UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

State of World Population 2005




1. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

2. Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M.Gottemoeller. 1999. "Ending Violence against Women." Population Reports. Series L. No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.

3. UN Millennium Project 2005a, pp. 15 and 110.

4. Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottemoeller 1999.

5. Krug, E., et al. (eds.). 2002. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: WHO.

6. Ibid.

7. Morrison, A. R., and M. B. Orlando. 1999. "Social and Economic Costs of Domestic Violence: Chile and Nicaragua." Ch. 3 in: Morrison, A., and L. Biehl (eds). 1999. Too Close to Home: Domestic Violence in Latin America. Washington, D.C.: Inter- American Development Bank. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a.

8. International Center for Research on Women. 2000. A Summary Report for a Multi-Site Household Survey. Domestic Violence in India. No. 3. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 115.

9. Australian Government. 2004. The Cost of Domestic Violence to the Australian Economy: Part I. Report prepared by Access Economics Pty. for the Office of Women, Commonwealth of Australia; and Phillips, J., and M. Park. 6 December 2004. "Measuring Violence against Women: A Review of the Literature and Statistics." Canberra, Australia: Parliament of Australia. Online E-Brief. Web site: www.aph.gov.au/library/intguide/SP/ViolenceAgainstWomen.htm, last accessed 27 June 2005.

10. Waters, H., et al. 2004. The Economic Dimensions of Interpersonal Violence. Geneva: Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention, WHO.

11. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 119.

12. Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottemoeller 1999. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 113. Another estimate, based on findings from 48 population-based surveys, placed this figure at between 16 and 50 per cent. See: Krug, et al. 2002

13. Krug, et al. 2002.

14. Solano, P., and M. Velzeboer. 2003. "Componentes clave para leyes y políticas contra la violencia contras las mujere," p. 13. Draft discussion document. Washington, D.C.: Pan-American Health Organization.

15. Krug, et al. 2002.

16. BBC News. 20 June 2002. "Human Smuggling Eclipses Drugs Trade." Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/ 1/hi/world/2056662.stm, accessed 7 May 2005.

17. United States Department of State. 2005. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2005. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State.

18. United States Department of State. 2004. Trafficking in Persons Report: June 2004. Publication No. 1150. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of State.

19. Martens, J. 2004. "Seduced, Imported, Sold: Trafficking in Women and Children in Africa." Paper prepared for the Seventh Regional Conference on Women (Beijing +10), Addis Ababa, 12-14 October 2004. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: UN Economic Commission for Africa; and Miko, F. 2004. "Trafficking in Persons: The U.S. and International Response: Congressional Research Service." CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress.

20. United Nations. 2002. "Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime: Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly Resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000." Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/ law/protocoltraffic.htm, last accessed 11 July 2005.

21. Council of Europe. n.d. "Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: News." Web site: www.coe.int/ T/E/human_rights/trafficking, accessed 26 May 2005.

22. Boland, R. 2004. "Legal Progress in Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action." Statement at the 2004 International Parliamentarians' Conference on the Implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action, Strasbourg, France, 18-19 October 2004. Web site: www.unfpa.org/parliamentarians/ipci/strasbourg/docs/boland.doc, last accessed 5 July 2005; and Boland, R. April 2005. Personal communications.

23. UNFPA. 2003. UNFPA and Young People: Imagine. New York: UNFPA

24. Krug, et al. 2002.

25. UN Millennium Project. 2005a, p. 114.

26. Jejeebhoy, S. 1996. "Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Behavior: A Review of the Evidence from India." ICRW Working Paper. No. 3. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. Cited in: Mensch, B., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene. 1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls' Adolescence in the Developing World, p. 46. New York: The Population Council.

27. UNICEF. 2001. Early Marriage: Child Spouses, p. 11. Innocenti Digest. No. 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre.

28. Im-em, W., K. Archvanitkul, and C. Kanchanachitra. 2004. "Sexual Coercion among Women in Thailand: Results from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Life Experiences." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Boston, Massachusetts, 3-5 August 2004.

29. The Population Council. 2004a. The Adverse Health and Social Outcomes of Sexual Coercion: Experiences of Young Women in Developing Countries. New York: The Population Council; Jejeebhoy, S. J., and S. Bott. 2003. Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People: A Review of the Evidence from Developing Countries. South and East Asia Regional Working Paper. No. 16. New Delhi: Population Council. See also: Im-em, Archvanitkul, and Kanchanachitra 2004.

30. de Bruyn, M., and S. Packer. 2004. Adolescents, Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion: Policies, Counseling and Clinical Care. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Ipas.

31. Amnesty International. 2004. It's in Our Hands: Stop Violence against Women. London: Amnesty International.

32. Krug, et al. 2002.

33. Amoakohene, M. A. 2004. "Violence Against Women in Ghana: A Look at Women's Perceptions and Review of Policy and Social Responses." Social Science and Medicine 59(2004): 2373-2385; Manh Loi, V., V. Tuan Huy, N. Huu Minh and C. Clement. 1999. "Gender Based Violence: The Case of Vietnam." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; Garcia-Moreno, C. 2002. "Violence against Women: Consolidating a Public Health Agenda." Pp. 111-142 in: Engendering International Health: The Challenge of Equity, edited by G. Sen, A. George, and P. Ostlin. 2002. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press; and Koenig, M., et al. 2003. "Domestic Violence in Rural Uganda: Evidence From a Community-based Study." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 81(1): 53-60.

34. The Population Council. 2004b. Sexual Coercion: Young Men's Experiences as Victims and Perpetrators. New York: The Population Council.

35. Solano and Velzeboer 2003.

36. As recognized, for example, in the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, Article 4(f) and the Beijing Platform for Action, para. 124(g). See: United Nations. 1993. 48/104: Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (A/RES/48/104), Article 4. New York United Nations; and United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.

37. Luciano, D., S. Esim, and N. Duvvury. 2003. "How to Make the Law Work: Budgetary Implications of Domestic Violence Laws in Latin America, Central America and the Caribbean." Paper presented at "Women Working to Make a Difference," Seventh International Women's Policy Research Conference, Washington, D.C., 22-24 June 2003.

38. UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Overview, p. 13. Report to the Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

39. WHO. n.d. "Schools and Youth Health: Resources and Tools for Advocacy." Geneva: WHO. Web site: www.who.int/school_youth_health/resources/en/, last accessed 10 July 2005; UNESCO. 2004. "Making the Case for Violence Prevention through Schools." FRESH Tools for Effective School Health, 1st Edition. Geneva: UNESCO; and Larraín, S., J. Vega, and I. Delgado. 1997. Relaciones familiares y maltrato infantiìl. Santiago: UNICEF. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a.

40. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 119.

41. Watts, C., and S. Mayhew. 2004. "Reproductive Health Services and Intimate Partner Violence: Shaping a Programmatic Response in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Family Planning Perpectives 30(4): 207-213; and UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

42. de Bruyn and Packer 2004.

43. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 111.

44. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS and WHO. n.d. Violence against Women: Critical Intersections: Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS. Information Bulletin Series. No. 1. Geneva: WHO.

45. Human Rights Watch. 2002. The War within the War: Sexual Violence against Women and Girls in the Eastern Congo. New York: Human Rights Watch.

46. WHO. 2000. "Female Genital Mutilation." Fact Sheet. No. 241. Geneva: WHO. Web site: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs241/en, accessed 3 March 2005.

47. Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottemoeller 1999.

48. Ganatra, B. R., K. J. Coyaji, and V. N. Rao. 1996. Community cum Hospital Based Case-Control Study on Maternal Mortality: A Final Report. Pune, India: KEM Hospital Research Centre. Worldwide, studies have identified a trend in the rationale for why violence occurs during pregnancy; reasons include disobeying one's husband, expressing suspicions of infidelity, refusing sex, or failing to adequately care for the children or home. According to a report of the Population Council, globally, one woman in every four is physically or sexually abused during pregnancy, usually by her partner. See: Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1998. "Association between Wifebeating and Fetal and Infant Death: Impressions from a Survey in Rural India." Studies in Family Planning 29(3): 300-308; Visaria, L. 1999. "Violence Against Women in India: Evidence from Rural Gujarat." Pp. 14-25 in: Domestic Violence in India: A Summary Report of Three Studies, by the International Center for Research on Women. 1999. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women; and Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottemoeller 1999.

49. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 16.

50. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

51. Leung, T. W., et al. 2002. "A Comparison of the Prevalence of Domestic Violence Between Patients Seeking Termination of Pregnancy and Other Gynecology Patients." International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 77(1): 47-54. A 1999 case control study in a hospital in Hong Kong of 501 women (245 seeking abortion and 256 other ob/gyn patients) found that "the lifetime prevalence of abuse in the group seeking abortion was 27.3% compared to 8.2% in the ob/gyn group". The study also found that "among those with recent history of abuse, 27% (9/33) admitted that their decision for termination of pregnancy had been affected by their experience of abuse".

52. Kaye, D. 2001. "Domestic Violence Among Women Seeking Post-abortion Care." International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 75(3(: 323-325. A 2000 study of 311 women seeking PAC at a national referral hospital in Uganda found that 70 women (23.2 per cent) had induced abortions and 28 of those (38.9 per cent) "gave domestic violencerelated issues as the main reason for inducing the abortion".

53. Watts and Mayhew 2004.

54. United Nations 1996, para. 106(q).

55. Krug, et al. 2002.

56. Bott, S., et al. 2004. Improving the Health Sector Response to Gender-based Violence: A Resource Manual for Health Care Professionals in Developing Countries. New York: IPPF/Western Hemisphere Region.

57. UNFPA and AIDOS. 2003. Addressing Violence against Women: Piloting and Programming: Rome, Italy, 15-19 September 2003. New York and Rome: UNFPA and AIDOS.

58. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 40; and Global Campaign for Education. 2005. "Girls Can't Wait: Why Girls' Education Matters, and How to Make It Happen Now: Briefing Paper for the UN Beijing + 10 Review and Appraisal." Brussels, Belgium: Global Campaign for Education.

59. UNFPA. 2005. Beijing at Ten: UNFPA's Commitment to the Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.

60. UN-HABITAT (United Nations Human Settlement Programme). 2001. Cities in a Globalizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 2001. London: Earthscan.

61. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 76.

62. UNFPA 2005, Area 6.

63. The UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality identified women's inheritance and property rights, and combating violence against women, as two of seven strategic priorities for achieving gender equality.

64. United Nations. 2005. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Outcome Documents of the Special Session of the General Assembly Entitled "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century": Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.6/2005/2), para. 214. New York: United Nations.

65. Center for Reproductive Rights. 2005. "Governments in Action: Legal and Policy Developments Affecting Reproductive Rights." Briefing Paper. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.

66. United Nations 2005, para. 207, 208 and 211.

67. Bendre, U., and T. Khorakiwala,. 2004. "Assessment of Family Counselling Centers in Madhya Pradesh." Report submitted to UNFPA.

68. UNFPA. 13 March 2003. "The Santa Maria/Sal Commitment: By African Women Ministers and Parliamentarians on Gender and HIV/AIDS: Reinforcing National Action." News Feature. New York: UNFPA.

69. UNFPA 2005, p. 6.

70. United Nations 2005, para. 223.

71. UN Millennium Project. 2005d. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, p. 68. Report to the UN Secretary- General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

72. UNFPA 2005, p. 6.

73. Garcia-Moreno, C. 2003. "Responding to Violence against Women: WHO's Multicountry Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence." Health and Human Rights: An International Journal 6(2): 112-127.

74. The White Ribbon Campaign. n.d. " Men Working to End Men's Violence Against Women." Toronto, Canada: White Ribbon Campaign. Web site: www.whiteribbon.ca/about_us/, last accessed 5 May 2005.

75. Crossette, B. 2004. "Priorities Across Borders: For Many Women, Violence Shuts Out Hope." Media Center, UN Foundation. See web site: www.stopvaw.org/ October_2004.html#25Oct200424, accessed 9 July 2005.

76. Ramos-Jimenez, P. 1996. "Philippine Strategies to Combat Domestic Violence Against Women." Task Force on Social Science and Reproductive Health. Manila, the Philippines: Social Development Research Center and De La Salle University.

77. Royal Government of Cambodia. 2004. Nation Religion King: The Progress Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action on Women's Issues 1995-2005, p. 10. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Women's Affairs, Royal Government of Cambodia; and "A Role for Men in Gender Equality." 13 September 2004. IPS UN Journal 11(165): 6.

78. United Nations 2005, para. 234.

79. Based on a costing exercise on genderspecific interventions that include training and awareness campaigns, interventions to combat violence against women, and capacity development of the women's ministry. See: UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 36.

80. Waters, H., et al. 2004.

81. United Nations. 2000. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2: United Nations Millennium Declaration (A/RES/55/2), para. 12. New York: United Nations.

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