Introduction Introduction Chapter 5 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Notes for Indicators Notes
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Noties for quotations Notes for quotations
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Notes for boxes Notes for boxes
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Indicators Indicators
NOTES Printer Friendly printer friendly version
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 2

  • United Nations. 2006. "Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2005 Revision" (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005). Spreadsheet. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • S. Chant is recognized for undertaking the first systematic effort in 1992 to bring a gender analysis to bear on the understanding of international migration (Chant, S. 1992. Gender and Migration in Developing Countries. London and New York: Bellhaven Press). See, among others: Kofman, E., et al. 2000. Gender and International Migration in Europe: Employment, Welfare and Politics. London and New York: Rutledge. Cited in: 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 15, by the United Nations. 2005a. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 30; and Hugo, G. 20 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 18.

  • O'Neil, K., K. Hamilton, and D. Papademetriou. 2005. "Migration in the Americas: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 19. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Tutnjevic, T. 2002. Gender and Financial/Economic Downturn. InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction Working Paper. No. 9. Geneva: Recovery and Reconstruction Department, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • For example, this has been found by studies among emigrants from Kerala, India, where 28 per cent of migrant women were degree holders compared to 9 per cent of men; migrants to South Africa from Lesotho, Zimbabwe and Mozambique; and Mexico, where men with more education stayed, while women with more education migrated. Based on a survey of 10,000 households in Kerala State. See: Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2003. "Dynamics for International Migration in India: Its Economic and Social Implications," p. 18. Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Migration and Development, Bangkok, 27-29 August 2003. Bangkok: Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific; Dodson, B. 1998. Women on the Move: Gender and Cross-border Migration to South Africa, p. 1. Migration Policy Series. No. 9. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen's University; and Kanaiaupuni, S. M. 1999. "Reframing the Migration Question: An Empirical Analysis of Men, Women, and Gender in Mexico," p. 11. CDE Working Paper. No. 99-15. Madison, Wisconsin: Center for Demography and Ecology, the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  • Piper, N. 2005. "Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 19. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • A Moldova survey found a higher rate of separation and divorce among women migrating than those that stayed behind. See: IOM. 2005a. "Migration and Remittances in Moldova." p. 22. Geneva: IOM. In Guatemala, more than 25 per cent of migrant women are single, divorced or separated. See: IOM. 2004. "Survey on the Impact of Family Remittances on Guatemalan Homes." Working Notebooks on Migration. No. 19. Guatemala City: IOM.

  • United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World (Sales No. E.05/III.Y.1), p. 113. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development; and United Nations 2005a, p. 27.

  • Kofman, E., P. Raghuram, and M. Merefield. 2005. Gendered Migrations: Towards Gender Sensitive Policies in the UK, pp. 24-25. Asylum and Migration Working Paper. No. 6. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.

  • The right to voluntarily choose a spouse is recognized in various international human rights conventions, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 16), the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (Article 23), the International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 10), the Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (Article 16).

  • Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 27 October 2004. "Promoting Human Rights, Respecting Individual Dignity: New Measures To Tackle Forced Marriage." Press release. London: Home Office, Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Web site: http://press.home¬office.gov.uk/press-releases/Promoting_Human_Rights,_Respecti?version=1, accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Australian Government. 2 August 2005. "New Laws to Protect Australian Children from Forced Marriages Overseas." Media release. Canberra, Australia: Minister of Justice and Customs (Honourable Chris Elison), Australian Government. Web site: www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/justiceministerHome.nsf/Page/ Media_Releases_2005_3rd_Quarter_2_August_2005_New_laws_to_protect_ Australian_children_from_forced_marriages_overseas, accessed 27 April 2006.

  • United Nations. 2005b. Violence against Women: Report of the Secretary-General (A/60/137). New York: United Nations.

  • Republic of France. 5 November 2005. "Latest News: Immigration: France's Minister of the Interior Presents a Plan Aimed at Tackling Illegal Immigration." Paris: Republic of France Government Portal. Web site: www.premier-ministre.gouv.fr/en/information/latest-news_97/ immigration-france-minister-of_53042.html?var_recherche=marriage, accessed 17 May 2006. See also: Associated Press. 24 March 2006. "France: Marriage Age for Women Raised to 18." The New York Times.

  • Tsay, C.-L. 2004. "Marriage Migration of Women from China and Southeast Asia to Taiwan." Pp. 173-191 in: (Un)tying the Knot: Ideal and Reality in Asian Marriage, edited by G. W. Jones and K. Ramdas. 2004. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Cited in: "Recent Trends in International Migration in the Asia Pacific" (ESID/SIIM/13), p. 12, by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNFPA, IOM, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development. 2005. Regional Seminar on the Social Implications of International Migration, 24-26 August 2005, Bangkok. Bangkok: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, UNFPA, IOM, Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development.

  • Wang, H., and S. Chang. 2002. "The Commodification of International Marriages: Cross-border Marriage Business in Taiwan and Viet Nam." International Migration 40(6): 93-114.

  • Lee, H.-K. 2003. "Gender, Migration and Civil Activism in South Korea." Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 12(1-2): 127-154. Cited in: "Recent Trends in International Migration in Asia and the Pacific," p. 34, by M. M. B. Asis. 2005. Asia-Pacific Population Journal 20(3): 15-38.

  • Piper, N., and M. Roces. 2003. "Introduction: Marriage and Migration in an Age of Globalization." Pp. 1-21 in: Wife or Worker: Asian Women and Migration, edited by N. Piper and M. Roces. 2005. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield; and Constable, N. 2005. "Introduction: Cross-Border Marriages." Pp. 1-16 in: Gender and Mobility in Transnational Asia, edited by N. Constable. 2005. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cited in: "Transnational Migration, Marriage and Trafficking at the China-Vietnam Border," p. 3, by L. B. Duong, D. Bélanger, and K. T. Hong. 2005. Paper prepared for the Seminar on Female Deficit in Asia: Trends and Perspectives, Singapore, 5-7 December 2005. Paris: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 30.

  • Rybakovsky, L., and S. Ryazantsev. 2005. "International Migration in the Russian Federation" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/11), p. 3. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ryklina, V. 11-17 October 2004. "Marriage on Export." Newsweek. No. 19: 58. Cited in: Rybakovsky and Ryazantsev 2005, p. 11.

  • Global Survival Network. 1997. "Bought and Sold." Documentary. Washington, D. C.: Global Survival Network. Cited in: "International Matchmaking Organizations: A Report to Congress." Washington, D. C.: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security, Government of the United States. Web site: http://uscis.gov/graphics/aboutus/repsstudies/Mobrept.htm, accessed on 9 February 2006.

  • The International Marriage Broker Act also limits the number of fiancée visas for which individuals can apply. See: 109th Congress of the United States of America. 2005. "Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act" (H.R. 3402.). Washington, D. C.: Congress of the United States. Web site: www.online-dating-rights.com/pdf/IMBRA2005.pdf, accessed 27 April 2006.

  • Sanghera, J. 2004. "Floating Borderlands and Shifting Dreamscapes: The Nexus between Gender, Migration and Development." Pp. 60-69 in: Femmes et Mouvement: genre, migrations et nouvelle division internationale du travail. Geneva, Switzerland: Colloquium Graduate Institute of Development Studies. Web site: www.unige.ch/iued/new/information/publications/pdf/yp_femmes_en_mvt/09-j.sanghera.pdf, accessed 4 May 2006.

  • Pessar, P. R. 2005. "Women, Gender, and International Migration Across and Beyond the Americas: Inequalities and Limited Empowerment" (UN/POP/ EGM-MIG/2005/08), p. 4. Paper prepared for the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Develop¬ment in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, 30 November-2 December 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid.

  • Asis, M. 24 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • Sabban, R. 2002. United Arab Emirates: Migrant Women in the United Arab Emirates: The Case of Female Domestic Workers, p. 26. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 10. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 34.

  • Boyd, M., and D. Pikkov. 2005. Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States, pp.18-19. Occasional Paper. No. 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • In 2003, Filipinas represented 78 per cent of all foreign workers entering Japan on entertainment visas. See: Orozco, M. 2005. "Regional Integration: Trends and Patterns of Remittance Flows within Southeast Asia." Southeast Asian Workers Remittance Study. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank. Cited in: "Gender, Poverty Reduction and Migration," p. 7, by I. Omelaniuk. 2005. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTABOUTUS/Resources/Gender.pdf, last accessed 18 May 2006; and Gaikokujin Torokusha Tokei ni tsuite (Statistics on Foreign Residents). "Number of Non-Japanese Residents by Qualification (1993-2004)." Tokyo: Immigration Bureau, Ministry of Justice, Government of Japan. Web site: http://web-japan.org/stat/stats/21MIG21.html, accessed 1 May 2006.

  • Piper, N. 2004. "Gender and Migration Policies in Southeast and East Asia: Legal Protection and Sociocultural Empowerment of Unskilled Migrant Women," p. 218. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography 25(2): 216-231.

  • Matsuda, M. 2002. "Japan: An Assessment of the International Labour Migration Situation: The Case of Female Labour Migrants," p. 3. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 5. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Lee, J. 2004. "Republic of Korea." Ch. 7 in: No Safety Signs Here: Research Study on Migration and HIV Vulnerability from Seven South and North East Asian Countries, p. 123, by UNDP and Asia Pacific Migration Research Network. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Sex work as percentage of GDP estimates range from 2 per cent to 14 per cent for the four countries studied. See: ILO. 19 August 1998. "Sex Industry Assuming Massive Proportions in Southeast Asia." Press release. Geneva and Manila: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inf/pr/1998/31.htm, accessed 14 March 2006.

  • Summarized from: Hochschild, A., and B. Ehrenreich (eds.). 2002. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, pp. 277-280. New York: Owl Books, Henry Holt and Company.

  • Kofman, E. 2005a. "Gendered Migrations, Livelihoods and Entitlements in European Welfare Regimes," p. 32. Draft working document prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development report: Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World, by the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 2005, p. 120.

  • Thomas-Hope, E. 2005. "Current Trends and Issues in Caribbean Migration, in Regional and International Migration in the Caribbean and its Impacts on Sustainable Development." Port of Spain, Trinidad: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 13.

  • Kofman, E. 2005b. "Gendered Global Migrations: Diversity and Stratification," p. 653. International Feminist Journal of Politics 6(4): 643-665.

  • Sala, G. A. 2005. "Trabajadores Nacidos en Los Paises del MERCOSUR residentes en el Brasil," p. 28. Twenty-fifth Annual Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-25 July 2005. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Web site: iussp2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=52266, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • Redfoot, D. L., and A. N. Houser. 2005. "We Shall Travel On": Quality of Care, Economic Development, and the International Migration of Long-Term Care Workers, p. xxi. Washington, D. C.: Public Policy Institute, American Association of Retired People.

  • Aiken, L. H., et al. 2004. "Trends In International Nurse Migration," p. 70. Health Affairs 23(3): 69-77.

  • Buchan, J., T. Parkin, and J. Sochalski. 2003. "International Nurse Mobility: Trends and Policy Implications," p. 18. Geneva: Royal College of Nurses, World Health Organization, and the International Council of Nurses.

  • Based on UNFPA analysis of: Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2005. "Statistical Analysis of the Register: 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2005," p. 10. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  • Redfoot and Houser 2005, p. xii.

  • Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005, p. 13; and Piper 2005, p. 9.

  • Tevera, D., and L. Zinyama. 2002. Zimbabweans Who Move: Perspectives on International Migration in Zimbabwe, p. 4. Migration Policy Series. No. 25. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen's University.

  • Struder, I. R. 2002. "Migrant Self-Employment in a European Global City: The Importance of Gendered Power Relations and Performance of Belonging of Turkish Women in London." Research Papers in Environmental and Spatial Analysis. No. 74. London: Department of Geography, London School of Economics and Political Science. Cited in: Kofman, Raghuram, and Merefield 2005. p. 13.

  • Clean Clothes Campaign. September 2002. "Mauritius: No Paradise for Foreign Workers." Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Clean Clothes Campaign. Web site: www.cleanclothes.org/publications/02-09-mauritius.htm, accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Note that 95 per cent of the workforce is from Myanmar, 70 per cent of which is female. See: Arnold, D. 2004. "The Situation of Burmese Migrant Workers in Mae Sot, Thailand," pp. 3, 4 and 21. Southeast Asia Research Centre. Working Paper Series. No. 71. Kowloon, Hong Kong (SAR): Southeast Asia Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong.

  • United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. n.d. "Fact Sheet." Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Web site: www.un-instraw.org/en/index.php?option=content&task=blogcategory&id=76&Itemid=110, accessed 21 March 2006; and IOM. 2003. World Migration 2003: Managing Migration: Challenges and Responses for People on the Move, p. 7. Geneva: IOM.

  • Estimated remittances to the Philippines in 2005 totalled US$13 billion, based on: The World Bank. 2006a. Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration. Washington, D. C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. Remittances totalled US$6 billion in 1997, 1999, 2000 and 2001. See: The World Bank. 2006b. "Workers Remittances, Compensation of Employees, and Migrant Transfers (US$ Million)." Spreadsheet. Web site: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTGEP2006/Resources/RemittancesDataGEP2006.xls, accessed 1 May 2006; and UNIFEM. 2004a. "Women Migrant Workers' Capacity and Contribution," p. 2. Ch. 8 in: Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia: A Briefing Kit, by UNIFEM. 2004b. New York and Bangkok: Regional Program on Empowering Women Migrant Workers in Asia, UNIFEM.

  • Murison, S. 2005. "Evaluation of DFID Development Assistance: Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment: Phase II Thematic Evaluation: Migration and Development." Working Paper. No. 13. Glasgow: Evaluation Department, Department for International Development; Sørensen, N. N. 2004. "The Development Dimension of Migrant Transfers." DIIS Working Paper. No. 16. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies; Department for International Development and the World Bank. 2003. "International Conference on Migrant Remittances: Development Impact, Opportunities for the Financial Sector and Future Prospects: Report and Conclusions," 9-10 October 2003, London, United Kingdom. London: Department for International Development; and Jolly, S., E. Bell, and L. Narayanaswamy. 2003. "Gender and Migration in Asia: Overview and Annotated Bibliography." Bibliography. No. 13. Prepared for the Department of International Development, United Kingdom. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.

  • IOM. 2005b. Dynamics of Remittance Utilization in Bangladesh," pp. 31-32. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 18. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 35.

  • Ramirez, C., M. G. Dominguez, and J. M. Morais. 2005. Crossing Borders: Remittances, Gender and Development, pp. 32-33. INSTRAW Working Paper. Santo Domingo: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

  • Flynn, D., and E. Kofman. 2004. "Women, Trade, and Migration," p. 68. Gender and Development 12(2): 66-72. See also: Department for International Development and the World Bank 2003.

  • Wong, M. 2000. "Ghanaian Women in Toronto's Labour Market: Negotiating Gendered Roles and Transnational Household Strategies." Canadian Ethnic Studies 32(3): 45-74.

  • Comments by Carmen Moreno, Director of the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, at the Commission on Population and Development's 39th Session, 5th April 2006. See: United Nations. 5 April 2006. "Feminization of Migration, Remittances, Migrants' Rights, Brain Drain among Issues, as Population Commission Concludes Debate." News release. New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/News/Press/docs/ 2006/pop945.doc.htm, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • See Fonkoze web site: www.fonkoze.org, last accessed 23 May 2006.

  • ADOPEM is the Asociación Dominicana para el Desarrollo de la Mujer. See: Suki, L. 2004. "Financial Institutions and the Remittances Market in the Dominican Republic." New York: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, The Earth Institute, Columbia University; and Women's World Banking. 2005. "Remittances and Gender: Linking Remittances to Asset Building Products for Microfinance Clients." Presentation at the International Forum on Remittances, 28-30 June 2005, Washington, D. C. Washington, D. C.: Multilateral Investment Fund and the Inter-American Development Bank Web site: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=561728, accessed 3rd March 2006.

  • See: Inter-American Development Bank. n.d. "MIF at Work: MIF Strategy and Program on Remittances." Web site: www.iadb.org/mif/remittances/mif/index.cfm?language=EN&parid=1, accessed 28th April 2006.

  • IOM 2005b, p. 48. The bank, which was established by migrant women who had returned home, advises other migrant women to set-up bank accounts in their own name in order to ensure they have decision-making power over how the funds are to be spent upon return.

  • See, for example: UNFPA. 2006. "Usos y Potencialidades de las Remesas. Efectos Diferenciales en hombres y mujeres latinoamericanos," held in the framework of the International Forum on the Nexus between Political and Social Sciences, UNESCO, Government of Argentina and Government of Uruguay, 23 February 2006, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina.

  • Ramirez, Dominguez, and Morais 2005.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 24.

  • As of May 2006, elections were slated for July 2006. See: Bouwen, D. 13 February 2006. "Elections: Congo: A Lending Hand from Women in Belgium." Inter Press Service News Agency. Web site: www.ipsnews.net/print.asp?idnews=32138, accessed 28 May 2006.

  • Hildebrandt, N., and D. J. McKenzie. 2005. "The Effects of Migration on Child Health in Mexico." Stanford, California: Department of Economics, Stanford University. Cited in: Omelaniuk 2005, p. 12.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2004. Enhancing the Efficiency of Overseas Workers Remittances: Technical Assistance Report, p. 60. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • Referring to Tendeparaqua in the Huaniqueo municipality of Michoacan. See: Orozco, M. 2003. "Hometown Associations and Their Present and Future Partnerships: New Developments Opportunities," p. 38. Washington, D. C.: Inter-American Dialogue, 2003.

  • Goldring, L. 2001. "The Gender and Geography of Citizenship in Mexico-U.S. Transnational Spaces." Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 7(4): 501-537. Cited in: Pessar 2005, p. 7. See also: Santillán, D., and M. E. Ulfe. 2006. Destinatarios y Usos de Remesas: Una Oportunidad para las Mujeres Salvadoreñas. Mujer y Desarrollo Serie. No. 78. Santiago, Chile, and Eschborn, Germany: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 18.

  • Lenz, I., and H. Schwenken. 2003. "Feminist and Migrant Networking in a Globilising World: Migration, Gender and Globalisaton." Pp.164-168 in: Crossing Borders and Shifting Boundaries: Vol. 1: Gender, Identities and Networks, edited by I. Lenz, et al. 2003. Opladen, Germany: Leske und Budrich.

  • Biehl, J. K. 2 March 2005. "The Whore Lived Like a German." Spiegel Online. Web site: www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,344374,00.html, accessed 24 February 2006.

  • IOM. 2005c. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 46. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 276.

  • Hugo, G. 1999. Gender and Migrations in Asian Countries. Gender and Population Studies Series. Liège, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population; and Hugo, G. 2000. "Migration and Women's Empowerment." Chapter 12 in: Women's Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo, edited by H. B. Presser and G. Sen. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Cited in: United Nations 2005a, p. 2.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Grasmuck, S., and P. R. Pessar. 1991. Between Two Islands: Dominican International Migration. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Cited in: United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. 1994. Gendered Transitions: Mexican Experiences of Immigration. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press; and Jones-Correa, M. 1998. "Different Paths: Gender, Immigration and Political Participation," p. 338. International Migration Review 32(2): 326-349.

  • Jones-Correa 1998. Cited in: "Gender and Migration: Supporting Resources Collection," p. 21, by S. Jolly. 2005. BRIDGE Gender and Migration Cutting Edge Pack. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Web site: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/CEP-Mig-SRC.pdf, accessed 6 October 2005.

  • Pessar 2005, p. 4.

  • Zachariah, K. C., E. T. Mathew, and S. I. Rajan. 2001. "Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala." International Migration 39(2): 43-57. Geneva: IOM. Cited in: Omelaniuk 2005, p. 14.

  • Adepoju, A. 1 September 2004. "Changing Configurations of Migration in Africa." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=251, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • Rahman, M. 2004. "Migration Networks: An Analysis of Bangladeshi Migration to Singapor." Asian Profile 32(4): 367-390. Cited in: Piper 2005, p. 26.

  • Yayasan Pengembangan Pedesaan. 1996. "The Impact of Women's Migration to the Family in Rural Areas (Dampak dari Migrasi terhadap Keluarga di Pedesaan)." Paper presented at the workshop on Women Migration in Indonesia, 11-13 September 1996, Jakarta, Indonesia. Cited in: "Trends, Issues and Policies Towards International Labor Migration: An Indonesian Case Study" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/02), pp. p.11, 12 and 16, by C. M. Firdausy. 2005. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Sørensen 2004, p. 14.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 16.

  • United Nations. 2000. Reports, Studies and Other Documentation for the Preparatory Committee and the World Conference: Discrimination Against Migrants: Migrant Women: In Search of Remedies. World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (A/CONF.189/PC.1/19), p. 12. New York: United Nations.

  • Caballero, M., et al. 2002. "Migration, Gender and HIV/AIDS in Central America and Mexico." Paper presented at the 14th International AIDS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 7-12 July 2002.

  • Médecins sans Frontières. 2005. Violence et immigration: Rapport sur l'immigration d'origine subsaharienne (ISS) en situation irrégulière au Maroc, pp. 7, 14, and 20. Geneva: Médecins sans Frontières.

  • "Eyewitness: Migrants Suffer in Morocco." 14 October 2005. BBC News. Web site: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4342594.stm, accessed 1 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 65.

  • Crush, J., and V. Williams. 2005. "International Migration and Development: Dynamics and Challenges in South and Southern Africa" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/05). Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. (For further reading, see: Crush, J., and V. Williams (eds.) n.d. "Criminal Tendencies: Immigrants and Illegality in South Africa." Migration Policy Brief. No. 10. Cape Town, South Africa: Southern African Migration Project.)

  • Crush and Williams 2005, p. 15; and Crush and Williams n.d., pp. 11 and 15.

  • Asis, M. M. B. 2006. "Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia." Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations.

  • See, for example: Ramirez, Dominguez, and Morais 2005, p. 28; and Boyd and Pikkov 2005, pp. 9-11. .

  • FASILD. 2002. Femmes immigrées et issues de l'immigration. Paris: FASILD. Cited in: Kofman 2005a, p. 39.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 37.

  • Inglis, C. 1 March 2003. "Mothers, Wives, and Workers: Australia's Migrant Women." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=108, accessed 10 April 2006.

  • IOM 2005c, p. 110.

  • IOM 2005b, p. 18.

  • Omelaniuk 2005, p. 6.

  • Asian Development Bank. 2001. Women in Bangladesh: Country Briefing Paper, p. 3. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank.

  • Asis 2006, p. 2.

  • United States Department of State. 2006. "Nepal: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices." Washington, D. C.; Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State. Web site: www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61709.htm, accessed 5 May 2006.

  • See, for example: Grant, S. 2005. "International Migration and Human Rights: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 12 Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and Omelaniuk, I. 2006. "Trafficking in Human Beings: CEE and SE Europe," p. 6. Paper submitted to the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 27 February-10 March 2006, New York: Commission on the Status of Women, United Nations.

  • Asis 2006.

  • Calavita, K. 2006. "Gender, Migration, and Law: Crossing Borders and Bridging Disciplines." "Gender and Migration Revisited: Special Issue." International Migration Review 40(1): 104-132; Chell-Robinson, V. 2000 "Female Migrants in Italy: Coping in a Country of New Immigration." Pp. 103- 123 in: Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, edited by F. Anthias and G. Lazaridis. 2000. New York: Berg; Ribas-Mateos, N. 2000. "Female Birds of Passage: Leaving and Settling in Spain." Pp. 173-197 in: Anthias and Lazaridis 2000; and Rubio, S. P. 2003 "Immigrant Women in Paid Domestic Service: The Case of Spain and Italy." Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 9(3): 503-517. All cited in: Pessar 2005, p. 4.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 7.

  • Boyd and Pikkov 2005.

  • United Nations. 2005c. "Good Practices in Combating and Eliminating Violence against Women: Report of the Expert Group Meeting," p. 15, 17-20 May 2005, Vienna, Austria. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. iv.

  • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2004. Labour Market Integration Remains Insecure for Foreign and Immigrant Women. Brussels: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Web site: www.oecd.org/document/27/0,234,en_2649_37457_29871963_1_1_1_37457,00.html, accessed 11th May 2006.

  • Based on data from Census 2001 Statistics. See: South African Institute of International Affairs. 2006. "South Africa: A Response to the APRM Questionnaire on Progress Towards Addressing Socio-Economic Development Challenges," p. 35. Parliament's Report of the Joint Ad Hoc Committee on Economic Governance and Management, p. 35. Braamfontein: South African Institute of International Affairs. Web site: www.iss.co.za/AF/RegOrg/nepad/aprm/saparlrep/part6.pdf, accessed 30 May 2006.

  • Kofman 2005a, p. 13.

  • Sabban 2002 , p. 11.

  • See the various studies cited in: Progress of the World's Women 2005: Women, Work and Poverty, p. 34, by M. Chen, et al. 2005. New York: UNIFEM.

  • Grieco, E. 22 May 2002. "Immigrant Women." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=2, accessed 20 March 2006.

  • Boyd and Pikkov 2005, p. 11.

  • Ibid., p. 28.

  • Cited in: Age Plus Project. 2005. Older Migrant Women: Facts, Figures, Personal Stories, an Inventory in Five EU Countries, pp. 14 and 22. Utrecht, the Netherlands: Age Plus.

  • United Nations 2005a, p. 63.

  • Rudiger, A., and S. Spencer. 2003. "Social Integration of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: Policies to Combat Discrimination," p. 36. Paper presented at the Economic and Social Aspects of Migration Conference Jointly Organized by the European Commission and the OECD, 21-22 January 2003, Brussels, Belgium. Paris: OECD.

  • Sabban 2002 , p. 24.

  • Anderson, B. 2001. "Why Madam Has So Many Bathrobes: Demand for Migrant Domestic Workers in the EU." Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 92(1): 18-26. Cited in: "Women in International Trade and Migration: Examining the Globalized Provision of Care Services," p. 13, by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. 2005. Gender and Development Discussion Paper Series. No. 16. Bangkok: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.

  • Hondagneu-Sotelo, P. 2001. Doméstica: Immigrant Workers Cleaning and Caring in the Shadows of Affluence. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: The University of California Press.

  • See, for example: Bollini, P., and H. Siem. 1995. "No Real Progress Towards Equity: Health of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities on the Eve of the Year 2000." Social Science and Medicine 41(6): 819-828; Bottomley, G. and de Lepervanche, M. 1990. "The Social Context of Immigrant Health and Illness." Pp. 39-46 in: The Health of Immigrant Australia: A Social Perspective, edited by J. Reid and P. Trompf. 1990. Sydney, Harcourt Brace; Parsons, C. 1990. "Cross-cultural Issues in Health Care." Pp. 108-153 in: Reid and Trompf 1990; and Uniken-Venema, H. P., et al. 1995. "Health of Migrants and Migrant Health Policy: The Netherlands as an Example." Social Science and Medicine 41(6): 809-818.

  • Bollini, P. 2000. "The Health of Migrant Women in Europe: Perspectives for the Year 2000." Pp. 197-206 in: Migration, Frauen, Gesundheit, Perspektiven im europäischen Kontext, edited by M. David, T. Borde, and H. Kentenich. 2000. Frankfurt am Main: Mabuse Verlag.

  • Waterstone, M., S. Bewley, and C. Wolfe. 2001. "Incidence and Predictors of Severe Obstetric Morbidity: Case Control Study." British Medical Journal 322(7294): 1089-1093.

  • Carballo, M., and A. Nerukar. 2001. "Migration, Refugees, and Health Risks." Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(7 Supplement): 556-560.

  • Based on a clinical study of women who delivered between 1988 and 1995 in one hospital. See: Zeitlin, J., et al. 1998. "Socio-demographic Risk Factors for Perinatal Mortality: A Study of Perinatal Mortality in the French District of Seine-Saint-Denis." Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 77(8): 826-835. Cited in: Carballo, M., et al. 2004. Migration and Reproductive Health in Western Europe. Based on data from various hospitals in selected parts of the country. The rate of perinatal mortality for babies born to German mothers is approximately 5.2 per cent and among non-nationals approximately 7 per cent. The incidence of congenital abnormalities is also higher among immigrants. See: Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • African immigrant women giving birth in hospitals, for example, have an incidence of premature births almost twice as high as in Spanish women, and low-weight rates are also approximately double those of women born in Spain. Over 8 per cent of babies born to women from Central and South America are underweight and 6.3 per cent are born prematurely. See: Carballo and Nerukar 2001.

  • Mora, L. 2003. "Las Fronteras de la Vulnerabilidad: Género, Migración y Derechos Reproductivos." Paper presented at the Hemispheric Conference on International Migration: Human Rights and Trafficking in Persons in the Americas, 20-22 November 2002, Santiago de Chile. Santiago de Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Carballo, et al. 2004, p. 15.

  • Spycher, C., and C. Sieber. 2001. "Contraception in Immigrant Women." Ther Umsch 58(9): 552-554. Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.
  • Carballo and Nerukar 2001.
  • Eskild, A., et al. 2002. "Induced Abortion among Women with Foreign Cultural Background in Oslo." Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 122(14): 1355-1357. Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.

  • Medda, E., et al. 2002. "Reproductive Health of Immigrant Women in the Lazio Region of Italy." Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanità 38(4): 357-65 Cited in: Carballo, et al. 2004.

  • Rice, P. L. 1994 (ed.). Asian Mothers, Australian Birth: Pregnancy, Childbirth and Childbearing: The Asian Experience in an English-speaking Country. Melbourne, Australia: Ausmed Publications.

  • Carballo, et al. 2004, p. 14.

  • Darj, E., and G. Lindmark. 2002. "Not All Women Use Maternal Health Services: Language Barriers and Fear of the Examination are Common." Lakartidningen 99(1-2): 41-44.

  • Balbo, M. (ed.) 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, p. 129. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia. The Women's Coordinating Unit of the Municipal Health Secretariat is working to refine practices and promote more viable outreach. This includes targeting indigenous migrant populations in their native Quechua and Aymara languages. See: Beck, A. P., Sviluppo/Universita luav di Venezia. 2005. Interviewed in: Balbo 2005, pp. 219 and 223.

  • Findings of a survey of 700 migrants conducted by Mahidol University's Institute for Population and Social Research with funding from the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and UNFPA. See: UNFPA. 30 August 2005. "Survey Reveals Acute Need for Reproductive Health Care in Thailand's Migrant Communities Affected by Tsunami." Press release. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=661&Language=1, accessed 30 May 2006.

  • IOM. 2001. "The Reproductive Health of Immigrant Women." Migration and Health Newsletter, No. 2. Geneva: IOM.

  • Brummer, Daan. 2002. Labour Migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, p. 6. Geneva: Regional Office for Southern Africa, IOM; and United Nations 2005a, p. 72.

  • Based on an IOM/CARE study in: IOM, UNAIDS, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. 2003. "Mobile Populations and HIV/AIDS in the Southern African Region: Recommendations for Action: Deskreview and Bibliography on HIV/AIDS and Mobile Populations." Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.queensu.ca/samp/sampresources/migrationdocuments/documents/2003/unaids.pdf, accessed 14 February 2006.

  • Lot, F., et al. 2004. "Preliminary Results from the New HIV Surveillance Systems in France." Eurosurveillance 9(4). Cited in: UNAIDS and WHO. 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2005 (UNAIDS/05.19E), p. 69. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • FUNDESIDA is a foundation collaborating in a joint programme with the Costa Rican Social Security Fund. See: "Costa Rica: Female Labour Migrants and Trafficking in Women and Children," p. 13, by A. Garcia, et al. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 2. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Weeramunda, A. J. 2004. "Sri Lanka," pp. 138-139. Ch. 8 in: No Safety Signs Here: Research Study on Migration and HIV Vulnerability from Seven South and North East Asian Countries, by UNDP and Asia Pacific Migration Research Network. 2004. New York: UNDP.

  • Dias, M., and R. Jayasundere. 2002. "Sri Lanka: Good Practices to Prevent Women Migrant Workers from Going into Exploitative Forms of Labour," pp. 12-13. GENPROM Working Paper. No. 9. Series on Women and Migration. Geneva: Gender Promotion Programme, International Labour Office, ILO.

  • Piper 2005, p. 33.

  • Thiam, M., R. Perry, and V. Piché. 2003. "Migration and HIV in Northern Senegal." Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau. Web site: www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=9699, last accessed 10 March 2006.

  • UNAIDS. 1998. Gender and HIV/AIDS, pp. 2 and 4. UNAIDS Technical Update. Geneva: UNAIDS; and UNAIDS. 1999. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Taking Stock of Research and Programmes, pp.14-15. UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates for 2005. See: Upton, R. L. 2003. "'Women have No Tribe': Connecting Carework, Gender, and Migration in an Era of HIV/AIDS in Botswana," p. 315. Gender and Society 17(2): 314-322.

  • See, for example: United Nations 2005b. General Assembly resolution 58/143 of 22 December 2003 on violence against migrant workers asked the Secretary-General in the 60th Session to report on the problem of violence against women migrant workers and on the implementation of the resolution. (See: United Nations. 2004. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: 58.143: Violence Against Migrant Workers (A/RES/58/143). New York: United Nations.

  • Sin Fronteras. 2005. "Sin Fronteras: Violencia y Mujeres Migrantes en México." México City: Sin Fronteras.

  • Weeramunda 2004, p. 135.

  • UNFPA. 2005. The State of World Population 2005: The Promise of Equality: Gender Equity, Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals. New York: UNFPA; and Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M.Gottemoeller. 1999. "Ending Violence against Women." Population Reports. Series L. No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health. Cited in: Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 113, by the UN Millennium Project. 2005. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan. Another estimate, based on findings from 48 population-based surveys, placed this figure at between 16 and 50 per cent (See: Krug, E., et al. (eds.). 2002. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: WHO).

  • See: Mama, A. 1993. "Woman Abuse in London's Black Communities." Pp. 97-134 in: Inside Babylon: The Caribbean Diaspora in Britain, edited by W. James and C. London: Verso; Condon, S. 2005. "Violence Against Women in France and Issues of Ethnicity." In: Family Violence and Police Reaction, edited by M. Malsch and W. Smeenk. Forthcoming. Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashford; and Jaspard, M. et al. 2003. Les Violences envers les Femmes en France: Une Enquete Nationale. Paris: La Documentation Francaise. All cited in: "Gender, Age and Generations: State of the Art Report Cluster C8," pp. 33 and 38, by R. King, et al. 2004. Brighton, United Kingdom: Sussex Centre for Migration and Population Studies, University of Sussex.

  • The large scale survey was conducted in Washington, D. C., by AYUDA in the 1990s providing the foundation upon which the United States Congress included protections for battered immigrant women in the 1994 Violence Against Women Act. See: Hass, G., N. Ammar, and L. Orloff. 2006. "Battered Immigrants and U.S. Citizen Spouses," p. 3. Washington, D. C.: Legal Momentum.

  • Ibid., p. 2. For the figure of 22.1 per cent, see: Tjaden, P., and N. Thoenne., 2000. Full Report of the Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Research Report. Washington, D. C.: National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  • See citations on page 367 in: Raj, A., and Silverman, J. 2002. "Violence Against Immigrant Women: The Roles of Culture, Context, and Legal Immigrant Status on Intimate Partner Violence." Violence Against Women 8(3): 367-398.

  • Based on a survey of 168 women in the 1990s. Dasgupta, S. 2000. "Charting the Course: An Overview of Domestic Violence in the South Asian Community in the United States," p. 175. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless 9(3): 173-185.

  • The remaining percentage of femicides was categorized as "unknown". See: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2004. Femicide in New York City: 1995-2002. New York: Bureau of Injury Epidemiology, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Web site: www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/ip/femicide1995-2002_report.pdf, accessed 26 March 2006.

  • Government of Germany. 2004. Health, Well-Being and Personal Safety of Women in Germany: A Representative Study of Violence against Women in Germany: Summary of Central Research Results, p. 27. Bonn: Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Government of Germany.

  • Mora 2003, p. 24.

  • The sample included 13,341 women from 10 provinces. See: Smith, E. 2003. Nowhere to Turn: Responding to Partner Violence Against Immigrant and Visible Minority Women, p. viii. Report submitted to the Department of Justice, Sectoral Involvement in Departmental Policy Development. Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Social Development.

  • See the citations on page 2 of: Hass, Ammar, and Orloff 2006.

  • Government of the United States. 2000. "Violence Against Women Act of 2000 as passed by the Senate and House of Representatives." Web site: www.acadv.org/VAWAbillsummary.html, accessed 12 February 2006.

  • European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. Third Report on Sweden Adopted on 17 December 2004 and Published on 14 June 2005 (CRI [2006] 26), paragraph 88. Strasbourg, France: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance. Cited in: "Integration of Immigrant Women in Europe: Report: Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men Rapporteur: Mrs Gülsün Bilgehan, Turkey, Socialist Group (Doc. 10758)," by the Council of Europe. 7 December 2005. Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/workingdocs/doc05/edoc10758.htm, accessed 12 April 2006.

  • United Nations 2005b.

  • See the MOSAIC web site: www.mosaicbc.com/, accessed 26 January 2006.

  • WHO. 2000. "Female Genital Mutilation." Fact Sheet. No. 241. Geneva: WHO; and Dooley, M., and R. Stephenson. 2005. "When Cultures Collide: Female Genital Mutilation within Immigrant Communities in Developed Countries: A Literature Review," p. 20. Atlanta, Georgia: Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University.

  • Powell, R., et al. 2002. "Female Genital Mutilation, Asylum Seekers and Refugees: The Need for an Integrated UK Policy Agenda." Forced Migration Review. No. 14: 35.

  • Dooley and Stephenson 2005; and Population Reference Bureau. 2005. "Abandoning Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Information from Around the World." CD-ROM. Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau.

  • WHO Study Group on Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome. 2006. "Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome: WHO Collaborative Prospective Study in Six African Countries." The Lancet 367(9525): 1835-1841.

  • Boland, R., Research Associate, Harvard School of Public Health. 3 April 2006. Personal Communication.

  • Bosch, X. 2001. "Female Genital Mutilation in Developed Countries." The Lancet 358(9288): 1177-1179. Cited in: Dooley and Stephenson 2005, pp. 25-26; Population Reference Bureau 2005; and UNFPA Office in Copenhagen. 28 April 2006. Personal communication.

  • Thierfelder, C., M. Tanner, and C. M. K. Bodiang. 2005. "Female Genital Mutilation in the Context of Migration: Experience of African Women with the Swiss Health Care System." European Journal of Public Health 15(1): 86-90.

  • See the Sauti Yetu web site: www.sautiyetu.org/viewer/home/index.asd, accessed 13 March 2006.

  • United Nations. 2001. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: Working Towards the Elimination of Crimes Against Women Committed in the Name of Honour (A/RES/55/66). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 55/68. 2001. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: Elimination of All Forms of Violence Against Women, Including Crimes Identified in the Outcome Document of the Twenty-Third Special Session of the General Assembly, Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-First Century (A/RES/55/68). New York: United Nations. Note the subsequent resolutions passed in 2002: A/RES/57/181 on 18 December 2002; and A/RES/57/179 on 19 December 2002; and in 2004: A/RES/59/167 on 20 December 2004 and A/RES/59/165 on 20 December 2004.

  • Council of Europe. 2003. "So-called 'Honour Crimes'" (9720). Report of the Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men. Parliamentary Assembly: Rapporteuse: Mrs. Cryer, United Kingdom, SOC. Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe.

  • Brandon, J. 19 October 2005. "Britain Grapples with 'Honor Killing' Practice." Christian Science Monitor.

  • Kvinnoforum. 2003. "A Resource Book for Working Against Honour Related Violence," p. 24 and 39. Based on the project "Honour Related Violence in Europe - Mapping of Occurrence, Support and Preventive Measures." Stockholm, Sweden: Kvinnoforum.


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