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State of World Population 2005

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Notes

CHAPTER 4


1. Koblinsky, M. A. (ed.). 2003. Reducing Maternal Mortality: Learning from Bolivia, China, Egypt, Honduras, Indonesia, Jamaica, and Zimbabwe. Human Development Network Health, Nutrition, and Population Series. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and UNFPA. 2004a. Saving Mothers' Lives: The Challenge Continues. New York: UNFPA. In the 1990s, Zimbabwe also made progress in reducing maternal mortality.

2. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Combating AIDS in the Developing World, pp. 22 and 32. Working Group on HIV/AIDS, Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

3. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, para. 7.6. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

4. UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, pp. 13 and 20. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

5. UNFPA and University of Aberdeen. 2005. Maternal Mortality Update 2004: Delivering into Good Hands. New York: UNFPA; and UN Millennium Project. 2005c. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

6. The exact relation of levels of maternal morbidity in relation to mortality varies in different settings and data are limited, including according to age group. Estimates of annual global maternal morbidity range from a conservative 8 million to over 20 million. See, for example: UN Millennium Project 2005c; and for a reference on 15 million: UNFPA and University of Aberdeen 2005, p. 26.

7. UNFPA 2004a.

8. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. 2004. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. Geneva: Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO; and WHO. 2005. World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO.

9. UNFPA and University of Aberdeen 2005.

10. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA 2004. Based on 2000 estimates of maternal deaths. See: Caro, D. A., S. F. Murray, and P. Putney. 2004. "Evaluation of the Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program." A Grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation To the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health. Silver Spring, Maryland: Cultural Practice.

11. UN Millennium Project. 2005d. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 6. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

12. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

13. Singh, S., et al. 2004. Adding it Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. Washington, D.C., and New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA.

14. Ibid.

15. WHO. 2004a. Unsafe Abortion: Global and Regional Estimates of Unsafe Abortion and Associated Mortality in 2000, 4th Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.

16. Ibid.

17. WHO 2004a.

18. EngenderHealth. 2003. Taking Postabortion Care Services Where They are Needed: An Operations Research Project Testing PAC Expansion in Rural Senegal: FRONTIERS Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program, the Population Council.

19. See: United Nations 1995, para. 8.25: "In no case should abortion be promoted as a method of family planning. All Governments and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations are urged to strengthen their commitment to women's health, to deal with the health impact of unsafe abortion as a major public health concern and to reduce the recourse to abortion through expanded and improved family-planning services. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies must always be given the highest priority and every attempt should be made to eliminate the need for abortion. Women who have unwanted pregnancies should have ready access to reliable information and compassionate counselling. Any measures or changes related to abortion within the health system can only be determined at the national or local level according to the national legislative process. In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe. In all cases, women should have access to quality services for the management of complications arising from abortion. Post-abortion counselling, education and family-planning services should be offered promptly, which will also help to avoid repeat abortions."

20. UNFPA and WHO. 2000. From Abortion to Contraception: Family Planning and Reproductive Health in Central and Eastern Europe and the Newly Independent States, 3rd Edition. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO.

21. Popov, A. 1999. "Family Planning and Induced Abortion in Post-Soviet Russia of the Early 1990s: Unmet Needs in Information Supply." In: Russia's Demographic "Crisis," edited by J. Da Vanzo. 1999. Santa Monica, California: RAND. Cited in: United Nations. 2004a. World Population Monitoring 2002: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health (ST/ESA/SER), by the UN Population Division. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

22. United Nations 2004a.

23. Roth, D., and M. Mbizvo. 2001. "Promoting Safe Motherhood in the Community: The Case for Strategies That Include Men." African Journal of Reproductive Health 5(2): 10-21.

24. Nuwaha, F., and B. Amooti-Kaguna. 1999. "Predictors of Home Deliveries in Rakai District, Uganda." African Journal of Reproductive Health 3(2): 79-86.

25. Varkey, L. C., et al. 2004. "Involving Men in Maternity Care in India." FRONTIERS Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program, the Population Council.

26. Li, Jianghong. 2004. "Gender Inequality, Family Planning, and Maternal and Child Care in a Rural Chinese County." Social Science and Medicine 59(4): 695-708.

27. Cholil, A., M. B. Iskandar, and R. Sciortino. 1998. The Life Saver: The Mother Friendly Movement in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: The State Ministry for the Role of Women and the Ford Foundation.

28. It is estimated that the maternal mortality ratio has increased in some countries where HIV/AIDS and malaria are rising. See: UN Millennium Project 2005c; and The World Bank. 2003. Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

29. Caro, Murray, and Putney 2004.

30. UNFPA. 2005. Beijing at Ten: UNFPA's Commitment to the Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.

31. UNFPA. 2004b. Into Good Hands: Progress Reports from the Field, p. 6. New York: UNFPA.

32. UNFPA 2004a.

33. UNFPA. 2004c. "The New Route to Safer Childbirth in Rural Senegal." News Feature. New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/news/news/news.cfm?ID=389&Language=1, accessed 17 January 2005; and UNFPA 2004b, p. 6.

34. UNFPA 2004b, p. 15.

35. UNFPA 2005.

36. London, S. 2004. "Midwife Care is as Safe as Physician-Led Care for Nepalese Women with Low-Risk Pregnancies." International Family Planning Perspectives. 30(1): 47-48.

37. Koblinsky, M., et al. 2000. Issues in Programming for Safe Motherhood. p.43. Arlington, Virginia: MotherCare, John Snow, Inc.

38. UNFPA 2004c; and UNFPA 2004b.

39. Annan, K. 29 December 2002. " In Africa, AIDS has a Woman's Face." The New York Times/International Herald Tribune. Web site: www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/sg-29dec-2002.htm, last accessed 20 April 2005.

40. UN Millennium Project 2005a.

41. Ibid., p.2; and UNAIDS, UNFPA, and UNIFEM. 2004. Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis. New York and Geneva: UNAIDS, UNFPA, and UNIFEM.

42. UNAIDS, UNFPA, and UNIFEM 2004.

43. UNAIDS. 2004a. "Fact Sheet: Women and AIDS: A Growing Challenge." Geneva: UNAIDS.

44. Ibid.

45. Based on the Policy Project of the Futures Group for USAID and UNAIDS. Cited in: UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 23.

46. UNAIDS. 2004b. "A UNAIDS Initiative: The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS." Geneva: UNAIDS. Web site: womenandaids.unaids.org/, accessed 23 June 2005.

47. International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS. 2004. Visibility, Voices and Visions: A Call for Action from HIV Positive Women to Policy Makers. London: International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS; and Ogden, J., and L. Nyblade. 2005. Common at Its Core: HIV-Related Stigma Across Contexts. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

48. International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS 2004.

49. Bianco, M. 2003. "The Balance of 20 Years Fight against HIV/AIDS in Argentina." Sexual Health Exchange 2003/1. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute. Web site: www.kit.nl/ils/exchange_content/assets/images/Exchange_2003-1_eng.pdf, last accessed 12 May 2005; and Ipas. 2003. "Bill of Rights Launched to Commemorate International Women's Day." Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Ipas. Web site: www.ipas.org/ english/press_room/2003/releases/03072003.asp, accessed 12 May 2005.

50. International Relief Teams. n.d. "Mothers 2 Mothers 2 BeSM." San Diego, California: International Relief Teams. Web site: www.irteams.org/programs/M2M2B.htm, last accessed 22 April 2005.

51. USAID, UNAIDS, WHO, UNICEF, and the POLICY Project. 2004. Coverage of Selected Services for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care, and Support in Low and Middle Income Countries in 2003. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group.

52. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 43.

53. Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health's MTCT-Plus Initiative supports the provision of specialized care to HIV-infected women, their partners and their children identified in PMTCT programmes. It announced grants of more than $9 million to twelve hospitals, health centres and clinics in eight African countries and Thailand for treatment and support services such as counselling, education and community outreach, ARVs and drugs for AIDS complications, training, and other technical assistance.

54. United Nations. 2005a. Progress Made in the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/765), para. 14. New York: United Nations.

55. WHO and UNAIDS. 2004. "Ensuring Equitable Access to Antiretroviral Treatment for Women: WHO/UNAIDS Policy Statement," p. 6. Geneva: WHO. Web site: http://www.who.int/ gender/violence/en/equitableaccess.pdf, accessed 1 January 2005.

56. Ogden and Nyblade 2005; and International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS 2004.

57. WHO and UNAIDS 2004, p. 5.

58. Nieuwboer, I. 2003. Once You Know You can Never Not Know Again: The Effect of a Digital Guide in Persuading Students to go for VCT, p. 10 Tilburg: Tilburg University Press.

59. Ogden and Nyblade 2005.

60. Painter, T., et al. 2004. "Women's Reasons for Not Participating in Follow Up Visits Before Starting Short Course Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV: Qualitative Interview Study." British Medical Journal 329(7465): 543.

61. UNFPA 2005.

62. UNFPA. 2004d. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Breaking the Cycle of Transmission. New York: UNFPA.

63. UNFPA 2005.

64. UNFPA. 2004e. The State of World Population 2004: The Cairo Consensus at Ten: Population, Reproductive Health and the Global Effort to End Poverty. New York: UNFPA.

65. UNFPA 2004d.

66. Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2003. Access to HIV Prevention: Closing the Gap. Menlo Park, California: Kaiser Family Foundation and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

67. Singh, et al. 2004.

68. Hobcraft, J. 2003. "Towards a Conceptual Framework on Population, Reproductive Health, Gender and Poverty Reduction," p. 135. Ch. 7 in: Population and Poverty: Achieving Equity, Equality and Sustainability, by UNFPA. 2003. Population and Development Strategies Series. No. 8. New York: UNFPA.

69. United Nations. 2005b. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision: Highlights (ESA/P/WP.193). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

70. Ibid., Table II.1.

71. UNFPA. 2002. The State of World Population 2002: People, Poverty and Possibilities: Making Development Work for the Poor, pp. 22-23. New York: UNFPA; and Bernstein, S., and E. White. 2005. "The Relevance of the ICPD Programme of Action for the Achievement of the MDGs: and Vice Versa: Shared Visions and Common Goals." Chapter 12 in: Proceedings of the Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals: New York: 17-19 November 2004 (ESA/P/WP.192), by the UN Population Division. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

72. United Nations. 2004b. World Fertility Report: 2003 (ESA/P/WP.189). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/esa/population/publications/worldfertility/World_Fertility_Report.htm, last accessed 23 February 2005.

73. See: Selected Indicators in annex of this report; and United Nations 2005b.

74. A worldwide analysis using data from 2000 found that an estimated 105 million married women and 8 million unmarried women in developing countries expressed an unmet need for family planning, that is, they wanted to delay or avoid another birth. When women using traditional family planning methods- such as periodic abstinence or withdrawal-are added, this figure reaches 201 million. These women run risks of unwanted pregnancies because traditional family planning methods are far less effective than modern methods such as sterilization, condoms, intrauterine devices, hormonal pills and injectibles. See: Singh, et al. 2004. See also: Westoff, C. F. 2001. Unmet Need at the End of the Century. DHS Comparative Reports. No. 1. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro.

75. Barnett, B., and J. Stein. 1998. Women's Voices and Women's Lives: The Impact of Family Planning: A Synthesis of Findings from the Women's Studies Project, pp. 9-11, 15 and 83. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Family Health International.

76. Westoff 2001.

77. Becker, S. 1999. "Measuring Unmet Need: Wives, Husbands or Couples?" International Family Planning Perspectives 25(4): 172-180.

78. Ashford, L. 2001. "Securing Future Supplies for Family Planning and HIV/AIDS Prevention," pp. 2-3. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.

79. Haub, C., 2002. "Family Planning Worldwide 2002." Data sheet. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.

80. Nass, S. J., and J. F. Strauss, eds. 2004. New Frontiers in Contraceptive Research: A Blueprint for Action, pp. 20-23. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

81. Agha, S. 2001. "Patterns of Use of the Female Condom After One Year of Mass Marketing." AIDS Education and Prevention 13(1): 55-64.

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