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State of World Population 2005

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Notes

CHAPTER 9


1. United Nations. 2005a. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision: Highlights (ESA/P/WP.193). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

2. Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the MDGs. 2005. Youth and the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation: Final Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the MDGs: April 2005. Web site: http://tig.phpwebhosting.com/themes/mdg/YouthMDG.pdf, last accessed 27 June 2005.

3. The cost-effectiveness of reproductive health, including family planning, has been established since the early 1990s. The World Bank's 1993 World Health Report on "Investing in Health" identified an "essential health package", based on those services that would provide the most benefits with limited resources. The recommended package included the key components of reproductive health services. In 2001, the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health recognized the importance of reproductive health to economic development, including family planning. See: Singh, S., et al. 2004. Adding It Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care, p. 12. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA. Expanded access to reproductive health services was identified as a "quick win" by the UN Millennium Project. Quick wins are actions that can reap returns within three or fewer years.

4. In addition to the various regional and global meetings held in commemoration of the ICPD and Beijing Conferences since 2002, other high-level meetings and agreements affirming the links between reproductive health and the MDGs in the course of 2005 include: the World Health Assembly Resolution 57.12, the 38th Session of the UN Commission on Population and Development (Resolution E/CN.9/2005/L.5), and the "Stockholm Call to Action: Investing in Reproductive Health and Rights as a Development Priority" (web site: www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/418_filename_stockholm-call-to-action.pdf, last accessed 13 July 2005). See also: United Nations. 2005b. Draft Submitted by the Chairperson of the Commission for Social Developmenton the Basis of Informal Consultations: Declaration on the Tenth Anniversary of the World Summit for Social Development (E/CN.5/2005/L.2). New York: United Nations. See also 2005 UN resolutions of the Commission on Population and Development on Reproductive Health and the MDGs, and on HIV/AIDS.

5. UNFPA. 24 February 2005. "Population and Reproductive Health: Key to the Achievement of the MDGs." Statement by Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Executive Director, UNFPA, to the Canadian International Development Agency. New York: UNFPA.

6. For the complete listing of reproductive health components, see: United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, para. 7.6. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

7. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Combating AIDS in the Developing World, p. 89. New York: Working Group on HIV/AIDS, Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

8. Singh et al. 2004, p. 18. See also: UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, Box 5.5, p. 82. Report to the UN Secretary- General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

9. UNFPA. 2004a. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Breaking the Cycle of Transmission. New York: UNFPA.

10. Based on pilot projects conduced in Côte d'Ivoire and India. See: UNFPA and the International Planned Parenthood Federation South Asia Regional Office. 2004. Integrating HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing Services into Reproductive Health Settings: Stepwise Guidelines for Programme Planners, Managers and Service Providers. New York and London: UNFPA and International Planned Parenthood Federation.

11. For example, the 2004 "New York Call to Commitment: Linking HIV/AIDS and Sexual and Reproductive Health" (available at: www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/321_filename_New%20York%20Call%20to%20Commitment.pdf, last accessed 11 July 2005); the "Glion Call to Action on Family Planning and HIV/AIDS in Women and Children"(available at: www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/333_filename_glion_cal_to_action.pdf, last accessed 11 July 2005); and the 2005 UN Commission on Population and Development, Thirtyeighth Session.

12. See, for example: UN Millennium Project 2005b; and UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 89.

13. UN Millennium Project 2005b; and UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 7.

14. UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

15. Ibid.

16. Studies in Kenya and Zimbabwe found that the introduction of user fees resulted in a 50 and 30 per cent drop, respectively, in the use of maternal health services. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005c.

17. Various references to these issues can be found in: UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 109; and UN Millennium Project 2005c.

18. United Nations. 2003a. Human Security Now: Protecting and Empowering People, p. 17. New York: Commission on Human Security, United Nations.

19. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 96.

20. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 103.

21. Ibid.

22. UNFPA and University of Aberdeen. 2005. Maternal Mortality Update 2004: Delivering into Good Hands, p. 23. New York: UNFPA; and UN Millennium Project 2005c.

23. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 96.

24. UNFPA and University of Aberdeen 2005, p. 23.

25. As estimated by the Joint Learning Initiative, 2004. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 101.

26. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 96.

27. UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 80 and 257.

28. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

29. Freedman, L. P. 2001. "Using Human Rights in Maternal Mortality Programs: From Analysis to Strategy." International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 75(1): 51-60.

30. United Nations. 2002. "Draft Guidelines: A Human Rights Approach to Poverty Reduction Strategies." Geneva: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations. Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/issues/docs/guidelinesfinal-poverty.doc, last accessed 30 June 2005.

31. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 118.

32. Whitehead, A. 2003. "Failing Women, Sustaining Poverty: Gender in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers." Report for the UK Gender and Development Network. London: UK Gender and Development Network and Christian Aid.

33. UNFPA. 2004b. Desk Review of 2003 PRSPs. New York: Population and Development Branch, Technical Support Division, UNFPA.

34. Whitehead 2003. See also: Randriamaro, Z, 2002. "The NEPAD, Gender and the Poverty Trap: The NEPAD and the Challenges of Financing for Development in Africa from a Gender Perspective." Paper presented at the Conference on Africa and the Development Challenges of the New Millenium, Accra, Ghana 23 -26 April, 2002. Mowbray, South Africa: Alternative Information and Development Center.

35. The World Bank, 2002. Gender in the PSRPs: A Stocktaking. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, The World Bank. Cited in: Whitehead 2003.

36. Based on PRSPs published in 2003. Cited in: UNFPA. 2005a. The Case for Investing in Young People as Part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. New York: UNFPA.

37. UNFPA. 2003. "Coverage of Population and Development Themes in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers." New York: Population and Development Branch, Technical Support Division UNFPA. Cited in: UNFPA 2005a.

38. UNFPA 2004.

39. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 118.

40. Ibid., p.54.

41. UN Millennium Project. 2005d. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 149. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

42. UN Millennium Project. 2005e. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Overview. Report to the Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

43. UNFPA 2005a, p. 58.

44. UNFPA. 2005b. Policy Development Supporting Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Nine Countries' Experiences and Collaboration with UNFPA, p. 14. New York: UNFPA.

45. Royal Government of Cambodia. 2004. Nation Religion King: The Progress Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action on Women's Issues 1995-2005. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Women's Affairs, Royal Government of Cambodia.

46. In 2003, total global military expenditures amounted to $956 billion. (See: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2004. SIPRI Yearbook 2004: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford: Oxford University Press.) A figure of $950 is given in: Deen, T. 10 September 2004. "Battling Poverty or Wars?" IPS News Agency. Web site: www.ipsnews.net/new_nota.asp?idnews=25433, accessed 9 July 2005.

47. According to the UN MDGs Statistical Annex, total official development assistance to all developing countries for 2003 was $69 billion, and $58 billion in 2002. Preliminary data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development released in April 2005 indicates total official development assistance for 2004 at $78.6 billion in current US dollars, which would mark a new high. See: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 11 April 2005. "Official Development Assistance Increases Further: But 2006 Targets Still a Challenge." Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Web site: www.oecd.org/document/3/0,2340,en_2649_201185_34700611_1_1_1_1,00.html, last accessed 5 July 2005.

48. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 250.

49. The International Finance Facility aims to frontload aid funding for the MDGs through the sale of bonds on capital markets. See: Suri, S. 23 May 2005. "Divisions in G-8 May Deepen over Africa." IPS UN Journal 13(93); and "Brown and Chirac Propose New Ideas to Finance the Global Fund." Global Fund Observer Newsletter. Web site: www.aidspan.org/gfo/archives/newsletter/GFO-Issue-39.pdf, accessed 7 February 2005.

50. "EU Debate Adds Fuel to Aid." 17 February 2005. IPS UN Journal 13(28); and UN Millennium Project 2005b p. 256.

51. Data is for 2003. See: Commission for Africa. 2005. Our Common Interest: Report of the Commission for Africa, p. 50. London: Commission for Africa. See also Indicator 15 of: United Nations. 2003b. "Annex: Millennium Development Goals: Targets and Indicators." Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration: Report of the Secretary-General (A/58/323). New York: United Nations.

52. Commission for Africa 2005. The target of allocating 15 per cent of gross domestic product for health was adopted by the Organization of African Unity: "Declaration on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious Diseases," para.26. 2001 African Summit on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious Diseases, Abuja, Nigeria, 26-27 April 2001.

53. UN Millennium Project 2005e, p. 17.

54. Ibid., Box 1, p. 5.

55. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 11 April 2005. See also: Deen 10 September 2004.

56. Bianchi, S. 14 April 2005. "EU Proposes More Aid to Developing Nations: Belgium, France, Finland, Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom have Set Timetables by or before 2015." IPS UN Journal 13(66).

57. The European Union member states pledged to increase spending and established interim targets: 0.51 per cent of gross national income by 2010 for the 15 older EU member states, and 0.17 per cent for the new members. See: Bianchi 14 April 2005.

58. Dugger, C. June 5, 2005. "U.S. Challenged to Increase Aid to Africa." The New York Times; and Bianchi, S. 24 May 2005. "EU to IncreaseAid." InterPress Service New Agency. Web site: http://ipsnews.net/new_nota.asp?idnews=28801, accessed 9 July 2005.

59. Reports on developing country expenditures include all funds spent addressing HIV/AIDS, in addition to the set of preventive activities used in estimating the requirements. A large share of the total is comprised of allocations in a small number of very large countries.

60. United Nations. 2005c. Flow of Financial Resources for Assisting in the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conferrence on Population and Development (E/CN.9/2005/5), p. 16. New York: United Nations.

61. Ibid.

62. United Nations 2002, pp. 53 and 60.

63. UNDP. 2003. Human Development Report 2003: Millennium Development Goals: A Compact among Nations to End Human Poverty. New York: UNDP.

64. See also the 2000 UN Global Compact, which invites international businesses to join and abide by 10 core guiding principles based on human rights, workers' rights, environmental protection and anti-corruption, in: UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 142.

65. The World Bank. n.d. "Governance and Anti-corruption." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/, last accessed 27 June 2005.

66. UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 99 and 201; and Stapp, K. 7 March 2005. "One Step Forward, Two Steps Back?" IPS UN Journal 13(39).

67. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

68. United Nations. 2005d. Progress Made in the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/765), para. 41. New York: United Nations.

69. UN Millennium Project 2005a.

70. Sachs, J. D., and J. W. McArthur. 2005. "The Millennium Project: A Plan for Meeting the Millennium Development Goals." The Lancet 365(9456): 347-353; and UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 133.

71. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

72. ILO. 2001. An ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the World of Work. Geneva: ILO; and "Little Corporate Response Seen in Tackling AIDS Threat." Population 2005 7(1): 4.

73. United Nations. 2005e. In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/2005), para. 8. New York: United Nations.

74. UN Millennium Project. n.d. "Fast Facts: Faces of Poverty." Web site: www.unmillenniumproject. org/facts/index.htm, accessed 3 June 2005.

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