Introduction Introduction Chapter 5 Chapter 5
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Notes Notes
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Noties for quotations Notes for quotations
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Notes for boxes Notes for boxes
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Indicators Indicators
NOTES Printer Friendly printer friendly version
Notes Notes

Introduction

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

CHAPTER 1

  • United Nations. 2004. World Economic and Social Survey 2004: International Migration (E/2004/75/Rev.1/Add.1, ST/ESA/291/Add.1), p. 3. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid., pp. 3-4.

  • An international migrant is defined as: "Any person who changes his or her country of usual residence. A person's country of usual residence is that in which the person lives, that is to say, the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest. Temporary travel abroad for purposes or recreation, holiday, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage does not entail a change in the country of usual residence." See: United Nations Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Web site: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_dict_xrxx.asp?def_code=336, accessed 15 May 2006.

  • United Nations. 2006a. Trends in Total Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision: CD-ROM Documentation (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005/Doc). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; and United Nations. 2006b. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3). New York: United Nations. Such figures omit an unknown number of undocumented migrants, who may or may not be counted in official data.

  • United Nations 2006b, paras. 1 and 23.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 25.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 42.

  • Ibid., paras. 46 and 48.

  • United Nations. 2003. "Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 1960-2000: The 2003 Revision," p. 1. Diskette with Data and Documentation. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • United Nations 2006b, pp. 3-4. After discounting the number of residents from the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics who became "international migrants" when their States of residence became independent in 1991, the decrease is from 41 million in the 1975-90 period to 36 million in the 1990-2005 period.

  • Ibid., p. 4.

  • Ibid., p. 3.

  • Ibid., para. 10.

  • Ibid., p. 4.

  • IOM. 2005. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 173. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM.

  • UNFPA. 2005. International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting: Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005. New York: UNFPA.

  • Global Commission on International Migration. 2005. Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action: Report of the Global Commission on International Migration, p. 36. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • IOM 2005, p. 249.

  • Ibid., p. 168.

  • In this regard, see, inter alia: Pellegrino, A. 2004. Migration from Latin America to Europe: Trends and Policy Challenges. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 16. Geneva: IOM; Martin, P. 2004. "Migration," pp. 447-448. Ch. 8 in: Global Crises, Global Solutions, edited by B. Lomborg. 2004. Cambridge, United Kingdom; and The Center for Immigration Studies. 23 November 2004. "Immigrant Population at Record High in 2004." Bulletin of the Center for Immigration Studies.

  • Robinson, R. 2005. "Beyond the State-Bounded Immigrant Incorporation Regime: Transnational Migrant Communities: Their Potential Contribution to Canada's Leadership Role and Influence in a Globalized World." Paper prepared for the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation. Ottawa: The North-South Institute.

  • Pellegrino, A. 2003. La migración internacional en América Latina y el Caribe: tendencies y perfiles de los migrantes, pp. 21-24. Serie población y desarrollo. No. 35. Santiago, Chile: División de Población, CELADE, Naciones Unidas; and United Nations 2004, p. 154.

  • As reflected in selected country databases. On the propensity of youth to migrate, see: Lloyd, C. B. (ed.). 2005. Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries, p. 313. Washington, D. C.: The National Academies Press.

  • Castillo, M. Á. 2003. Migraciones en el hemisferio: Consecuencias y relación con las políticas sociales, p. 16. Serie población y desarrollo. No. 37. Santiago, Chile: División de Población, CELADE, Naciones Unidas.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 98.

  • Adams, R. H., Jr. 2003. "International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain: A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries," p. 3. Policy Research Working Paper. No. 3069. Washington, D.C.: Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, Poverty Reduction Group, The World Bank.

  • Liang, Z., et al. 2005. "Cumulative Causation, Market Transition, and Emigration from China," p. 8. Paper presented at Session 14 of the 25th International Population Conference, Tours, France, 18-23 July 2005. Paris: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Web site: http://iussp2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=52177, last accessed 27 March 2006.

  • Barré, R, et al. 2004. "Scientific Diasporas: How can Developing Countries Benefit from Their Expatriate Scientists and Engineers." Institute de Recherche pour le Developement. Paris: Institut de recherche pour le développement. Cited in: "Brain Strain: Optimising Highly Skilled Migration from Developing Countries," p. 9, by B. L. Lowell, A. Findlay, and E. Stewart. 2004. Asylum and Migration Working Paper. No. 3. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Web site: www.ippr.org/ecomm/files/brainstrain.pdf, last accessed 10 May 2006. Also see: Sriskandarajah, D. 1 August 2005. "Reassessing the Impacts of Brain Drain on Developing Countries." Migration Information Source. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=324, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Adams 2003, p. 18

  • Dovlo, D. 2005. "Migration and the Health System: Influences on Reaching the MDGs in Africa (and other LDCs)." Pp. 67-79 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • UNFPA 2005, p. 68.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 24.

  • UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme. 2004. Meeting the Challenges of Migration: Progress Since the ICPD, p. 36. New York and Geneva: UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme.

  • Awases, M., et al. 2004. Migration of Health Professionals in Six Countries: A Synthesis, p. 40. Brazzaville, Congo: World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 24. See also: UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, p. 109. Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • Study cited in: Thouez, C. 2005, p. 46. "The Impact of Remittances on Development." Pp. 41-52 in: UNFPA 2005. See also: Lowell, B. L. 1 June 2003. "Skilled Migration Abroad or Human Capital Flight?" Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=135, last accessed 31 March 2006.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 78.

  • Lowell 1 June 2003.

  • Ratha, D. 2003. "Workers' Remittances: An Important and Stable Source of External Development Finance," p. 158. Pp. 157-175 in: Global Development Finance 2003: Striving for Stability in Development Finance, by The World Bank. 2003. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank; and Winters, L. A. 2003. "The Economic Implications of Liberalizing Mode 4 Trade." Pp. 59-92 in: Moving People to Deliver Services, edited by A. Mattoo and A. Carzaniga. 2003. Washington, D. C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.

  • Lowell 1 June 2003.

  • UNFPA 2005, p. 8. It should be noted that the term "brain waste" is also used to refer to the fact that highly qualified migrants, such as doctors or lawyers, often end up as taxi drivers or waiters in their country of destination. For instance, this is the sense in which it is used in: Özden, Ç. 2005. "Educated Migrants: Is There Brain Waste?" Pp. 227-244 in: International Migration, Remittances and the Brain Drain, edited by Ç. Özden and M. Schiff. 2005. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

  • Researchers state that some countries with a broad, flexible human resource base and low levels of both adult education and emigration, such as Brazil and China, would actually benefit from increased skill emigration. See, for example: Lowell, Findlay, and Stewart 2004, p. 9; and Beine, M., F. Docquier, and H. Rapoport. 2003. "Brain Drain and LDCs' Growth: Winners and Losers." IZA Discussion Paper. No. 819. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Cited in: United Nations 2006b, para. 79.

  • O'Neil, K. 1 September 2003. "Brain Drain and Gain: The Case of Taiwan." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=155, last accessed 31 March 2006.

  • Skeldon R. 2005. "Linkages between Migration and Poverty: The Millennium Development Goals and Population Mobility," p. 59. Pp. 55-63 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 39 and 146.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002. "International Migration and Globalization," p. 230-232. Ch. 8 in: Globalization and Development (LC/G.2157[SES.29/3]), by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. 2002. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 31.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 25.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 2002; United Nations 2004, p. x; and Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 1.

  • Article 5 of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families defines the terms 'documented' and 'regular' as follows: ". . . migrant workers and members of their families: (a) Are considered as documented or in a regular situation if they are authorized to enter, to stay and to engage in a remunerated activity in the State of employment pursuant to the law of that State and to international agreements to which that State is a party; (b) Are considered as non-documented or in an irregular situation if they do not comply with the conditions provided for in subparagraph (a) of the present article." See: United Nations. 1990. "International Convention on The Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families: Adopted by the General Assembly at its 45th session on 18 December 1990 (A/RES/45/158)." New York: United Nations. For the purposes of this report, the terms 'irregular' and 'undocumented' migrants will be used interchangeably.

  • Papademetriou, D. G. 1 September 2005. "The Global Struggle with Illegal Migration: No End in Sight." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?id=336, last accessed 27 March 2006.

  • Koser, K. 2005. "Irregular Migration, State Security and Human Security: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 3. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Council of Europe. 2004. "Regional Conference on Migration: Migrants in Transit Countries Sharing Responsibilities in Management and Protection: Pro¬ceedings, Istanbul, 30 September-1 October 2004" (2004MG-RCONF[2004]9e), pp. 45, and 48-49. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe.

  • "Unmarked Graves Across the US Border." 28 February 2006. IPS UN Journal 14(32): 4.

  • Forced migration is defined as: "A migratory movement in which an element of coercion exists, including threats to life and livelihood, whether arising from natural or man-made causes (e.g. movements of refugees and internally displaced persons as well as people displaced by natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine, or development projects)", as found in: IOM 2005, p. 459. See also: Castles, S. 1 May 2004. "Confronting the Realities of Forced Migration," p. 2. Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=222, accessed 6 January 2006.

  • UNHCR. 2006a. 2005 Global Refugee Trends: Statistical Overview of Populations of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Internally Displaced Persons, Stateless Persons, and Other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, p. 3. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • United Nations 2006b, p. 3.

  • UNHCR. 2005a. 2004 Global Refugee Trends: Overview of Refugee Populations, New Arrivals, Durable Solutions, Asylum Seekers and other Persons of Concern to UNHCR, p. 2. Geneva: UNHCR.

  • UNHCR. 2006b. The State of the World's Refugees 2006: Human Displacement in the New Millennium, p. 70. Oxford, United Kingdom, and New York: Oxford University Press.

  • UNHCR. 2005b. Refugees by Numbers. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/basics/opendoc.pdf?id=416e3eb24&tbl=BASICS&page=basics, accessed 7 April 2006.

  • United Nations 2006a.

  • UNHCR. 17 March 2006. "Number of Asylum Seekers Halved Since 2001, Says UNHCR." Press release. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/news/opendoc.htm?tbl=NEWS&id=441a7d714, accessed 26 March 2006; and UNHCR. 1 March 2005. "Asylum Levels and Trends in Industrialized Countries 2004: Overview of Asylum Applications Lodged in Europe and Non-European Industrialized Countries in 2004," pp. 3-4. Geneva: UNHCR. Cited in: UNHCR 2006b, p. 57.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 41.

  • Castles 1 May 2004, p. 2.

  • The World Bank. 2006. Global Economic Prospects 2006: Economic Implications of Remittances and Migration, p. 85 and 88. Washington, D. C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank.

  • Ibid., p. 90.

  • Bajpai, N., and N. Dagupta. 2004. "Multinational Companies and Foreign Direct Investment in China and India," p. 15. CGSD Working Paper. No. 2. New York: Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development, Earth Institute, Columbia University. Web site: www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/cgsd/documents/bajpai_mncs_china_india_000.pdf, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Based on analysis of data of 72 countries. See: Adams, R. H., Jr., and J. Page 2003. "The Impact of International Migration and Remittances on Poverty." Paper prepared for DFID/World Bank Conference on Migrant Remittances, London, 9-10 October 2003. Washington, D. C.: Poverty Reduction Group, the World Bank.

  • Martine, G. 2005. A globalização inacabada: migrações internas e pobreza no século 21. São Paulo em Perspectiva 9(3): 3-22. São Paulo: Fundação Seade. See also: UNFPA. 2003. Population and Poverty: Achieving Equity , Equality and Sustainability, p. 115. New York: UNFPA.

  • The World Bank 2003. Cited in: "Remittances Fact Sheet." Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women. Web site: www.un-instraw.org/en/index.php?option=content&task=blogcategory&id=76&Itemid=110, accessed 27 May 2006.

  • Belarbi, A. 2005. "Flux Migratoires au Maroc Impact Économique, Social et Culturel de la Migration: Sur le Développement du Pays," p. 192. Pp. 181-197 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. November 2005. "The Number of Poor People in Latin America has Fallen by 13 Million Since 2003," p. 3. ECLAC Notes. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. Web site: www.eclac.cl/prensa/noticias/notas/0/23580/NOTAS43ING.pdf, accessed 19 May 2006.

  • Duran, J., et al. 1996. "International Migration and Development in Mexican Communities." Demography 33(2): 249-264. Quoted in: United Nations 2004, p. 103.

  • Piper, N. 2005. "Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 12. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • Ramamurthy, B. 2003. "International Labour Migrants: Unsung Heroes of Globalization." Sida Studies. No. 8. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

  • Thouez 2005, p. 43.

  • United Nations 2004, pp. 105-107.

  • Thouez 2005.

  • Ibid.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 178.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 28.

  • IOM 2005, pp. 178-179.

  • Ibid.

  • For instance, the World Bank states that: "Part 1 of the volume shows that migration and remittances (a) reduce poverty of recipient households, (b) increase investment in human capital (education and health) and other productive activities, (c) reduce child labor and raise child education, and (d) increase entrepreneurship. Additional findings include the fact that (a) the impact of remittances on investment in human capital and other productive activities is greater than that from other sources of income, and (b) income gains may also accrue to households without migrants. Based on these studies, migration and remittances appear to have a positive impact on the development and welfare of the sending countries. Cited in: Özden and Schiff 2005, p. 14. See also: United Nations 2004; and United Nations. 2005. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 98. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; and Global Commission on International Migration 2005.

  • IOM 2005, p. 178.

  • De Vasconcelos, P. 2005. "Improving the Development Impact of Remittances" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/10). Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • World Bank 2006, p. 94.

  • Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 28.

  • Vargas-Lundius, R. "Remittances and Rural Development." Paper prepared for the Twenty-Seventh Session of IFAD's Governing Council, Rome, 18-19 February 2004. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development. Web site: www.ifad.org/events/gc/27/roundtable/pl/discussion.pdf, last accessed 27 May 2006.

  • Republic of France. "Workshop 2: Co-development and Migrants' Remittances," International Conference on "Solidarity and Globalization: Innovative Financing for Development and against Pandemic," 28 February-1 March 2006. Web site: www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/de/IMG/pdf/06-0430.pdf, accessed 30 May 2006; and García Zamora, R. 2006. "El Uso de las Remesas Colectivas en México: Avances y Desafíos." Paper presented at the UNFPA-sponsored seminar, "Usos y Potencialidades de las Remesas. Efectos Diferenciales en hombres y mujeres latinoamericanos," held in the framework of the International Forum on the Nexus between Political and Social Sciences, UNESCO, Government of Argentina and Government of Uruguay, 23 February 2006, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Argentina.

  • IOM 2005, p. 177.

  • Hugo, G. 1999. Gender and Migrations in Asian Countries, p. 200. Gender and Population Studies Series. Liège, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

  • Levitt, P. 1996. "Social Remittances: A Conceptual Tool for Understanding Migration and Development." Working Paper Series. No. 96.04. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University, Center for Population and Development Studies, Harvard University: Cited in: United Nations 2005, p. 24. The term "social remittances" is sometimes used also as a counterpoint to "economic remittances". In that context, it refers to small "social" investments made by the diaspora in favor of social improvements such as health clinics, schools, road repairs or small businesses in the migrants' countries of origin.

  • IOM 2005, p. 223.

  • Martine 2005.

  • United Nations 2004, p. 118.

  • See, for example: Ratha 2003.

  • Smith, J. P., and B. Edmonston (eds.). 1997. The New Americans: Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Panel on the Demographic and Economic Impacts of Immigration, National Research Council. Washington, D. C.: National Academies Press; and Borjas, G. 2003. "The Labour Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Re-Examining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 118(4): 1335-1374. Both cited in: United Nations 2006b, para. 64.

  • Ratha 2003.

  • Mohanty, S. A., et al. 2005. "Health Care Expenditures of Immigrants in the United States: A Nationally Representative Analysis." American Journal of Public Health 95(8): 1431-1438. Data from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's 1998 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

  • Note the report's finding that plentiful immigration was one of the United States' clear comparative advantages over Europe and Japan: "The hesitancy of key US partners to substantially liberalize their immigration policies-especially if combined with continuing reluctance to undertake major reforms of their pension and social welfare systems-will place them at a competitive economic disadvantage with the United States." See: Director of Central Intelligence, Government of the United States. 2001. "Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States" (NIE 2001-02D), p. 30. A National Intelligence Estimate Report. Washington, D. C.: Director of Central Intelligence, Government of the United States.

  • In reference to an assessment of migration flows since EU enlargement in May 2004. See: Commission of the European Communities. 2006. "Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Report on the Functioning of the Transitional Arrangements Set Out in the 2003 Accession Treaty (period 1 May 2004-30 April 2006)." Brussels: Commission of the European Communities; and "Europe's labour Mobility: When East Meets West," p. 47. 11-17 February 2006. The Economist.

  • United Nations. 2000a. Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations? (ESA/P/WP.160) New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

  • Ibid.

  • Ibid.

  • Ibid.

  • Tarmann, A. 2000. "The Flap over Replacement Migration." Washington, D. C.: Population Reference Bureau. Web site: www.prb.org/Template.cfm? Section=PRB&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=5023, last accessed 27 April 2006.

  • Coleman, D. 2001. "'Replacement Migration', or Why Everyone's Going to Have to Live in Korea: A Fable for Our Times from the United Nations." Revised draft. Oxford, United Kingdom: Department of Social Policy and Social Work. University of Oxford.

  • McNicoll, G. 2000. "Reflections on 'Replacement Migration.'" People and Place 8(4): 1-13.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 54.

  • Ibid., paras. 55 and 56; and Balbo, M. (ed.) 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, p. 25. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia.

  • IOM 2005, p. 15.

  • Sachs, J. D. 2003. "Increasing Investments in Health Outcomes for the Poor: Second Consultation in Macroeconomics and Health: October 2003: Mobilization of Domestic and Donor Resources for Health: A Viewpoint." Geneva: WHO.

  • WHO. 2003. International Migration, Health and Human Rights, p. 21. Health and Human Rights Publication Series. No. 4. Geneva: WHO.

  • Ibid., pp. 20-21. To date, only two international treaties expressly recognize the right of irregular migrants to health: The Rural Workers Organizations Convention (1975) and the Convention on Migrant Workers (1990). General Comment No. 14 on the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (2000) of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights also maintains that: "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, including ...asylum seekers and illegal immigrants, to preventive, curative and palliative health services." See: United Nations. 2000b. Substantive Issues Arising in the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Comment No. 14 (2000): The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Article 12 Of The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) (E/C.12/2000/4), para. 34. New York: United Nations.

  • IOM, WHO, and Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. Health and Migration: Bridging the Gap, p. 24. International Dialogue on Migration. No. 6. Geneva: IOM.

  • Ibid., p. 55.

  • Anarfi, J. K. 2005. "Reversing the Spread of HIV/AIDS: What Role Has Migration?" Pp. 99-109 in: UNFPA 2005.

  • Hamers, F. F., and A. M. Downs. 2004. "The Changing Face of the HIV Epidemic in Western Europe: What are the Implications for Public Health Policies?" The Lancet 364(9428): 83-94. See also: Carballo, M., and M. Mboup. 2005. "International Migration and Health: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration." Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.

  • UNAIDS and WHO. 2005. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2005 (UNAIDS/05.19E). Geneva: UNAIDS.

  • United Nations 2006b, para. 59.

  • It should be noted that although the Philippines has a law banning mandatory HIV testing for migrants, host country employers often require it. See: Osias, T. 4 April 2005. "Philippine Statement by Mr. Tomas Osias, Executive Director, Commission on Population and Development." Statement to the 38th Session of the Commission on Population and Development. New York: Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations. Web site: www.un.int/philippines/statements/20050404.html, accessed April 5, 2006.

  • Shtarkshall, R., and V. Soskolne. 2000. Migrant Populations and HIV/AIDS: The Development and Implementation of Programmes: Theory, Methodology and Practice. Geneva: UNESCO / UNAIDS. Cited in: "International Migration and HIV/AIDS," by International Coalition on AIDS and Development. 2004. Web site: http://icad-cisd.com/content/pub_details.cfm?id=126&CAT=9&lang=e, accessed 10 May 2006.

  • Based on a survey carried out in July-September 2004. See: Merten, M. n.d. "Shock Figures On HIV/Aids in the Workplace. Mail and Guardian. See the web site of the South African Business Coalition on HIV and AIDS: www.redribbon.co.za/business/default.asp, accessed 17 May 2006.

  • IOM and Southern African Migration Project. 2005. HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda, pp. 10 and 11. Geneva: IOM.

  • UNAIDS 2004, p. 109. Cited in: IOM and Southern African Migration Project 2005, p. 23.

  • UNAIDS and WHO 2005.

  • Ibid.

  • United Nations. 2001. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/S-26/L.2)]: S-26/2. Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (A/RES/S-26/2), para. 50. New York: United Nations.

  • IOM, UNAIDS, and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. 2003. "Mobile Populations and HIV/AIDS in the Southern African Region: Recommendations for Action: Deskreview and Bibliography on HIV/AIDS and Mobile Populations," p. 16. Geneva: IOM. Web site: www.queensu.ca/samp/sampresources/migrationdocuments/documents/2003/unaids.pdf , accessed 14 February 2006.

  • IOM. March 2004. "Staff and Inmates at Bangkok's SuanPlu Immigrant Detention Centre Learn about HIV/AIDS and TB Prevention," pp. 14-15. IOM News. Geneva: IOM.

  • United Nations 2006b, p. 3.

  • See, for instance: Smith and Edmonston 1997; Massey, D. S., et al. 1998. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the end of the Millennium. International Studies in Demography. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean 2002; Global Commission on International Migration 2005, p. 98; IOM 2005; Özden and Schiff 2005; UNFPA 2005; United Nations 2004; United Nations 2005; and World Bank 2006.

  • Grillo. R. 2005. "Backlash Against Diversity? Identity and Cultural Politics In European Cities," p. 3. Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working Paper. No. 14. Oxford, United Kingdom: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.

  • Ibid., p. 5.

  • See the web site of the Department of Canadian Heritage, Government of Canada: http://www.canadian¬heritage.gc.ca/progs/multi/index_e.cfm, last accessed 7 June 2006.

  • Vertovec, S. and S. Wessendorf. 2005. "Migration and Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Diversity in Europe: An Overview of Issues and Trends." Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working Paper. No. 18. Oxford, United Kingdom: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.

  • Oxford Analytica. 19 July 2005. "European Union: EU Struggles on Skilled Migration;" and Grillo 2005, pp. 11 and 28.

  • Grillo 2005, p. 41.

CONTENTS