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State of World Population 2005

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Notes

CHAPTER 5


1. United Nations. 2004. World Youth Report 2005: Report of the Secretary- General (A/60/61 - E/2005/7), p. 1. New York: United Nations.

2. Ibid.

3. United Nations. 2005a. "World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision: File 1: Total Population Both Sexes by Age Group, Major Area, Region and Country, Annually for 1950-2050 (in thousands) (Pop/DB/WPP/Rev.2004/4/F1)." Spreadsheet. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

4. Ibid.

5. Lloyd, C. B. (ed.). 2005. Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; and UNFPA. 2005a. The Case for Investing in Young People as Part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. New York: UNFPA.

6. Lloyd 2005.

7. BBC News. 20 June 2002. "Human Smuggling Eclipses Drugs Trade." Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/2056662.stm, accessed 7 May 2005.

8. Lloyd 2005.

9. Ibid.

10. The Population Council. 2005. Population Briefs: Reports on Population Council Research 11(1). New York: The Population Council.

11. Bernstein, S., and E. White. 2005. "The Relevance of the ICPD Programme of Action for the Achievement of the MDGs: and Vice Versa: Shared Visions and Common Goals." Chapter 12 in: Proceedings of the Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals: New York: 17-19 November 2004 (ESA/P/WP.192), by the United Nations. 2005b. New York: Population Divison, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

12. UNESCO. 2004. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2005: Education for All, the Quality Imperative. Paris: UNESCO.

13. Lloyd 2005; and Grown, C., G. R. Gupta , and R. Pande. 2005. "Taking Action to Improve Women's Health through Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment." The Lancet 365(9458): 541-543.

14. UNFPA 2005a, p. 59.

15. United Nations 2004, p. 5.

16. United Nations. 2005c. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Outcome Documents of the Special Session of the General Assembly Entitled "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century": Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.6/2005/2), para. 496. New York: United Nations; and United Nations 2004, para. 18.

17. UNFPA. 2005b. Policy Development Supporting Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Nine Countries' Experiences and Collaboration with UNFPA. New York: UNFPA.

18. Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the MDGs. 2005. Youth and the Millennium Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation: Final Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the MDGs: April 2005. Web site: http://tig.phpwebhosting.com/ themes/mdg/YouthMDG.pdf, last accessed 27 June 2005.

19. International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2003. Youth Participation: Youth in Decision Making Processes. IPPF/WHR Spotlight on Youth. No. 7. Informational Sheet. New York: Western Hemisphere Region, International Planned Parenthood Federation.

20. UNFPA. 2003a. UNFPA and Young People: Imagine. New York: UNFPA; and UNFPA. 2005c. Beijing at Ten: UNFPA's Commitment to the Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.

21. UNFPA 2005b.

22. Ibid.

23. The project is part of a multi-country programme supported by a grant of the European Union.

24. UNFPA. 2 May 2005. "Laotian Youth Teach Peers to Protect their Health." News Feature. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news.cfm?ID=609&Language=1, accessed 6 July 2005; and UNFPA 2005b.

25. UNFPA 2005b.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid.

28. UNFPA 2005a; and United Nations 2005a.

29. UNFPA 2005a.

30. Ibid., p 16.

31. United Nations. 2005d. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision: Highlights (ESA/P/WP.193), pp. vii and 1. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

32. UNFPA 2005a.

33. Ibid., p. 44.

34. Cincotta, R., R. Engelman, and D. Anastasion. 2003. The Security Demographic: Population and Civil Conflict after the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International. Cited in: UNFPA 2005a, p. 46. See also: Urdal, H. 2004. The Devil in the Demographics: The Effect of Youth Bulges on Domestic Armed Conflict, 1950-2000. Social Development Papers: Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction. No. 14. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

35. UNFPA 2005a.

36. The World Bank. n.d. "Why Invest in Children and Youth?" Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ TOPICS/EXTCY/0,,contentMDK:20243901~menuPK: 565261~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~ theSitePK:396445,00.htm, accessed 28 June 2005.

37. See, for example, the Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW); the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; and the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health. All can be found on: Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. n.d. "Human Rights Bodies: Mechanisms for the Protection and the Promotion of Human Rights." Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/, last accessed 7 July 2005.

38. Center for Reproductive Rights. 2005. "Governments in Action: Legal and Policy Developments Affecting Reproductive Rights." Briefing Paper. New York: Center for Reproductive Rights.

39. The recently passed Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on Reproductive Rights was the first of its kind in countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States. See: UNFPA. 2003b. Preventing HIV Infection: Promoting Reproductive Health. New York: UNFPA. See also: WHO. n.d. "Law [of 2001] on Reproductive Rights of the Kyrgyz Republic." International Digest of Health Legislation 54. Geneva: WHO. Web site: http://www3.who.int/ idhl/001Kyrg.pdf, accessed 3 March 2005.

40. Center for Reproductive Rights 2005.

41. National Assembly of Panama. n.d. "Que Garantiza la Salud y la Educacion de la Adolescente Embarazada." Law No. 29 of 13 June 2002. Web site: http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/NORMAS/2000/2002/2002_522_1581.PDF, accessed 3 March 2005.

42. Center for Reproductive Rights 2005.

43. United Nations. n.d. "Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minmum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages." Geneva: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations Web site: www.ohchr.org/english/law/convention. htm, last accessed 21 June 2005.

44. Center for Reproductive Rights 2005.

45. UNFPA. n.d. "Intermediate Report to the European Commission, Sexual and Reproductive Health Programme 2003-2006: April 2003-2004" (EC/ACP/UNFPA). New York: UNFPA.

46. For more on Laos and UNFPA-supported initiatives, see: UNFPA 2 May 2005.

47. Lloyd 2005.

48. UNFPA 2005b.

49. UNFPA. 2005d. "Y-Peer at a Glance." Briefing Package. New York: UNFPA.

50. UNFPA. n.d. "Strategic Partnership with the Arab Scout Organization for Youth Reproductive Health." Web site: http://www.cstamman.org.jo/ news/01_news.htm, last accessed 21 June 2005.

51. Lloyd 2005.

52. UNFPA. 2004. The State of World Population 2004: The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty, p. 76. New York: UNFPA.

53. UNFPA. 2003c. The State of World Population 2003: Making 1 Billion Count: Investing in Adolescents' Health and Rights. New York: UNFPA. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a.

54. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 58.

55. The World Bank. 2004. "Round II Country Reports on Health, Nutrition, and Population Conditions Among the Poor and the Better-Off in 56 Countries." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: www1.worldbank.org/prem/poverty/health/data/round2.htm, last accessed 12 July 2005; and Rani, M., and E. Lule. 2004. "Exploring the Socioeconomic Dimensions of Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Multicountry Analysis." International Family Planning Perspectives (30(3): 112.

56. Lloyd, C. B. (ed.). 2005. Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

57. United Nations. 2001a. We the Children: End-decade Review of the Follow-up to the World Summit for Children: Report of the Secretary-General (A/S-27/3). New York: United Nations.

58. UNICEF. 2001. Early Marriage: Child Spouses, p. 11. Innocenti Digest. No. 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF. Innocenti Research Centre.

59. de Bruyn, M., and S. Packer. 2004. Adolescents,Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion: Policies, Counseling and Clinical Care. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Ipas.

60. UNFPA 2003a.

61. Holschneider, S. 1998. Investing in Young Lives: The Role of Reproductive Health: Why Invest in Young People? Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in: de Bruyn and Packer 2004, p. 10; and UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

62. Raufu, A. 2002. "Unsafe Abortions Cause 20,000 Deaths a Year in Nigeria." British Medical Journal 325(7371): 988. Cited in: de Bruyn and Packer 2004, p. 10.

63. de Bruyn and Packer 2004, p. 11.

64. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 3.

65. UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Team on Young People. 2004. At the Crossroads: Accelerating Youth Access to HIV/AIDS Interventions. New York: UNAIDS. Web site: www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/316_filename_UNFPA_Crossroads.pdf, accessed 24 February 2005.

66. UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.

67. UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Team on Young People 2004.

68. Ibid., p. 48.

69. UNFPA 2003a.

70. United Nations. 2005e. Progress Made in the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/765), para. 8. New York: United Nations.

71. UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Team on Young People 2004.

72. UNAIDS 2004.

73. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2003. In Their Own Right: Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Men Worldwide. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. Based on Demographic and Health Surveys in 39 developing countries conducted between 1996 and 2003. See also: The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1998. Into a New World: Young Women's Sexual and Reproductive Lives. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

74. UNAIDS Inter-agency Task Team on Young People 2004.

75. United Nations 2005e.

76. United Nations. 2001b. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: S-26.2: Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (A/RES/S-26/2), paras. 47 and 53. New York: United Nations.

77. See: Global Youth Coalition on HIV/AIDS web site: www.youthaidscoalition.org, last accessed 11 May 2005.

78. UNFPA. 2004. Global Youth Partners: Preventing HIV. Brochure. New York: UNFPA; and UNFPA. n.d. "Global Youth Partners: Advocating for Increased Access by Young People to Information, Education and Services in the Area of HIV Prevention." New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/hiv/ gyp/index.htm, accessed 9 July 2005.

79. The Population Council and UNFPA. 2002. Adolescent and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health: Charting Directions for a Second Generation of Programming. A Report on a Workshop of the UNFPA in Collaboration with the Population Council, New York, 1-3 May 2002. New York: The Population Council.

80. Fundación Puntos de Encuentro. 2002. We're Different, We're Equal: A Project to Promote Young People's Rights: Results and Notes about Impact 2001-2002. Managua: Nicaragua: Fundación Puntos de Encuentro.

81. UNFPA 2005c.

82. UNFPA. 2005e. The Livelihoods Approach to Adolescent Programming: Expanding the Response to Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: What, Why, How. New York: UNFPA.

83. UNFPA 2005c.

84. UNFPA. n.d. "Case Studies: Reaching Out: Reaching the 'Busy Generation' in Mozambique." New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/adolescents/casestudies/reachingout.htm, accessed 13 July 2005.

85. UNESCO. n.d. "Breaking the Poverty Cycle of Women: Empowering Adolescent Girls to Become Agents of Social Transformation in South Asia." Project relating to Cross-cutting Themes. Paris: UNESCO.

86. UNICEF 2001.

87. Based on girls aged 10 to 19 in developing countries, excluding China, projected to marry before their eighteenth birthday. See: Bruce, J., and S. Clark. 2004. The Implications of Early Marriage for HIV/AIDS Policy. Brief based on background paper prepared for the WHO/UNFPA/Population Council Technical Consultation on Married Adolescents, Geneva, 9-12 December 2003. New York: The Population Council.

88. Lloyd 2005; and The Population Council and UNFPA 2002.

89. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 57; and Lloyd 2005.

90. The Population Council and UNFPA 2002; and UNFPA 2003a.

91. UNICEF 2001.

92. Grown, Gupta and Pande 2005.

93. Jejeebhoy, S. 1996. "Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Behavior: A Review of the Evidence from India." ICRW Working Paper. No. 3. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. Cited in: Mensch, B., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene. 1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls' Adolescence in the Developing World, p. 46. New York: The Population Council.

94. Clark, S. 2004. "Early Marriage and HIV Risks in sub-Saharan Africa." Studies in Family Planning 35(3): 149-160; and UN Millennium Project 2005c.

95. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 35.

96. "Decent work" is defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO) as work under conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. See: ILO. 1999. Report of the Director-General: Decent Work. International Labour Conference Report. Geneva: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc87/rep-i.htm, last accessed 12 May 2005.

97. ILO. 2004a. Improving Prospects for Young Women and Men in the World of Work: A Guide to Youth Employment. Geneva: ILO; and ILO. 2004b. Global Employment Trends for Youth. Geneva: ILO.

98. Lloyd 2005.

99. ILO 2004b.

100. ILO. 2002a. "International Labour Conference: 90th Session 2002: Report VI. Decent Work and the Informal Economy." Geneva: ILO. Web site: www.ilo-mirror.cornell.edu/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc90/pdf/rep-vi.pdf, last accessed 6 July 2005; and ILO 2004b.

101. Ibid.

102. ILO. 1973. "R146 Minimum Age Recommendation, 1973." Geneva: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/publ/law/ilc/r1461973/#0, last accessed 13 May 2005.

103. ILO. 2003. Guide Book II: Time-Bound Programmes for Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour: An Introduction. Geneva: ILO; and ILO. 2002b. Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labour. Geneva: International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour (SIMPOC), International Labour Office, ILO.

104. UNFPA 2005e.

105. ILO. 2002c. Report of the Director- General: A Future without Child Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: International Labour Conference: 90th Session 2002. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

106. ILO. 2005. "Report of the Director- General: A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work: 2005." Report 1(B). International Labour Conference. 93rd Session. Geneva: ILO. Web site: www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=5059, last accessed 7 July 2005.

107. UNICEF. 11 June 2004. "Children Used as Domestic Servants One of the Most Hidden Forms of Child Labour." Sydney, Australia: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org.au/mediaCentre-Detail.asp?ReleaseID=534, accessed 13 January 2005.

108. Ad Hoc Working Group for Youth and the MDGs 2005.

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