UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

State of World Population 2005




1. Boserup, E. 1970. Woman's Role in Economic Development. London and New York: Earthscan.

2. Naciones Unidas. 2002. Paternidad Responsable en el istmo centroamericano (LC/MEX/L.475/Rev.1). Santiago, Chile: Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), Naciones Unidas; Abdalla, J. 2001. "The Absent Father." Pp. 214-246 in: The New Arab Family: Cairo Papers in Social Science 24(1/2), edited by N. Hopkins. 2001. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press; and Nosseir, N. 2003. "Family in the New Millennium: Major Trends Affecting Families in North Africa." In: Major Trends Affecting Families: A Background Document, by United Nations. 2003. New York: Division for Social Policy and Development, United Nations.

3. Naciones Unidas. 2002.

4. For example, this is supported by research from countries in East and South East Asia. Women who are single mothers with limited marketable skills or employment prospects may be obliged to bring their children along to help them with their small businesses and sale of goods. See: Quah, S. R. 2003. "Major Trends Affecting Families in East and Southeast Asia: Final Report," p. 30. New York: Division for Social Policy and Development, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, United Nations.

5. United States Department of Health and Human Services. 1993. Survey on Child Health. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Health Statistics, United States Department of Health and Human Services; Centro de Análisis Sociocultural - Universidad Centroamericana, CEPAL and UNFPA. 2005. "Estudio Masculinidad y factores socioculturales asociados al comportamiento de los hombres frente a la paternidad en Centroamerica: Caso Nicaragua." Draft; Naciones Unidas. 2002; and UNICEF. 1997. Role of Men in the Lives of Children: A Study of How Improving Knowledge About Men in Families Helps Strengthen Programming for Children and Women. New York: UNICEF.

6. Naciones Unidas. 2002.

7. Baker, G., et al. 2003. "Men's Participation as Fathers in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Literature Review with Policy Considerations." Final draft. Document prepared for the World Bank; and Naciones Unidas 2002.

8. UNFPA. n.d. "It Takes 2: Partnering with Men in Reproductive & Sexual Health," p. 15. Programme Advisory Note. New York: UNFPA. See also a study in Nicaragua: Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, Cooperación Alemana- GTZ, Ministerio de Salud. 2003. "Promoción de la Participación de los Hombres en los Programas de Salud Sexual y Reproductiva. Versión Resumen del Informe Final." Managua, Nicaragua.

9. UNFPA. 2000. Partnering: A New Approach to Sexual and Reproductive Health. Technical Paper. No.3. New York: UNFPA; and UNFPA n.d.

10. UNFPA 2000; and Scalway, T. 2001. Young Men and HIV: Culture, Poverty and Sexual Risk. London: Panos and UNAIDS.

11. UNFPA 2000.

12. The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice, pp. 9 and 77. New York and Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press and the World Bank.

13. The World Bank. n.d. "Latin America and the Caribbean: Crime and Violence Prevention." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank Group. Web site: http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/LAC/LAC.nsf/ ECADocByUnid/65A4BF3B8D10247D85256CFD007A5D62? Opendocument, last accessed 16 May 2005.

14. Ajuwon, A. 2003. "Research in Sexual Coercion among Young Persons: The Experiences and Lessons Learned from Ibadan, Nigeria." Presentation at Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences of Young People in Developing Countries: A Consultative Meeting, New Delhi, India, 22-25 September 2003; Caceres, C. "The Complexity of Young People's Experiences of Sexual Coercion: Lessons Learned from Studies in Peru." Presentation at Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People in Developing Countries: A Consultative Meeting, New Delhi, India, 22-25 September 2003; Jewkes, R. "Nonconsensual Sex among South African Youth: Prevalence of Coerced Sex and Discourses of Control and Desire." Presentation at Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People in Developing Countries: A Consultative Meeting, New Delhi, India, 22-25 September 2003; and Wilkinson, J. W., L. S. Bearup, and T. Soprach. "Youth Gang-rape in Phom Penh." Presentation at Non-consensual Sexual Experiences of Young People in Developing Countries: A Consultative Meeting, New Delhi, India, 22-25 September 2003. All cited in: The Population Council, WHO and YouthNet. 2004. Sexual Coercion: Young Men's Experience as Victims and Perpetrators. New Delhi: The Population Council.

15. Greene, M. E., and A. E. Biddlecom. 2000. "Absent and Problematic Men: Demographic Accounts of Male Reproductive Roles." Population and Development Review 26(1): 81-115; and Jacobson, J. 2000. "Transforming Family Planning Programmes: Towards a Framework for Advancing the Reproductive Rights Agenda." Reproductive Health Matters 8(15): 21-32.

16. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2003. In Their Own Right: Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Men Worldwide. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Based on Demographic and Health Surveys in 39 developing countries conducted between 1996 and 2003.

17. The data do not include all groups in all regions, leaving out some key groups such as boys under 15, unmarried men, and men in prison, the military, migrants or refugees, many of whom are sexually active.

18. The Alan Guttmacher Institute 2003.

19. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2004. Risk and Protection: Youth and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, p. 34. New York and Washington, D.C.: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

20. The Alan Guttmacher Institute 2004, Appendix Table 5, p. 36.

21. The Alan Guttmacher Institute 2004, Appendix Table 4, p. 35.

22. United Nations. 2005a. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Outcome Documents of the Special Session of the General Assembly Entitled "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century": Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.6/2005/2), para. 658. New York: United Nations.

23. Chattopadhay, T. 2004. Role of Men and Boys in Promoting Gender Equality: An Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO; PLANetWiRE Clips. 13 April 2005. "Saudi Clerics Rule Against Forced Marriage;" and Barker, G. 2002. "Instituto PROMUNDO: Engaging Young Men in Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil." Presentation at the Oxfam workshop, Gender Is Everyone's Business: Programming with Men to Achieve Gender Equality, Oxford, United Kingdom, 10-12 June 2002. Web site: www.oxfam.org.uk/what_we_do/issues/gender/gem/downloads/Promcase.pdf, last accessed 5 May 2005.

24. UNFPA 2005 "Regional Conference of African Islamic Faith-Based Organizations, Abuja, Nigeria, 14-18 March 2005." Conference Report. New York: UNFPA.

25. Greene, M. E. 2002. "Involving Men in Reproductive Health: Implications for Reproductive Health and Rights." Pp. 129-138 in: Reproductive Health and Rights: Reaching the Hardly Reached, edited by E. Murphy and A. Hendrix-Jenkins. Washington, D.C.: PATH. Web site: www.path.org/ publications/pub.php?id=516, last accessed 22 June 2005.

26. Ndong, I., et al. 1999. "Men's Reproductive Health: Defining, Designing and Delivering Services." International Family Planning Perspectives 25(Supplement): S53-S55; Bergstrom, G. 1999. "Men's Voices, Men's Choices: How Can Men Gain From Improved Gender Equality?" A Sweden/Africa Regional Seminar, Lusaka, Zambia, 11-13 January 1999. Stockholm, Sweden: Ministry for Foreign Affairs; Johansson, A., et al. 1998. "Husbands' Involvement in Abortion in Vietnam." Studies in Family Planning 29(4): 400-413; Basu, A. M. 1996. "Women's Education, Marriage and Fertility: Do Men Really Not Matter?" Population and Development Program Working Paper Series. No. 96.03. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University; Laudari, Carlos. 1998. "Gender Equity in Reproductive and Sexual Health." Paper presented at the FAO/WHO/UNFPA Thematic Workshop on Male Involvement in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes, Rome, 9-13 November 1998; Hull, T. H. 1999. "Men and Family Planning: How Attractive is the Programme of Action?" Paper presented at the Psychosocial Meeting preceding the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New York, New York, 23-24 March.1999; Hawkes, S. 1998. "Providing Sexual Health Services for Men in Bangladesh." Sexual Health Exchange 3: 14-15; and Collumbien, M., and S. Hawkes. 2000. "Missing Men's Messages: Does the Reproductive Health Approach Respond to Men's Sexual Health Needs?" Culture, Health and Sexuality 2(2): 135-150.

27. UNFPA 2000. The theme of "shame" in men (in seeking condoms, services, discussing reproductive health issues, sharing household responsibilities) was a salient finding in a study in Nicaragua. See: Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, Cooperación Alemana-GTZ, Ministerio de Salud 2003.

28. Cates, W., Jr. 1996. "The Dual Goals of Reproductive Health." Network 16(3); Loaiza, E. 1998. "Male Fertility, Contraceptive Use, and Reproductive Preferences in Latin America: The DHS Experience." Paper prepared for the seminar, "Men, Family Formation and Reproduction," the Committee on Gender and Population of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) and the Centro de Estudios de Poblacion (CENEP), Buenos Aires, Argentina 13-15 May 1998. Liege, Belgium: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population; and Lamptey, P., et al. 1978. "An Evaluation of Male Contraceptive Acceptance in Rural Ghana." Studies in Family Planning 9(8): 222-226; Fapohunda, B. M., and N. Rutenberg. 1998. "Enhancing the Role of Men in Family Planning and Reproductive Health." Unpublished paper.

29. UNFPA 2000; and Nzioka, C. 2001. "Perspectives of Adolescent Boys on the Risks of Unwanted Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections: Kenya," Reproductive Health Matters 9(17): 108- 117.

30. UNFPA 2000.

31. Scalway 2001.

32. Blanc, A. 2001. "The Effect of Power in Sexual Relationships on Sexual and Reproductive Health: An Examination of the Evidence." Studies in Family Planning 32(3): 189-213.

33. De Keijzer, B. 2004. "Masculinities: Resistance and Change." Pp. 28-49 in: Gender Equality and Men: Learning from Practice, edited by S. Ruxton. 2004. Oxford: Oxfam GB.

34. UNFPA. 2004. Working from Within: Culturally Sensitive Approaches in UNFPA Programming, p. 12. New York: UNFPA.

35. Sayages, M. 13 June 2003. "Africa's Men Meet Challenge of Fighting HIV/AIDS." Reuters AlertNet. Web site: www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/aidsfeature.htm, last accessed 9 July 2005.

36. United Nations 2005a, para. 388; and "A Role for Men in Gender Equality." 13 September 2004. IPS UN Journal.11(165): 6.

37. The Population Council. 2000. "Alone You Are Nobody, Together We Float: The Manuela Ramos Movement." Quality/Calidad/Qualite, No. 10. New York: The Population Council.

38. Siegfried, K. 3 March 2005. "Changing Men's Attitudes to Reduce AIDS in Africa." The Christian Science Monitor.

39. United Nations. 2004. "The Role of Men and Boys in Achieving Gender Equality." Panel II of the Forty-eighth Session of the Commission on Status of Women, New York, 2 March 2004. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations.

40. Scalway 2001.

41. Raju, S., and A. Leonard (eds.). 2000. Men as Supportive Partners in Reproductive Health: Moving from Rhetoric to Reality, p. 57. New Delhi: The Population Council; Laack, S. 1995. "Thoughts about Male Involvement: Swedish Experiences." Paper presented at the Youth Sexuality Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, 13-18 August 1995; and Laack, S., et al. 1997. Report on the RFSU Young Men's Clinic. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Association of Sex Education.

42. Grant, E., et al. 2003. "Seizing the Day: Right Time, Right Place, Right Message for Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health (Kenya)." Presentation at the Conference on Reaching Men to Improve the Reproductive Health of All, Interagency Gender Working Group, USAID, Washington D.C., September 2003.

43. Pan-American Health Organization. 2003. "Improving the Lives of Adolescent Girls and Boys By Involving Adolescent Boys: A New Approach to Health Promotion and Prevention Through Soccer." Adolescent project. Washington, D.C.: Pan-American Health Organization.

44. The Population Council. 2003. "My Father Didn't Think This Way: Nigerian Boys Contemplate Gender Equality." 2003. Quality/Calidad/Qualite. No. 14. New York: The Population Council.

45. Mishra, A. 2003. "Enlightening Adolescent Boys in India on Gender and Reproductive and Sexual Health." Presentation at the Conference on Reaching Men to Improve the Reproductive Health of All, Interagency Gender Working Group, USAID, Washington D.C., September 2003.

46. Barker, G., et al. 2004. "How Do We Know if Men Have Changed: Promoting and Measuring Attitude Change with Young Men: Lessons Learned from Program H in Latin America," Pp. 147-161 in: Ruxton 2004.

47. UNFPA. 2003a. Enlisting the Armed Forces to Protect Reproductive Health and Rights: Lessons from Nine Countries. Technical Report. New York: UNFPA.

48. Ibid.

49. UNFPA. 2003b. Salud Sexual y Reproductiva, Prevención del VIH/SIDA y Equidad de Género en Fuerzas Armadas en América Latina, Estudios de Caso de Ecuador, Nicaragua, Paraguay y Perú. Bogota, Colombia: UNFPA.

50. Pathfinder International. 1998. "Reaching Young Men with Reproductive Health Programs." Watertown, Massachusetts: Pathfinder International. Web site: www.pathfind.org/pf/pubs/focus/IN%20FOCUS/ReachingYoungMen.doc, accessed 25 March 2005.

51. Rob, U., et al. 2004. "Integration of Reproductive Health Services for Men in Health and Family Welfare Centers in Bangladesh." FRONTIERS Final Report. Washington, D.C.: The Population Council.

52. United Nations 2005a, paras. 193, 239, 406, and 571; and United Nations. 2005b. Progress Made in the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/765), para. 63b. New York: United Nations.

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