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State of World Population 2005

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Notes

CHAPTER 8


1. United Nations. 2005a. In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/2005). New York: United Nations.

2. The earthquake and tsunami disaster of 26 December 2004 took over 280,000 lives and devastated coastal areas and communities around the Indian Ocean. See: United Nations. 2005b. Summary of the Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific, 2005 (E/2005/18). New York: United Nations; and United States Agency for International Development. 2005. "Indian Ocean: Earthquake and Tsunamis." United States Agency for International Development Fact Sheet. No. 36. Washington, D.C.: Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance, United States Agency for International Development. Web site: www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/ countries/indian_ocean/fy2005/indianocean_et_fs36_02-22-2005.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

3. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, ch. 12. Report to the UN Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

4. UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Health, Dignity and Development: What Will it Take? Task Force on Water and Sanitation. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

5. Smith, D. 2001. "Trends and Causes of Armed Conflict" In: Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation: Trends and Causes of Armed Conflicts, edited by D. Bloomfield, M. Fischer, and A. Schmerlze. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management; and Dwan, R., and M. Gustavsson. 2004. "Major Armed Conflicts." Ch. 3 in: SIPRI Yearbook 2004: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security, by Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. 2004. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6. Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2004. Women's Commission Fact Sheet. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/pdf/fctsht.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

7. United Nations 2005a, para. 114.

8. United Nations. 2005c. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Outcome Documents of the Special Session of the General Assembly Entitled "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century": Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.6/2005/2), para. 76. New York: United Nations.

9. UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

10. United Nations. 2000. UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000): Adopted by the Security Council at Its 4213th Meeting on 31 October 2000 (S/RES/1325 [2000]). New York: United Nations.

11. Article 7.1 of the Rome Statute. Cited in: Reproductive Rights are Human Rights, by the Center for Reproductive Rights. 2005. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights; and United Nations. 2003a. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women (E/CN.4/2003/75). New York: United Nations.

12. United Nations 2003a.

13. United Nations 2005c, para. 248.

14. United Nations. 2004a. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility: Report of the Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change (A/59/565), para. 238. New York: United Nations.

15. United Nations 2005a, para. 114.

16. These commitments are made in UN Security Council Resolutions 1261 (1999), 1314 (2000), 1379 (2001), and 1460 (2003).

17. United Nations 2005a.

18. United Nations. 2004b. Specific Groups and Individuals: Mass Exoduses and Displaced Persons: Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons, Walter Kälin: Submitted Pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2004/55 (E/CN.4/2005/84). New York: United Nations.

19. Globally, 25 million are internally displaced persons, and an additional 11 to 12 million are refugees. See: United Nations 2005a, p. 4.

20. See: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. n.d. "Special Procedures of the Commission on Human Rights: Representative of the Secretary-General on Internally Displaced Persons." Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Web site: www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/interndisp/, accessed 9 July 2005.

21. The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement restate and compile human rights and humanitarian law relevant to internally displaced persons. See: United Nations. 1998a. Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Francis M. Deng, submitted pursuant to Commission Resolution 1997/39: Addendum: Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2). New York: United Nations.

22. United Nations 2004b.

23. United Nations 2005a, paras. 209 and 210.

24. Anderlini, S. N. 2004. Negotiating the Transition to Democracy and Reforming the Security Sector: Vital Contributions of South African Women. Washington, D.C.: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

25. UNIFEM. 2005a. Report to the Fortyfifth Session of the Consultative Committee. New York: UNIFEM.

26. UNFPA. 2004a. Dispatches. No. 62.

27. Mertus, J. 2004. "Women's Participation in the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY): Transitional Justice for Bosnia and Herzegovina." Policy Commission Case Study. Washington, D.C.: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

28. Anderlini, S. N., C. P. Conaway, and L. Kays. 2004. "Transitional Justice and Reconciliation." In: Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action, by International Alert and Women Waging Peace. 2004. Washington and London: Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert. Web site: www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/toolkit/chapters/Transitional_Justice.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

29. UNIFEM. 2005b. "Women, War, Peace, and Justice." New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.womenwarpeace.org/issues/justice/justice.htm, accessed 25 March 2005.

30. UNFPA. 2004b. Beijing at Ten: UNFPA's Commitment to the Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.

31. United Nations. n.d. "The UN Works for Women: Rescued from Horror." New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/works/women/ women5.html, accessed 9 July 2005.

32. The figures are 67 per cent in Rwanda and 64 per cent in Cambodia. For Rwanda, see: UNFPA. 2004c; and for Cambodia, see: Royal Government of Cambodia. 2004. Nation Religion King: The Progress Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action on Women's Issues 1995-2005. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Women's Affairs, Royal Government of Cambodia.

33. Global Information Networks in Education. n.d. "Child Soldier Projects: The Case of Liberia." Web site: www.ginie.org/ginie-crises-links/childsoldiers/liberia1.html, accessed 9 June 2005.

34. Mazurana, D., and K. Carlson. 2004. From Combat to Community: Women and Girls of Sierra Leone. Washington, D.C.: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

35. Save the Children. 2005. Forgotten Casualties of War: Girls in Armed Conflict. London: Save the Children.

36. Mazurana and Carlson 2004.

37. Save the Children 2005.

38. Verhey, B. 2003. Going Home: Demobilising and Reintegrating Child Soldiers in the Democratic Republic of Congo. London: Save the Children; and UNIFEM. 2004. Getting It Right, Doing It Right: Gender and Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration. New York: UNIFEM.

39. UNICEF. 2005. Factsheet: Child Soldiers. New York: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org/protection/childsoldiers.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

40. Chubb, K. 2001. Between Anger and Hope: South Africa's Youth and the TRC. Witwatersrand: Witwatersrand University Press.

41. Clark, C. 2003. "Juvenile Justice and Child Soldiering: Trends, Challenges, and Dilemmas." Child Soldier Newsletter 7: 6- 8. Web site: www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=681, accessed 25 March 2005.

42. Republic of Sierra Leone. 2003. Sierra Leone National Youth Policy. Freetown: Republic of Sierra Leone. Web site: www.statehouse-sl.org/ policies/youth.html, accessed 25 March 2005.

43. The World Bank. 2005a. Youth for Good Governance Distance Learning Program. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/35958/overview.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005; and The World Bank. 2005b. "Module IX: The Role of Youth: The Significance of Coalition-Building." Youth for Good Governance Distance Learning Program. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/35976/mod09.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

44. "Congo: Children's Parliament Launched by Government and UNICEF." 30 September 2005. IRINnews. Web site: www.irin.asp?ReportID=36903&SelectRegion=Great_Lake, accessed 25 March 2005.

45. Save the Children 2005; and UNESCO. 2004. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/4. Paris: UNESCO.

46. Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. Precious Resources: Participatory Research Study with Adolescents and Youth in Sierra Leone: April-July 2002. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/reports/sl/index.shtml, accessed 25 March 2005.

47. Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. 2004. Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises, and Early Reconstruction. Paris: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. Web site: www.ineesite.org/ standards/MSEE_report.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

48. Sommers, M. 2002. Children, Education, and War: Reaching Education for All (EFA) Objectives in Countries Affected by Conflict. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Web site: www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2002/10/12/ 000094946_02091704130527/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

49. Mazurana and Carlson 2004.

50. UNFPA. 2004d. "Reproductive Health for Communities in Crises." Ch. 10 in: The State of World Population 2004: The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty, by UNFPA. 2004e. New York: UNFPA.

51. New Sudan Centre for Statistics and Evaluation and UNICEF. 2004. "Towards a Baseline: Best Estimates of Social Indicators for Southern Sudan." NSCSE Series Paper. No. 1.

52. United Nations. 1999. Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations: An Interagency Field Manual. Geneva: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Web site: www.rhrc.org/resources/general%5Ffieldtools/iafm_menu.htm, accessed 25 March 2005.

53. RHRC resources can be found at the web site of the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium: www.rhrc.org, last accessed 13 July 2005. Member agencies include the American Refugee Committee, CARE, the Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, the International Rescue Committee, JSI Research and Training Institute, Marie Stopes International and the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

54. UNFPA. 2003. ''Iraqi Women Receive UNFPA Emergency Reproductive Health Services and Supplies." Dispatches. No. 57.

55. UNFPA. 14 January 2005. "UNFPA Ships Supplies to Ensure Safe Childbirth and Meet Women's Needs in Tsunami-Hit Countries." Press Release. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=546, accessed 25 March 2005.

56. UNFPA. 2004f. Into Good Hands: Progress Reports from the Field. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/378_filename_hands_en.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

57. UNFPA. 3 May 2002. "UN Population Fund Seeks $3.6 Million for Emergency Assistance in Occupied Palestinian Territory: Protecting Pregnant Women a Top Priority." Press Release. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=80&Language=1, accessed 9 July 2005.

58. United Nations. 1998b. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Systematic Rape, Sexual Slavery and Slavery-like Practices During Armed Conflict (E/CN.4/Sub/2/1998/13). New York: United Nations; and Human Rights Watch. 2000a. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia: Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of "Ethnic Cleansing", Web site: www.hrw.org/reports/2000/fry/index.htm#TopOfPage, accessed 12 April 2005.

59. UN Millennium Project 2005d; United Nations. 2005d. Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women: Intersections of Violence against Women and HIV/AIDS: Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Its Causes and Consequences, Yakin Ertürk (E/CN.4/2005/72). New York: United Nations; and Adrian-Paul, A. 2004. "HIV/AIDS." Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action. Washington, D.C., and London: Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert. Web site: www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/toolkit/chapters/HIV_AIDS.pdf, accessed 25 March 2005.

60. Human Rights Watch. 2003. We'll Kill You If You Cry: Sexual Violence in the Sierra Leone Conflict, p. 3. New York: Human Rights Watch.

61. Adrian-Paul 2004.

62. Human Rights Watch. 2000b. "Tanzania: Violence against Women Refugees." New York: Human Rights Watch. Web site: www.hrw.org/english/docs/2000/09/26/tanzan676.htm, accessed 12 April 2005.

63. UNFPA. 2004g. "Forms of Gender-based Violence and Their Consequences." Interactive Population Center. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/intercenter/violence/index.htm, accessed 12 April 2005.

64. Puri, S. n.d. "Challenging Gender-based Violence Across Genders." New York: International Rescue Committee. See web site: www.theirc.org/index.cfm/wwwID/578, accessed 2 March 2005.

65. Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2005. "Genderbased Violence." New York: Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. Web site: www.rhrc.org/rhr_basics/gbv/, accessed 25 March 2005.

66. UNFPA 2004b.

67. United Nations. 2002. Investigations into Sexual Exploitation of Refugees by Aid Workers in West Africa: Note by the Secretary-General (A/57/465). Also see: UN News Centre. 29 April 2005. "UN Probes Allegations of Sex Exploitation by Peacekeepers in Liberia." Web site: www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=14131&Cr=Liberia&Cr1=#, accessed 14 June 2005.

68. United Nations. 2003. Secretary- General's Bulletin: Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Expoitation and Sexual Abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13). New York: United Nations.

69. Wax, E. 13 November 2003. "Cycle of War is Spreading AIDS and Fear in Africa." The Washington Post.

70. UNAIDS. 2005a. "HIV/AIDS and Uniformed Services." Geneva: UNAIDS. Web site: www.unaids.org/EN/in+focus/hiv_aids_security+and+humanitarian+response/hiv_aids+ and+uniformed+services.asp, accessed 25 March 2005.

71. Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2004a. Guidelines for the Care of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Conflict-Affected Settings. New York: Reproductive Health in Conflict Consortium; Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium. 2004b. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Short Course for Humanitarian Workers: Facilitator's Manual. New York: Reproductive Health in Conflict Consortium; and United Nations. 2004c. Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Interventions in Emergency Settings. New York: Inter- Agency Standing Committee Task Force on HIV/AIDS in Emergency Settings, United Nations.

72. UNFPA. 2001. Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis: UNFPA Emergency Response. New York: UNFPA.

73. UNIFEM. n.d. "Women, War, Peace and HIV/AIDS." New York: UNIFEM Web site: www.womenwarpeace.org/ issues/hiv/hiv.htm, last accessed 13 July 2005; UNAIDS. 2005b. "First Quarterly Report 2005." UNAIDS Office on AIDS, Security and Humanitarian Response (SHR). Copenhagen: UNAIDS. Web site: www.unaids.org/html/pub/topics/security/shr-2005quarter1_en_pdf.pdf, accessed 13 July 2005.

74. United Nations. 2003b. United Nations Population Fund: Report of the Executive Director for 2002: Reports Requested by the Executive Board (DP/FPA/2003/4 [Part III]). New York: United Nations.

75. UNAIDS. 2004. On the Front Line: A Review of Policies and Programmes to Address HIV/AIDS Among Peacekeepers and Uniformed Services. New York: UNAIDS.

76. Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2005. Children and Adolescents Project. New York: Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. Web site: www.womenscommission.org/projects/children/index.shtml, accessed 25 March 2005.

77. Nyitambe, N., M. Schilperoord, and R. Ondeko. 2004. "Lessons from a Sexual Reproductive Health Initiative for Tanzanian Adolescents." Forced Migration Review 19: 9-10. Web site: www.fmreview.org/FMRpdfs/FMR19/FMR19full.pdf. accessed 25 March 2005.

78. UNFPA 2004c.

79. The Population Council and UNFPA. 2002. Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Charting Directions for a Second Generation of Programming. A Report on a Workshop of the UNFPA in Collaboration with the Population Council, New York, 1-3 May 2002. New York: The Population Council.

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