Notes for Boxes
- For a review of the different interfaces between migration and the various Millennium Development Goals, see the papers presented at UNFPA´s Expert Group Meeting on the subject. (UNFPA. 2005. International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting: Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005. New York: UNFPA.)
- United Nations. 2005. In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/2005). New York: United Nations.
- Skeldon R. 2005. "Linkages between Migration and Poverty: The Millennium Development Goals and Population Mobility," p. 56. Pp. 55-63 in: UNFPA 2005; and UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme. 2004. Meeting the Challenges of Migration: Progress Since the ICPD, p. 29. New York and Geneva: UNFPA and the International Migration Policy Programme.
- Warttman, S. 2005. "Migration and the Millennium Development Goals," p. 16. Migration: September 2005, pp. 16-17. Geneva: IOM.
- International Coalition on AIDS and Development. 2004. "International Migration and HIV/AIDS." Web site: http://icad-cisd.com/content/pub_details.cfm?id=126&CAT=9&lang=e, accessed 9 February 2006; IOM. 2000. "Migration and HIV/AIDS in Europe." Geneva: IOM; and IOM. 2002. "IOM Position Paper on HIV/AIDS and Migration" (MC/INF/252). Geneva: IOM.
- IOM and Southern African Migration Project. 2005. HIV/AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda, p. 2. Geneva: IOM.
- United Nations. 2004. World Economic and Social Survey 2004: International Migration (E/2004/75/Rev.1/Add.1, ST/ESA/291/Add.1), p. 72. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- Anarfi, J. K. 2005. "Reversing the Spread of HIV/AIDS: What Role Has Migration?" pp. 99-109 in: International Migration and the Millennium Development Goals: Selected Papers of the UNFPA Expert Group Meeting: Marrakech, Morocco, 11-12 May 2005, by UNFPA. 2005. New York: UNFPA.
- Sources: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2005. "The International Convention on Migrant Workers and its Committee: Fact Sheet No. 24 (Rev.1)." Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights; and ILO. n.d. "Box 1.16: Significance of the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990," p. 63. Preventing Discrimination, Exploitation and Abuse of Women Migrant Workers: An Information Guide: Booklet 1: Introduction: Why the Focus on Women International Migrant Workers. Geneva: Gender Promotion Office, International Labour Office, ILO. Web site: www.oit.org/public/english/employment/gems/download/mbook1.pdf, last accessed 28 May 2006.
- IOM. 2005. World Migration 2005: Costs and Benefits of International Migration, p. 486. IOM World Migration Report Series. No. 3. Geneva: IOM. In East Asia, however, there were more female foreigners living in the sub-region than males. See: United Nations. 2006a. "Trends in Total Migrant Stock: 2005 Revision" (POP/DB/MIG/Rev.2005). Spreadsheet. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- See: Boyd, M., and M. Vickers. Autumn 2000. "100 Years of Immigration in Canada," p. 6. Canadian Statistical Trends; and Houstoun, M., R. Kramer, and J. Barrett. 1984. "Female Predominance in Immigration to the United States Since 1930: A First Look." Special Issue: Women in Migration. International Migration Review 18(4): 908.
- United Nations 2006a.
- United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World (Sales No. E.05/III.Y.1), p. 113. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development; Government of New Zealand. 2005. Migration Trends 2004/2005: December 2005. Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Labour, Government of New Zealand; Piper, N. 2005. "Gender and Migration: A Paper Prepared for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration," p. 2. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and Commonwealth of Australia. 2006. "Immigration Update: July-December 2005," p. 10. Canberra: Research and Statistics Section, Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia.
- Zlotnik, H. 1 March 2003. "The Global Dimensions of Female Migration." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=109, accessed 9 January 2006.
- Estimate includes documented and undocumented migrants, based on immigrant stock data. See: Yamanaka, K., and N. Piper. 2005. Feminized Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Policies, Actions and Empowerment, p. 2. Occasional Paper Gender Policy Series. No. 11. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Also in: Asis, M. M. B. 2006. "Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia." Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations.
- Based on Philippine Labour Department data. In: Opiniano, J. 2005. "More Remittances from Women Emphasize Feminization of Migration: ADB Study." Web site: www.tinig.com/2005/more-remittances-from-women-emphasize
-feminization-of-migration-%E2%80%93-adb-study/, accessed 23 January 2006.
- Weeramunda, A. J. 2004. "Sri Lanka,"pp. 138-139. Ch. 8 in: No Safety Signs Here: Research Study on Migration and HIV Vulnerability from Seven South and North East Asian Countries, by UNDP and Asia Pacific Migration Research Network. 2004. New York: UNDP.
- United Nations. 2006b. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3), p. 14, Table 15. New York: United Nations.
- Lim, L., and N. Oishi. 1996. International Labour Migration of Asian Women: Distinctive Characteristics and Policy Concerns. Geneva: ILO. Cited in: IOM 2005, p. 24.
- Zlotnik 1 March 2003.
- Pellegrino, A. 2004. Migration from Latin America to Europe: Trends and Policy Challenges, p. 30. IOM Migration Research Series. No. 16. Geneva: IOM.
- Ibid., p. 35.
- Thomas-Hope, E. 2005. "Current Trends and Issues in Caribbean Migration." Pp. 53-67 in: Regional and International Migration in the Caribbean and Its Impacts on Sustainable Development: Compendium on Recent Research on Migration in the Caribbean, by the Economic Commission on Latin America and the Caribbean. Port-of-Spain: Trinidad and Tobago.
- Martínez Pizarro, J., and M. Villa. 2005. "International Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Summary View of Trends and Patterns" (UN/POP/MIG/
2005/14), p. 7. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- Zlotnik, H. 1 September 2004. "International Migration in Africa: An Analysis Based on Estimates of the Migrant Stock." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/print.cfm?id=252, accessed 22 February 2006.
- United Nations 2006a.
- Carling, J. 2005. "Gender Dimensions of International Migration," p. 2. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 35. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.
- IOM 2005, pp. 275-276.
- Adepoju, A. 1 September 2004. "Changing Configurations of Migration in Africa." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=251, accessed 22 February 2006; and Chikanda, A. 2004. "Skilled Health Professionals' Migration and Its Impact on Health Delivery in Zimbabwe." Centre on Migration, Policy and Society Working Paper. No. 4. Oxford, United Kingdom: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society, University of Oxford.
- Jones, G. W., and K. Ramdas (eds.). 2004. (Un)tying the Knot: Ideal and Reality in Asian Marriage. Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore. Cited in: "Transnational Migration, Marriage and Trafficking at the China-Vietnam Border," p. 4, by L. B. Duong, D. Bélanger, and K. T. Hong. 2005. Paper prepared for the Seminar on Female Deficit in Asia: Trends and Perspectives, Singapore, 5-7 December 2005. Paris: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography.
- United States Department of State. 2005. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2005, p. 20. Washington, D. C.: United States Department of State; Attane, I., and J. Veron (eds.). 2005. Gender Discrimination among Young Children in Asia. Pondicherry, India: Centre Population et Development, French Institute. Estimates of missing girls vary: See the sources cited on page 32 of: Mason, A. D., and E. M. King. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources and Voice. New York and Washington, D. C.: Oxford University Press and the World Bank; and United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. 2005. Gender Equality: Striving for Justice in an Unequal World (Sales No. E.05/III.Y.1). Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
- Estimates based on gap in sex ratio in the general population. See: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 2005.
- Ramachandran, S. 2005. "Indifference, Impotence, and Intolerance: Transnational Bangladeshis in India," pp. 7-9. Global Migration Perspectives. No. 42. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration; and Blanchet, T. 2003. "Bangladeshi Girls Sold as Wives in North India," pp. 8-9. Study submitted to the Academy for Educational Development. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Academy for Educational Development.
- Duong, Bélanger, and Hong 2005.
- On the concept of the global care chain, see: Hochschild, A., and B. Ehrenreich (eds.). 2002. Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy. New York: Owl Books, Henry Holt and Company; and Parreñas, R. S. 2000. "Migrant Filipina Domestic Workers and the International Division of Reproductive Labor." Gender and Society 14(4): 560-580.
- UNDP. 2006. Taking Gender Equality Seriously: Making Progress, Meeting New Challenges, p. 3. New York: UNDP.
- Buchan, J., and L. Calman. 2004. The Global Shortage of Registered Nurses: An Overview of Issues and Actions, pp. 9-10. Geneva: International Council of Nurses; and WHO. n.d. "Global Atlas of the Health Workforce." Database. Geneva: WHO. Web site: >www.who.int/globalatlas/DataQuery/default.asp, accessed 4 April 2006.
- Stilwell, B., et al. 2004. "Managing Brain Drain and Brain Waste of Health Workers in Nigeria." Geneva: WHO. Web site. www.who.int/bulletin/bulletin_board/82/stilwell1/en/, accessed 16 March 2006.
- WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. 2003. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. Geneva: WHO; and WHO. 2005. World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO.
- Estimates by Harvard University's Joint Learning Initiative on Human Resources for Health and Development. Cited in: Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, p. 101, by the UN Millennium Project. 2005. Report to the UN Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.
- Estimates by Harvard University's Joint Learning Initiative on Human Resources for Health and Development. Cited in: "Aiding and Abetting: Nursing Crises at Home and Abroad," by S. Chaguturu and S. Vallabhaneni. 2005. The New England Journal of Medicine 353(17): 1761-1763.
- These findings are reflected in studies carried out in various countries, such as the Caribbean, Ghana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. For example, based on a study carried out between 2004 and 2005 in three South African provinces, over half of the nurses interviewed were considering moving abroad. See: Penn-Kekana, L., et al. 2005. "Nursing Staff Dynamics and Implications for Maternal Health Provision in Public Health Facilities in the Context of HIV/AIDS. Washington, D. C.: The Population Council. A 2002 Zimbabwe survey conducted among 215 nurses revealed that 71 per cent expressed the intent to migrate. See: Chikanda, A. 2005. Medical Leave: The Exodus of Health Professionals from Zimbabwe, p. 1-2. Migration Policy Series. No. 34. Cape Town and Kingston, Canada: Southern African Migration Project and Southern African Research Centre, Queen's University. See also: Buchan, J., and D. Dovlo. 2004. "International Recruitment of Health Workers to the UK: A Report for DFID: Executive Summary." London: Health Systems Resource Centre, Department for International Development; and Clive, T., R. Hosein, and J. Yan. 2005. "Assessing the Export of Nursing Services as a Diversification Option for CARICOM Economies," pp. 16-17. Report prepared for the Caribbean Commission on Health and Development, May 2005. Washington, D. C.: Caribbean Commission on Health and Development and the Pan American Health Organization.
- Buchan, J., and J. Sochalski. 2004. "The Migration of Nurses: Trends and Policies." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82(8): 587-594. Cited in: Progress of the World's Women 2005: Women, Work and Poverty, p. 34, by M. Chen, et al. 2005. New York: UNIFEM.
- Buchan and Dovlo 2004.
- Hewitt, H. 2004. "Assessment of the Capacity to Educate and Train Nurses in CARICOM Countries." Report prepared for the Office of the Caribbean Program Coordinator, Pan American Health Organization, Barbados. Cited in: Assessing the Export of Nursing Services as a Diversification Option for CARICOM Economies, p. 28, by C. Thomas, R. Hosein, and J. Yan. 2005. Caribbean Commission on Health and Development.
- Elgado-Lorenzo, F. M. 2005a. "Table 6: Estimated Number of Employed Filipino Nurses by Work Setting, 2003." P. 17 in: "Philippine Case Study on Nursing Migration," by F. M. Elgado-Lorenzo. 2005b. Presentation to the Bellagio Conference on International Nurse Migration, Bellagio, Italy, 5-10 July 2005. Web site: www.academyhealth.org/international/nursemigration/lorenzo.ppt, last accessed 23 May 2006.
- Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 2004. Code of Practice for the International Recruitment of Healthcare Professionals. London: Department of Health, Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. For a list of some 150 countries (as of 7 March 2005), see: The NHS Confederation (Employers) Company Ltd. n.d. "List of Developing Countries." London: The NHS Confederation (Employers) Company Ltd. Web site: www.nhsemployers.org/workforce/workforce-558.cfm, accessed 27 April 2006.
- George, A., Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Cited in: "UK Agencies Still Hiring Poorest Nations' Nurses," by S. Boseley. 20 December 2005. The Guardian.
- Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2005. "Statistical Analysis of the Register: 1 April 2004 to 31 March 2005," p. 10. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.
- Jolly, S. 2005. "Gender and Migration: Supporting Resources Collection." BRIDGE Gender and Migration Cutting Edge Pack, p. 40. Brighton, United Kingdom: BRIDGE, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. Web site: www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports/CEP-Mig-SRC.pdf, accessed 6 October 2005.
- Hamilton, K., and J. Yau. 1 December 2004. "The Global Tug-of-War for Health Care Workers." Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/print.cfm?ID=271, accessed 23 May 2006.
- Asis, M. M. B. 2006. "Gender Dimensions of Labor Migration in Asia." Paper prepared for the High-level Panel on the Gender Dimensions of International Migration, 50th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, New York, 2 March 2006. New York: United Nations.
- International Council of Nurses. 2006. The Global Nursing Shortage: Priority Areas for Intervention, p. 20. Geneva: International Council of Nurses.
- Formerly known as the Standing Committee of Nurses of the EU. See web site: www.pcnweb.org/version1/en/about_internalregulation.html, accessed 31 May 2006; and European Federation of Nurses Associations. n.d. "PCN Good Practice Guidance for International Nurse Recruitment." Web site: www.rcn.org.uk/downloads/press/PCN.doc, accessed 27 April 2006.
- Caribbean Nurses Organization. n.d. "Information Fact Sheet: The Caribbean Nurses Association." Web site: www.nursing.emory.edu/lccin/rnb/pdf/RNBFactSheet.pdf, accessed 9 May 2006.
- Chaguturu and Vallabhaneni 2005.
- Canadian Nursing Association. 2002. Planning for the Future: Nursing Human Resource Projections: June 2002. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Nursing Association. Web site: www.cna-nurses.ca/CNA/documents/pdf/publications/Planning_for_the_future_June_2002_e.pdf, accessed 3 April 2006.
- Australian Health Ministers' Conference. 2004. National Health Workforce Strategic Framework. North Sydney, Australia: Australian Health Ministers' Conference. Web site: www.health.nsw.gov.au/amwac/pdf/NHW_stratfwork_AHMC_2004.pdf, accessed 3 April 2006.
- King, R., et al. 2004. "Gender, Age and Generations: State of the Art Report Cluster C8," p. 44. Brighton, United Kingdom: Sussex Centre for Migration and Population Studies, University of Sussex.
- Scalabrini Migration Center. n.d. Hearts Apart: Migration in the Eyes of Filipino Children. Manila, the Philippines: Scalabrini Migration Center. Web site: www.smc.org.ph/heartsapart/index.html, accessed 12 May 2006; and Pessar, P. R. 2005. Women, Gender, and International Migration Across and Beyond the Americas: Inequalities and Limited Empowerment (UN/POP/EGM-MIG/2005/08), p. 5. Prepared for the Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, Mexico, 30 November-2 December 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- Balbo, M. (ed.) 2005. International Migrants and the City: Bangkok, Berlin, Dakar, Karachi, Johannesburg, Naples, São Paolo, Tijuana, Vancouver, Vladivostok, p. 280. Nairobi, Kenya: UN-HABITAT and Università IUAV di Venezia.
- Wong, M. 2000. "Ghanaian Women in Toronto's Labour Market: Negotiating Gendered Roles and Transnational Household Strategies." Canadian Ethnic Studies 32(3): 45-74. For the Caribbean, see: Chamberlain, M. 1997. Narratives of Exile and Return. London: Macmillian; and Goulbourne, H. 1999. The Transnational Character of Caribbean Kinship in Britain." Pp. 176-197 in: Changing Britain: Families and Households in the 1990s, edited by S. McRea. 1999. Oxford: Oxford University Press; and Gardner, K., and R. Grillo. 2002. "Transnational Households and Ritual: An Overview." Global Networks2(3): 179-190.
- Carling, J. November 2002. "Cape Verde: Towards the End of Emigration?" Migration Information Source. Washington, D.C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/print.cfm?ID=68, accessed 6 January 2006.
- Andall, J. 1999. "Cape Verdean Women on the Move: 'Immigration Shopping' in Italy and Europe." Modern Italy 4(2): 241-257.
- Philippines Overseas Employment Agency. 2004. "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos: As of December 2004." Web site: www.poea.gov.ph/docs/STOCK%20ESTIMATE%202004.xls, accessed 12 May 2006; and Parreñas, R. S. 2005. Children of Global Migration: Transnational Families and Gendered Woes. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Press release available on web site: www.sup.org/html/book_pages/0804749450/Press%20Release.pdf, accessed 31 May 2006.
- Cruz, V. P. 1987. Seasonal Orphans and Solo Parents: The Impact of Overseas Migration. Quezon City, the Philippines: Scalabrini Migration Center; University of the Philippines, Tel Aviv University; KAIBIGAN. 2002. "The Study on the Consequences of International Contract Migration of Filipino Parents on their Children: Final Scientific Report to the Netherlands-Israel Development Research Programme;" and Battisella, G., and C. G. Conaco. 1998. "The Impact of Labour Migration on the Children Left Behind: A Study of Elementary School Children in the Philippines. Sojourn 13(2): 220-241. All cited in, and also as found in: Scalabrini Migration Center n.d. Also see: Yayasan Pengembangan Pedesaan. 1996. "The Impact of Women's Migration to the Family in Rural Areas (Dampak dari Migrasi terhadap Keluarga di Pedesaan)." Paper presented at the workshop on Women Migration in Indonesia, 11-13 September 1996, Jakarta, Indonesia. Cited in: "Trends, Issues and Policies Towards International Labor Migration: An Indonesian Case Study" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/02), pp. 11, 12 and 16, by C. M. Firdausy. 2005. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- Scalabrini Migration Center n.d., p. 40.
- Parrenas, R. 2002. "The Care Crisis in the Philippines: Children and Transnational Families in the New Global Economy." Pp. 39-54 in: Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy, edited by A. Hochschild and B. Ehrenreich (eds.) 2002. New York: Owl Books, Henry Holt and Company.
- United Nations. 2006. World Population Monitoring, Focusing on International Migration and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2006/3), para. 50. New York: United Nations.
- See, for example: Kulu, H. 2005. "Migration and Fertility: Competing Hypotheses Re-examined." European Journal of Population 21(1): 51-87. Cited in: "High Fertility Gambians in Low Fertility Spain: Mutually Entailed Lives Across International Space," by C. Bledsoe, R. Houle, and P. Sow. 2005. Draft paper for the European Association of Population Studies Workshop, Working Group on the Anthropological Demography of Europe, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, 30 September-1 October 2005.
- Abbasi-Shavazi, M. and P. McDonald. 2000. "Fertility and Multiculturalism: Immigrant Fertility in Australia, 1977-1991." International Migration Review 34(1): 221-222.
- Study based on data from Statistics Sweden, 1961-1999, of 446,000 immigrant women and 2,973,000 Swedish-born women. See: Andersson, G. 2001. "Childbearing Patterns of Foreign-Born Women in Sweden," p. 23. MPIDR Working Paper WP 2001-011. Rostock, Germany: Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research.
- Based on 1991 census data of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Modood, T., et al. 1997. Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage. Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities. London: Policy Studies Institute; and Penn, R., and P. Lambert. 2002. "Attitudes Towards Ideal Family Size of Different Ethnic/Nationality Groups in Great Britain, France and Germany," p. 50. Population Trends 108: 49-58.
- United Nations 2006, para. 50.
- Chen Mok, M., et al. 2001. Salud Reproductiva y Migración Nicaraguense en Costa Rica 1999-2000: Resultados de una Encuesta Nacional de Salud Reproductiva, Programa Centroamericano de Población de la Escuela de Estadística and Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. San José: Universidad de Costa Rica.
- Data Analysis of Instituto Nacional de Estadísta, Espana, by: Roig Vila, M., and T. Castro Martín. 2005. "Immigrant Mothers, Spanish Babies: Longing for a Baby-Boom in a Lowest-Low Fertility Society." Paper prepared for the 25th International Population Conference, 18-23 July 2005, Tours, France. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Cited in: Bledsoe, Houle, and Sow 2005.
- As the author states, "Fertility in the US is roughly 2.0, with or without immigrants." The top 10 source countries show an average total fertility rate of 2.32 in their home countries, compared to 2.86 in the US. Based on US Census Bureau data collected in 2002. See: Camarota, S. October 2005. "Birth Rates Among Immigrants in America: Comparing Fertility in the U.S. and Home Countries." Center for Immigration Studies Backgrounder. Washington, D.C.: Center for Immigration Studies.
- Colectivo Ioé. 2005. "Inmigrantes Extranjeros en España: ¿Reconfigurando la Sociedad?" Panorama Social. No. 1: 32-47.
- Fargues, P. 2005. "The Global Demographic Benefit of International Migration: A Hypothesis and an Application to Middle Eastern and North African Contexts" (UN/POP/MIG/2005/04), p. 6. Paper prepared for the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on International Migration and Development, New York, New York, 6-8 July 2005. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
- United Nations 2006, para. 52.
- Ibid., para. 51.
- Fargues, P. 2005. "How International Migration May Have Served Global Demographic Security," p. 10. Paper prepared for "Securing Development in an Unstable World," the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 23-24 May 2005. Washington, D.C., and Amsterdam, the Netherlands: The World Bank and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Minister for Development Co-operation and the Ministry of Finance of the Netherlands. Web site: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAMSTERDAM/Resources/PhilippeFargues.pdf, accessed 5 January 2006.
- Sargent, C. 2005. "Counseling Contraception for Malian Migrants in Paris; Global, State, and Personal Politics." Human Organization 64(2): 147-156.
- Source: UNFPA Guatemala Country Office. 26 April 2006. Personal communications.
- Declaration Relative to the Universal Abolition of the Slave Trade, 8 February 1815, Annex XV of the Treaty of Vienna, by Austria, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia and Spain and Sweden. An earlier treaty between France and Great Britain of 30 May 1814, dealt with the abolition of the slave trade. See: Weissbrodt, D., and Anti-Slavery International. 2002. Abolishing Slavery and Its Contemporary Forms (HR/PUB/02/4). Geneva: OHCHR.
- See: UNHCR. n.d. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery: Adopted by a Conference of Plenipotentiaries convened by Economic and Social Council resolution 608(XXI) of 30 April 1956 and done at Geneva on 7 September 1956 entry into force 30 April 1957, in accordance with article 13 of 1956 (The Supplementary Convention: United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 226, entered into force on 30 April 1957, article 1[b]. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: 126.96.36.199/html/menu3/b/30.htm, accessed 1 June 2006.)
- Debt bondage: "status or condition arising from a pledge by a debtor of his personal services or those of a person under his control as security for a debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined." See: UNHCR n.d., article1(a).
- The ILO Convention No.29 of 1930 defines forced labour: "all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily". See: ILO. n.d. "C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930," Article 2, para. 1. Geneva: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.pl?C029, last accessed 10 April 2006.
- ILO. 2005. Report of the Director-General: A Global Alliance against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: 2005 (Report I [B]), pp. 1 and 44. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.
- Council of Europe. 2004. "Recommendation 1663 (2004): Domestic Slavery: Servitude, Au Pairs and 'Mail-order Brides'." Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/TA04/EREC1663.htm, accessed 2 March 2006. See also the earlier 2001 Recommendation: Council of Europe. 2001. "Recommendation 1523 (2001): Domestic Slavery." Strasbourg, France: Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe. Web site: http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=http://assembly.coe.int%2FDocuments%2 FAdoptedText%2Fta01%2FEREC1523.htm, last accessed 13 April 2006.
- Council of Europe 2004.
- ILO 2005, p. 15.
- Source: RHIYA Programme Specialist, Asia and Pacific Division, UNFPA. 4 April 2006. Personal communication.
- For more information, see: Kumin, J. 2001. "Gender: Persecution in the Spotlight." Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/1951convention/gender.html, accessed 27 October 2005.
- United Nations. 2002. Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution Within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or Its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (HCR/GIP/02/01). Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. See also: United Nations. 1991. Information Note on UNHCR's Guidelines on the Protection of Refugee Women (EC/SCP/67). Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
- University of California. n.d. "Background on Gender and Asylum Issues." Center for Gender & Refugee Studies, University of California, Hastings, College of the Law, University of California. Web site: http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/background.php, accessed 20 April 2006.
- United Nations 2002.
- Note that the concept of persecution in the Refugee Convention consists of (i) a violation of human rights or serious harm and (ii) the failure of the State to provide protection. See: Crawley, H., and T. Lester. 2004. Comparative Analysis of Gender-Related Persecution in National Asylum Legislation and Practice in Europe (EPAU/2004/05), pp. 9 and 57. Geneva: UNHCR. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/research/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RESEARCH&id=40c071354, accessed 1 February 2006; and University of California n.d.
- Patrick, E. 2004. "Gender-Related Persecution and International Protection." Migration Information Source. Washington, D. C.: Migration Policy Institute. Web site: www.migrationinformation.org/feature/print.cfm?ID=216, accessed 6 January 2006.
- Crawley and Lester 2004, p. 22.
- Except Denmark. See: European Union. 2004. "Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004." Official Journal of the European Union 47(L 304): 12-23. Web site: http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2004/l_304/l_30420040930en00120023.pdf, accessed May 9, 2006. For some analyses and viewpoints on the Directive, see: UNHCR. 2005. "UNHCR Annotated Comments on the EC Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who otherwise need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted" (OJ L 304/12 of 30.9.2004). Geneva: UNHCR. Web Site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/protect/opendoc.pdf?tbl=PROTECTION&id=43661eee2, last accessed 2 June 2006; and European Council on Refugees and Exiles. 2004. ECRE Information Note on the Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification of Third Country Nationals and Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons Who Otherwise Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted (INI/10/2004/ext/CN). London: European Council on Refugees and Exiles. Web site: www.ecre.org/statements/qualpro.pdf, accessed 1 February 2006.
- Crawley and Lester 2004, pp.35, 43, 48, and 58.
- Boyd, M., and D. Pikkov. 2005. Gendering Migration, Livelihood and Entitlements: Migrant Women in Canada and the United States, p. 12. Occasional Paper. No. 6. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
- Based on UNHCR Statistic Office data for countries for which data is available. See: Crawley and Lester 2004, p. 14.
- United Nations. 2005a. 2004 World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration (A/59/287/Add.1, ST/ESA/294), p. 45. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; and Crawley and Lester 2004, pp.99-104, and 126.
- Crawley and Lester 2004, p. 57; and University of California n.d.
- United Nations 2002.
- United Nations. 2005b. Activities of UNHCR in the Area of International Migration and Development (UN/POP/MIG-FCM/2005/05), p. 7. New York: United Nations; and ILO. 2001. Global Consultations on International Protection: The Asylum-Migration Nexus: Refugee Protection and Migration, Perspectives from ILO, p. 2. Web site: www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RSDLEGAL&id=3f33797e6, accessed 19 April 2006.
- See: United Nations 2002, para. 33. See also: United Nations 1991.