficked for sexual exploitation and the ILO estimates that 43 per cent of victims are trafficked for sexual exploitation. See: Human Security Centre, University of British Columbia. 2005. Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century, p.  88. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Article 3(a) of the United Nations Trafficking Protocol defines trafficking as follows: "'Trafficking in persons' shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purposes of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs." This is the first definition of trafficking adopted by the international community. See: United Nations n.d.(a) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children: Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, article 3(a). New York: United Nations. Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/law/protocoltraffic.htm, last accessed 12 June 2006.

  • The United States Department of State estimated the profits in 2004 at $9.5 billion, not including monies that are generated upon arrival in the host country. The figure of $7-10 billion is cited in: Omelaniuk, I. 2006. "Trafficking in Human Beings: CEE and SE Europe." Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations. The figure of $12 billion is cited in: Malarek, V.  2004. The Natashas: Inside tbe New Global Sex Trade. New York: Arcade Publishing. Cited in: "Sex Slave Trafficking Case Jolts Detroit Community," by L. Ghiso. 2005. The Ukrainian Weekly 73(22).

  • ILO. 2005. Report of the Director-General: A Global Alliance against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: 2005 (Report I [B]), pp. 55-56. International Labour Conference, 93rd Session. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

  • ILO. 2001. Stopping Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: International Labour Conference, 89th Session, Report I (B), p. 47. Report of the Director-General. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Anti-Slavery International estimates that non-migrants are a small percentage of trafficked persons. See: Kaye, M. 2003. The Migration-Trafficking Nexus: Combating Trafficking through the Protection of Migrants' Human Rights. London: Anti-Slavery International.

  • Boswell, C., and J. Crisp. 2004. Poverty, International Migration and Asylum, pp. 1 and 13. UNU-WIDER Policy Brief. No. 8. Helsinki, Finland: World Institute for Development Economics Research, United Nations University. See also: United Nations. 2000. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, on  Trafficking in Women, Women's Migration and Violence against Women, Submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1997/44 (E/CN.4/2000/68). New York: United Nations.

  • IOM. 2003a. Is Trafficking in Human Beings Demand Driven: A Multi-Country Pilot Study, p. 9. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 15. Geneva: IOM.

  • Gallagher, A. 2001. "Human Rights and the New UN Protocols on Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling: A Preliminary Analysis." Human Rights Quarterly 23(4): 975-1004. See also: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2004. Legislative Guides for the Implementation of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols Thereto, p. 340. Vienna: Division for Treaty Affairs, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. For the definition of trafficking, see section 2. Smuggling of migrants is defined in Article 3 of the Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime as "the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a State Party of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident".  See: United Nations. n.d.(b) "Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime: Entered into Force on 28 January 2004." New York: United Nations.

  • Nicolic-Ristanovic, V., et al. 2004. Trafficking in people in Serbia. Belgrade: Victimology Society in Serbia and OSCE. Cited in: Organised Crime Situation Report 2005: Focus on the Threat of Economic Crime, by the Council of Europe. 2005a. Provisional version, December 2005. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

  • Ibid., p. 33.

  • Miko, F. T., and G. Park. 2000. "Trafficking in Women and Children: The U.S. and International Response." Congressional Research Service Report. No. 98-649 C. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State.

  • Piper, N. 2005. "A Problem by a Different Name? A Review of Research on Trafficking in South East Asia and Oceania," p. 204. Pp. 203-233 in: Data and Research on Human Trafficking: a Global Survey, by the IOM. 2005a. Geneva: IOM.

  • The Greater Mekong Subregion comprises Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2003. "Human Trafficking, Regional Profile: 2003-03-11," p. 2. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Web site: www.unodc.un.or.th/material/document/RegionalProfile.pdf, last accessed 1 June 2006.

  • Masud A., A.K.M. 2005. "Treading along a Treacherous Trail: Research on Trafficking in Persons in South Asia,"
    p. 141. Pp. 141-164 in: IOM 2005a.

  • ILO. 2002. Unbearable to the Human Heart. Child Trafficking and Action to Eliminate It, p. 17. Geneva: ILO.

  • In the past, most victims were brought from Asia and South America. See: IOM. April 2001. Trafficking in Migrants Quarterly Bulletin. Special Issue. Geneva: IOM; and Kelly, L. 2005. "'You Can Find Anything You Want': A Critical Reflection on Research on Trafficking in Persons within and into Europe," p. 240. Pp. 235-265 in: IOM 2005a.

  • Chauzy, J.-P. 28 October 2005. "IOM Press Briefing Notes: Lithuania: Human Trafficking Increases since EU Accession." Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.iom.int/en/archive/PBN281005.shtml#item3, accessed 5 May 2006. Also see: Amnesty International. n.d. "What You Should Know: Amnesty International's Guide to UN Human Rights Council Candidates: Lithuania." Web site: www.amnesty.org/un_hrc/lithuania.html, last accessed 17 May 2006.

  • Council of Europe 2005a, p. 34.

  • IOM identified 469 victims in 2005, which is thought to constitute as little as 10 per cent of the total (5,000) victims. Exact numbers are not known. The statistics on country of origin and age are based on a 220 rescued persons survey. See: IOM. 2006. 2005: Turkey, Trafficking and Trends, pp. 6, 11, and 20-22. Ankara, Turkey: IOM.

  • United Nations. 2006. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Report on the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Sigma Huda: Addendum: Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina (E/CN/4/2006/62/Add.2). New York: United Nations.

  • IOM. April 2005. "Carletonville: Destination for Trafficked Mozambicans," pp. 1-2. EYE on Human Trafficking. No. 6. Pretoria, South Africa: IOM.

  • ILO 2001, p. 50.

  • Kebede, E. 2002. "Ethiopia: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants," p. 6. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 3. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2006. Trafficking in Persons: Global Patterns, pp. 30, and 96-97. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

  • United States Department of State. 2005. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2005, p. 71. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State.

  • ILO 2001.

  • United States Department of Justice. 2006. Report on Activities to Combat Human Trafficking: Fiscal Years 2001-2005. Washington, D. C.: Civil Rights Division, United States Department of Justice.

  • United States Department of Justice. 2005. Assessment of U.S. Government Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons: September 2005. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of Justice.

  • The Protocol entered into force in 2003, and, as of January 2006, 97 States Party have ratified it. See: United Nations. n.d.(a).

  • Ibid., article 5.

  • Council of Europe. 2005b. Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Beings and Its Explanatory Report. Council of Europe Treaty Series. No. 197. Warsaw: Council of Europe. Web site: www.coe.int/T/E/human_rights/trafficking/PDF_Conv_197_Trafficking_E.pdf, last accessed 12 April 2006.

  • Ibid.

  • Examples include: UN General Assembly resolutions, reports by the United Nations Secretary-General; the Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery of the former Human Rights Commission; and the establishment and reports of the Special Rapporteurs of the Commission on Human Rights on the Rights of Migrant Workers, on the Trafficking of Persons, and on Violence Against Women. See: United Nations. 1994. 49:166: Traffic in Women and Girls (A/RES/49/166). New York: United Nations; United Nations 2000; United Nations. 2002a. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Traffic in Women and Girls: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.4/2002/80). New York: United Nations; United Nations. 2004a. Trafficking in Women and Girls: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/185). New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations. 2005a. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly (on the Report of the Third Committee [A/59/496]): 59/166: Trafficking in Women and Girls (A/RES/59/166). New York: United Nations. UN conferences include: the World Conference on Human Rights (United Nations. 1993a. Report of the World Conference on Human Rights: Report of the Secretary-General [A/CONF.157/24 (Part 1)], 14-25 June 1993, Vienna, Austria. New York: United Nations); the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (United Nations. 1995a. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, Principle 2. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations); and the Beijng Declaration and Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women, China, 1995 (United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995 (DPI/1766/Wom), Strategic Objective D 3, para. 130b. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations).

  • African Union. 2004. "Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa: Adopted by the African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government." Third Ordinary Session, 6-8 July 2004, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, para. 4, to:  "[I]nitiate, launch and engage within two years sustained public campaigns against gender based violence as well as the problem of trafficking in women and girls; Reinforce legal mechanism . . . and end impunity of crimes committed against women in a manner that will change and positively alter the attitude and behaviour of the African society."

  • United Nations. 2005b. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: (without reference to a Main Committee [A/60/L.1]): 60/1: 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/RES/60/1), para. 111. New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. n.d.(b).

  • United Nations. 2005c. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Girls (E/CN.4/2005/71), para. 8. New York: United Nations.

  • United Nations. 2002b. Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights to the Economic and Social Council (E/2002/68/Add.1). New York: United Nations.

  • Lansink, A. 2004. "Women and Migration, Interim Report on Trafficking in Women." Proceedings of the 71st Conference of the International Law Association: Berlin (2004). London: Committee on Feminism and International Law, International Law Association. See also: United Nations 2000.

  • Government of the United States. 2000. "Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-386)," Section 107.  Washington, D. C.: Government of the United States.

  • Reflection periods vary, for example, three months in the Netherlands, six months in Italy, and four weeks in Germany with the possibility of staying through the length of the criminal proceedings should victims cooperate. See Council of Europe 2005b; Kaye 2003, p. 10; and Kartusch, A. 2001. Reference Guide for Anti-Trafficking Legislative Review: With Particular Emphasis on South Eastern Europe, p. 64. Vienna: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights.

  • See, for example: Crawley, H., and T. Lester. 2004. Comparative Analysis of Gender-Related Persecution in National Asylum Legislation and Practice in Europe (EPAU/2004/05). Geneva: UNHCR, pp. 50-51; and the sources cited on the same pages from Human Rights Watch, UNHCR and UNHCHR.

  • Kaye 2003, pp. 9 and 10.

  • UNHCR. 2006. The State of the World's Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, Box 1.3. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press.

  • UK Immigration Appeal Tribunal Decision. 17 May 2000. Secretary of State for the Home Department v Dzhygun Appeal No. CC-50627-99 (00TH00728). Cited in: Edwards, A.2003 "Age and Gender Dimensions in International Refugee Law," p. 62. Ch. 1.2 in: Refugee Protection In International Law: UNHCR's Global Consultations on International Protection, edited by E. Feller, et al. 2003. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • Kaye 2003, p. 6. See also: UNODC "Legislative Guides" 288.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Ibid., p. 31.

  • United Nations 2004a, pp. 11 and 17. For Turkey, see: IOM 2006, p. 20.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Global Alliance against Traffic in Women. 2003. Alliance News. No. 19-20: 41. Bangkok: Global Alliance against Traffic in Women.

  • Ibid., pp. 44-45.

  • UNIFEM and United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-region. 2002. Trafficking in Persons: A Gender and Rights Perspective: Briefing Kit. New York:UNIFEM.

  • United Nations 2000.

  • Acknowledgement of the links of poverty and discrimination to the increased vulnerability of women and girls to trafficking is found, for example: United Nations. n.d.(b); CEDAW General Recommendation No. 19. In: Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (A/47/38), by the United Nations. 1992. New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 1995b. Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing, 4-15 September 1995) (A/CONF.177/20). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 1993b. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action: Note by the Secretariat (A/CONF.157/23). New York: United Nations. See also: United Nations. 6 April 2005. "Commission Hears National Delegations Outline Commitments to Uphold Women's Rights: Commission on Human Rights Continues Debate on Integration of Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective." Press release.
    New York: United Nations. Web site:   www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/0/F8287058D1E89403C1256FDC0038499E?opendocument, accessed 1 June 2006.

  • ILO 2002, p. 75.

  • See, for example: Manohar, S. 2002. "Trafficking in Women and Girls" (EGM/TRAF/2002/WP.1). Prepared for the Expert Group Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Girls, 18-22 November 2002, Glen Cove, New York. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2003a. Combating Trafficking of Women and Children in South Asia: Regional Synthesis Paper for Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank; and Asian Development Bank. 2003b. Combating Trafficking of Women and Children: Guide for Integrating Concerns into ADB Operations. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • United Nations. 2004a, pp. 10-11.

  • UNIFEM. 2006. "Report to the Forty-fifth Session of the Consultative Committee, 17-18 February 2005." Internal document on activities in 2005. New York: UNIFEM.

  • United States Department of State 2005, p. 73. Also see: Grant, S. 2005. "International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 27. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • United Nations. 2005d. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 59. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • UNIFEM and United Nations Inter-agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-region 2002.

  • United States Department of State 2005.

  • Cooper, J., and A. Upadhyay, UNIFEM. 12 April 2006. Personal Communication; and Imam, P. (ed.). 2005. A Fact Book on Human Trafficking. Inter-Faith Religious Leaders Forum. Bihar, India: Action against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children.

  • Truong, T.-D. 2006. Poverty, Gender and Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa: Rethinking Best Practices in Migration Management (SHS/CCT/2006PI/H/1), p. 104. Paris: UNESCO.

  • "Domestic worker" means a person employed part-time or full-time in a household or private residence, in any of the following duties: cook, servant or waitress, butler, nurse, childminder, carer for elderly or disabled persons, personal servant, barman or barmaid, chauffeur, porter, gardener, washerman or washerwoman, guard. See: United Nations. 2004b. Specific Groups and Individuals Migrant Workers Report of the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Gabriela Rodríguez Pizarro, Submitted Pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2003/46 (E/CN.4/2004/76), para. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • Piper, N. 2004. "Gender and Migration Policies in Southeast and East Asia: Legal Protection and Sociocultural Empowerment of Unskilled Migrant Women," p. 218. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25(2): 216-231.

  • Sanghera, J. 2004. "Floating Borderlands and Shifting Dreamscapes: The Nexus between Gender, Migration and Development." Pp. 60-69 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies.
    Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/09-j.sanghera.pdf, accessed 4May 2006.

  • IOM. 2003b. Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information Guide. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO. Cited in: United Nations 2005d, p. 59.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2004a. Bad Dreams: Exploitation and Abuse of Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia, p. 47. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Sabban, R. 2002. United Arab Emirates: Migrant Women in the United Arab Emirates: The Case of Female Domestic Workers. GENPROM Working Paper.
    No. 10. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Khalaf, M. C. 2004. "Women's International Labor Migration in the Arab World: Historical and Socio-economic Perspectives" (CM/MMW/2003/EP.5), p. 7.  Discussion paper prepared for the Consultative Meeting on Migration and Mobility and How This Movement Affects Women," Malmo, Sweden, 2-4 December 2003. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, United Nations.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2005. Maid to Order: Ending Abuse Against Migrant Domestic Workers in Singapore, p. 2. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin, G. 2005. "Domestic Workers: Little Protection for the Underpaid," p. 1. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=300, accessed 9 November 2005.

  • Kofman, E. 2005. "Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes," p. 26. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • Carling, J. 2005. "Gender Dimensions of International Migration," p. 16. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 35. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and IOM. 2005b. World Migration Report 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration. Geneva: IOM.

  • ILO 2001, p. 30.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • Sabban 2002, p. 35.

  • "Indonesia, Philippines." January 2004. Migration News 11(1). Cited in: Human Rights Watch. 2004b. Help Wanted: Abuses against Female Migrant Workers in Indonesia and Malaysia, pp. 21 and 32-33. New York: Human Rights Watch; and Esim, S., and M. Smith (eds.). 2005. Gender and Migration in Arab States: The Case of Domestic Workers, pp. 32 and 54. Beirut, Lebanon: Regional Office for Arab States, International Labour Office, ILO. Also see: Sabban 2002, p. 38; and Human Rights Watch 2005.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • Human Rights Watch. 7 December 2005. "Singapore: Domestic Workers Suffer Grave Abuses: Migrant Women Face Debt Burden and Exploitation." News release. New York: Human Rights Watch. Web site: http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/12/07/singap12125.htm, last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. n.d. "December 18, International Migrant's Day: End the Exploitation, Violence and Abuse, Protect and Promote the Rights of all Women Migrant Workers." Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development. Web site: www.apwld.org/statement_migrants.htm, accessed 26 January 2006.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005.

  • Kav LaOved. 1 August 2006. "Concise Case Descriptions of Migrant Workers in Israel, 2005: Between Exploitation and Trafficking." Tel Aviv, Israel: Kav LaOved. Web site: www.kavlaoved.org.il/katava_main.asp?news_id=1667&sivug_id=21, last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • For example: IOM. 2004. "The Feminine Face of Migrants: Exploitation of Domestic Workers in the U.S." Geneva: Regional Office for North America and the Caribbean, IOM; Human Rights Watch. 2001. Hidden in the Home: Abuse of Domestic Workers with Special Visas in the United States. New York: Human Rights Watch; Human Rights Watch 2004a; and Esim and Smith 2005. Also see: Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005, p. 1.

  • Global Rights and American Civil Liberties Union. 2005. "Specific Groups and Individuals: Ending the Exploitation of Migrant Domestic Workers Employed by UN Diplomats and Staff." Written statement jointly submitted by Global Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union, Non-governmental Organizations in Special Consultative Status, to the 61st session of the Commission on Human Rights. Washington, D. C., and New York: Global Rights and the American Civil Liberties Union.

  • United Nations 2004b.

  • ILO 2005, p. 50.

  • UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, p. 83. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Based on a survey of 110 Filippino domestic workers. See: Marin, M. 2003. "Sexual Scripts and Shifting Spaces: Women Migrants and HIV/AIDS," p. 19. Pp. 15-24 in: A Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care: UNESCO/UNAIDS Project: Women Migrants and HIV/AIDS: An Anthropological Approach: Proceedings of the Round Table Held on 20 November 2004 at UNESCO: Paris. Paris: UNESCO.

  • United Nations 2004b.

  • Based on the contract domestic workers sign. While pregnancy per se is not grounds for deportation, domestic workers are not allowed to give birth in the country and, in practice, employers will deport  them. See: Human Rights Watch 2005, pp. 5 and 90.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004a.

  • Sanghera 2004, p. 63. While the latter refers to 400 employment agencies in Singapore, the Human Rights Watch refers to more than 600 (See: Human Rights Watch 2005).

  • "Indonesia, Philippines" January 2004.

  • Kebede 2002, p. 6.

  • Villalba, M. A. C. 2002. "Philippines: Good Practices for the Protection of Filipino Women Migrant Workers in Vulnerable Jobs." GENPROM Working Paper. No. 8. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Dias, M. and R. Jayasundere. 2002. "Sri Lanka: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour." GENPROM Working Paper. No. 9. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO; and Sabban 2002. See also: Human Rights Watch 2004a;  Human Rights Watch 2004b; and Human Rights Watch 2005. Also see: Moreno-Fontes Chammartin  2005, p. 1.

  • ILO 2005, p. 51..

  • Human Rights Watch 2005, p. 2.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004b.

  • See, for example, accounts in: Human Rights Watch 2004b; Human Rights Watch 2005; and also on the CARAM Asia web site, "Migrant Voices": www.caramasia.org/page_type_2.php?page=migrant_voices/ Regional_Summit-Migrant_Voices&title=CARAMASIA.ORG%20::%20Regional%20 SummitMigrant%20Voices, accessed 22 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2004b, para. 12

  • See, for example: Human Rights Watch 2004b.

  • Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005.

  • Human Rights Watch 7 December 2005.

  • Human Rights Watch 2004b, p. 62.

  • UNIFEM. 2005. "Report to the Forty-fifth Session of the Consultative Committee." Internal document on activities in 2004. New York: UNIFEM; and Moreno-Fontes Chammartin 2005, p. 1. See also: UNIFEM. 10 December 2003. "UNIFEM Wins AGFUND's International Prize: Recognition for Women Migrant Workers' Issues." New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.unifem.org/news_events/story_detail.php?StoryID=120, accessed 13 April 2006.

  • ILO 2005, p. 54; United Nations 2004b. Cited in: "The Legal and Normative Framework of International Migration:  A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 19, by S. Martin. 2005. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration. See also: United States Department of State. 2006. "Singapore: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2005." Washington, D. C.: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State. Web site: www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61626.htm, last accessed 2 June 2006.

  • ILO 2005, p. 51.

  • Human Rights Watch. 2006. World Report 2006: Events of 2005, pp. 479-480. New York: Human Rights Watch.

  • Human Rights Watch 2005, p. 102.

  • UNIFEM. 2002a. "A Framework for Strategic Interventions," p. 6. Ch. 9 in: Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia: A Briefing Kit, by UNIFEM. 2002b. New York: UNIFEM.

  • See: CARAM Asia. n.d."Domestic Workers Campaign: Introduction." Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: CARAM Asia. Web site: http://caramasia.gn.apc.org/page.php?page=campaign/About_the_Campaign&title= CARAMASIA.ORG%20::%20Campaign%20::%20About%20the%20Campaign, Accessed March 24, 2006.

  • See: CARAM Asia. 2 December 2005. "CARAM Asia Announces the Appointment of its New Board of Directors." Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: CARAM Asia. Web site: www.caramasia.org, last accessed 2 June 2006; and December 18 (Merelbeke, Belgium) Web site: www.december18.net/web/general/start.php?lang=EN, last accessed 2 June 2006.

  • Solidar. n.d. "Migrant Workers RESPECT!" Brussels, Belgium: Solidar. Web site: http://www.solidar.org/DocList.asp?SectionID=9 , last accessed 13 April 2006.

  • Kawar, M. 2004. "Gender and Migration: Why are Women More Vulnerable," p. 84. Pp. 71-87 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland:  Colloqium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/10-m.kawar.pdf, last accessed 2 June 2006.; and García, A. I., et al. 2002. "Female Labour Migrants and Trafficking in Women And Children," p. 2. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 2. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • See the Break the Chain Campaign, Washington, D. C., Web site:   www.ips-dc.org/campaign/index.htm, last accessed 13 April 2006; and IOM 2004.


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