UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

State of World Population 2005




1. The UN Millennium Project is a two-year project that brought together over 250 leading development experts from around the world to serve as an independent advisory board to the UN Secretary-General in order to identify strategic, proven and cost-effective strategies to achieve the MDGs. See web site: www.unmillenniumproject.org.

2. United Nations. 2005a. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Outcome Documents of the Special Session of the General Assembly Entitled "Women 2000: Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century": Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.6/2005/2), paras. 47, 50, and 93. New York: United Nations; and The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice, p. 7. New York and Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press and the World Bank.

3. This section relies on: The World Bank 2001.

4. Ibid., pp. 14, 19, 37, and 99.

5. Malhotra, A., and R. Mehra. 1999. Fulfilling the Cairo Commitment: Enhancing Women's Economic and Social Options for Better Reproductive Health. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women; and The World Bank 2001, p. 83.

6. UNFPA. 2003a. Population and Poverty: Achieving Equity, Equality and Sustainability, p. 46. Population and Development Strategies Series. No. 8. New York: UNFPA.

7. UN Millennium Project. 2005a. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals: Overview, Box 5, p. 32. Report to the Secretary-General. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

8. Ibid., Box 3, p. 13.

9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2004. Global Education Digest 2004: Comparing Education Statistics Across the World. Montreal, Canada: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Data refer to 2001/2002.

10. Of the 104 million children currently out of school, it is estimated that 54 to 57 per cent are girls. See: UN Millennium Project. 2005b. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, p. 42. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality. London and Sterling, Virginia: Earthscan.

11. United Nations. 27 April 2005. "Millennium Indicators Database." New York: Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. Web site: http://millenniumindicators.un.org, last accessed 14 June 2005.

12. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 44.

13. UNFPA. 2005a. Beijing at Ten: UNFPA's Commitment to the Platform for Action, p. 5. New York: UNFPA.

14. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 5.

15. Schultz, T .P. 1993. "Returns to Women's Schooling." Ch. 2 in: Women's Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policy, edited by E. King and M. A. Hill. 1993. A World Bank Book. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press; and UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 38.

16. UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 39, 40 and 41.

17. Grown, C., G. R. Gupta , and R. Pande. 2005. "Taking Action to Improve Women's Health through Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment." The Lancet 365(9458): 541-543.

18. Abu-Ghaida, D., and S. Klasen. 2004. "The Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity." World Development 32(7): 1075-1107.

19. Klasen, S. 1999. "Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development: Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions." Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series. No. 7. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Also in: The World Bank 2001, p. 11.

20. Filmer, D. 2004. "If You Build It, Will They Come: School Availability and School Enrollment in 21 Poor Countries." World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. No. 3340. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; Lloyd, C. B., and A. K. Blanc. 1996. "Children's Schooling in Sub- Saharan Africa: The Role of Fathers, Mothers, and Others." Population and Development Review 22(2): 265-298; and Thomas, D., et al. 1996. "Parental Investments in Schooling: The Roles of Gender and Resources in Urban Brazil." RAND Labor and Population Program Working Papers. No. 96-02. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation; and UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 41.

21. The World Bank 2001; Smith, L. C., and L. Haddad. 2000. Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Cross Country Analysis. Research Report. No. 111. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute; and Schultz 1993.

22. Quisumbing, A. 1996. "Male-female Differences in Agricultural Productivity: Methodological Issues and Empirical Evidence." World Development. 24(10): 1579-1595.

23. The World Bank 2001, p. 83.

24. Toure, Aminata. 2004. "Strengthening Families Through the Implementation of ICPD Programme of Action: UNFPA's Perspective." Presentation at the panel held to Observe the 10th Anniversary of the International Year of the Family, United Nations, 6 December 2004. Web site: www.unicef.org/childfamily/files/Strengthening_families _through_the_implementation_of_ICPD_PA.doc, last accessed 29 June 2005; and Seligman, B., et al. 1997. Reproductive Health and Human Capital: A Framework for Expanding Policy Dialogue. POLICY Occasional Paper Series. No. 1. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group International.

25. UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 4, 5, 42, and 44.

26. See: MDG Target 4; and UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 10.

27. UNFPA 2005a.

28. Teicher, S. A. 4 May 2005. "Gains for Girls, but Many Still Shut Out." The Christian Science Monitor; Herz, B., and G. B. Sperling. 2004. What Works in Girls' Education: Evidence and Policies from the Developing World. New York: Council on Foreign Relations; and UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 48-49.

29. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 51; Grown, Gupta, and Pande 2005; and Commission for Africa. 2005. Our Common Interest: Report of the Commission for Africa. London: Commission for Africa.

30. United Nations 2005a, para. 603.

31. UNFPA. 2003b. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Population and Reproductive Health as Critical Determinants. Population and Development Strategies Series. No. 10. New York: UNFPA.

32. Narayan, D., et al. 1999. Can Anyone Hear Us? Voices From 47 Countries. Voices of the Poor: Volume 1. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank.

33. McCauley, A. P., et al. 1994. "Opportunities for Women Through Reproductive Choice." Population Reports. Series M. No. 12. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.

34. Seligman, et al. 1997.

35. UN Millennium Project 2005c.

36. McCauley, et al. 1994.

37. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2004. "The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health." Issues in Brief. 2004 Series. No.4. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.

38. United Nations. 2005b. World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision: Highlights (ESA/P/WP.193). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

39. Bloom, D. E., et al. 2002. The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change. Santa Monica, California: RAND; and Birdsall, N., et al. (eds.). 2001. Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press; and Singh, S., et al. 2004. Adding It Up: The Benefits of Investing in Sexual and Reproductive Health Care. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA.

40. Bloom, D., and D. Canning. 2004. "Population, Poverty Reduction, and the Cairo Agenda." Paper prepared for the Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, New York, 17-19 November 2004. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

41. Mason, A., and S. H. Lee. 2004. "The Demographic Dividend and Poverty Reduction." Paper prepared for the Seminar on the Relevance of Population Aspects for the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, New York, 17-19 November 2004. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

42. Singh, et al. 2004.

43. For example, see: World Bank. n.d. "Why Invest in Children and Youth?" Geneva: WHO. Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/ EXTCY/0,,contentMDK:20243901~menuPK:565261~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~ theSitePK:396445,00.htm, accessed 28 June 2005; UNFPA. 2005b. The Case for Investing in Young People as Part of a National Poverty Reduction Strategy. New York: UNFPA; and Knowles, J., and J. Behrman. 2003, Assessing the Economic Returns to Investing in Youth in Developing Countries. Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Discussion Paper. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

44. The World Bank 2001, p. 66.

45. UN Millennium Project 2005a, p. 87.

46. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 7.

47. Ibid., p. 7.; The World Bank 2001, pp. 24- 25; and Grown, Gupta, and Pande 2005.

48. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 77; and The World Bank 2001.

49. United Nations. 2005c. Progress Made in the Implementation of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: Report of the Secretary-General (A/59/765), para. 61. New York: United Nations; and United Nations 2005a, para. 375.

50. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 87.

51. The World Bank 2001. See also: The World Bank. 2004. "Poverty Reduction through Gender-disaggregated Analysis of Public Expenditures: The Case of Cambodia." Promising Approaches to Engendering Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

52. Blackden, M. C., and C. Bhanu. 1999. "Gender, Growth, and Poverty Reduction: Special Program of Assistance for Africa: 1998 Status Report on Poverty in Sub- Saharan Africa." Technical Paper. No. 428. Poverty Reduction and Social Development, Africa Region. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

53. The World Bank. 2003. Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; The World Bank 2001, p. 11; and The World Bank 2004.

54. Bruce, J., C. Lloyd, and A. Leonard. 1995. Families in Focus: New Perspectives on Mothers, Fathers and Children. New York: The Population Council.

55. The World Bank 2001.

56. An extensive literature reports that women are more likely to spend their incomes on food, education and healthcare that enhance the welfare of their children as well as their own. See: The World Bank 2001, p. 18; Grown, Gupta, and Pande 2005; and UN Millennium Project 2005b.

57. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

58. United Nations 2005a, para. 315.

59. UNIFEM. 2002a. Progress of the World's Women 2002: Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals. New York: UNIFEM.

60. UN Millennium Project 2005c, p. 138.

61. United Nations 2005a, paras. 288, 294, and 295.

62. The World Bank 2001.

63. See: ILO. n.d. "C111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958"; "C100 Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951"; "C156 Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981;" and "C183 Maternity Protection Convention, 2000." All available on ILO, "Gender: Equality Between Men and Women," web site: www.ilo.org/public/english/gender.htm, accessed 29 June 2005; and United Nations 2005a, para. 283.

64. Hein, C. 2005. Reconciling Work and Family Responsibilities: Practical Ideas from Global Experience. Geneva: ILO; and O'Brien, M. 2004. Shared Caring: Bringing Fathers into the Frame. EOC Working Paper Series. No. 18. Manchester, United Kingdom: Equal Opportunities Commission.

65. The World Bank 2001, p. 24.

66. United Nations 2005a, para. 298.

67. James, B. 2002. European, Australian and Canadian Policies to Reconcile Paid Work and Family Life. Report prepared for the Ministry of Women's Affairs of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. Web site: www.mwa.govt.nz/pub/InternationalPolicies.doc, last accessed 1 July 2005.

68. Ibid.

69. United Nations 2005a, para. 316.

70. James 2002.

71. Malhotra and Mehra 1999.

72. Lloyd, C. B. (ed.). 2005. Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

73. United Nations 2005a, para. 303.

74. Business for Social Responsibility. 2002. Addressing the General and Reproductive Health of Women in Global Supply Chains. San Francisco, California: Business for Social Responsibility.

75. Lovenduski, J., and A. Karam 2002. "Women in Parliament: Making a Difference." Ch. 6 in: Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, by International IDEA. Stockholm, Sweden: International IDEA. Web site: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/, last accessed 11 July 2005.

76. See, for example: Swamy, A., et al. 2001 "Gender and Corruption." Journal of Development Economics 64(1): 25-55; and The World Bank 2001, pp. 8, 12, and 95. See also: UN Millennium Project 2005b.

77. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

78. United Nations 2005a, p. 348; and UNFPA 2005a.

79. United Nations. n.d. "Millennium Indicators Database: World and Regional Trends." New York: Statistics Division, United Nations. Web site: http://millenniumindicators.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_worldregn.asp, last accessed 7 July 2005. In 1990, the UN Economic and Social Council recommended a target for increasing the proportion of women in leadership positions to "at least 30% by 1995". See: UN Economic and Social Council Resolution E/RES/1990/15, Recommendation VI, para, 2.

80. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 109.

81. United Nations 2005a, para. 333.

82. Vyasulu, P., and V. Vyasulu. 2000. "Women in the Panchayati Raj: Grassroots Democracy in India." Ch. 5 in: UNDP. 2000. Women's Political Participation and Good Governance: 21st Century Challenges. New York: UNDP.

83. United Nations 2005a, paras. 333 and 338.

84. Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2005. "Women in National Parliaments: World Classification." Situation as of 30 April 2005. Web site: www.ipu.org/wmne/classif.htm, acessed 3 July 2005. Data reported relate to lower house parliamentary seats.

85. United Nations. 17 March 2005. "10 Stories the World Should Hear About: Women as Peacemakers: From Victims to Re-Builders of Society." New York: United Nations. Web site: www.un.org/events/tenstories/story.asp?storyID=700, accessed 29 June 2005.

86. United Nations 2005a, para 731; and United Nations. 2002. Gender Mainstreaming: An Overview. New York: Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, United Nations.

87. Waldorf, L. 2004. Pathway to Equality: CEDAW, Beijing and the MDGs. New York: UNIFEM. Also see: Corner, L. n.d. "Gender-sensitive and Pro-poor Indicators of Good Governance." Paper prepared for the UNDP Governance Indicators Project, Oslo Governance Centre. New York: UNDP. Web site: www.undp.org/oslocentre/docs05/cross/2/Gender-sensitive%20and%20pro-poor%20indicators%20for%20Democratic%20Governance.pdf, last accessed 5 July 2005; and Neimanis, A., and A. Tortisyn. 2003. Gender Thematic Guidance Note. NHDR Guidance Note on Gender. No. 2. New York: UNDP.

88. For example, see the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) module on women's status; UNDP's Genderrelated Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure; and measurements under development by the UN Regional Commissions, such as the Africa Gender and Development Index, Western Asia efforts to improve data availability, and indicators to monitor the proportions of men and women living in poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean. UN agencies, including UNFPA and UNIFEM, support countries in strengthening sex-disaggregated data collection and analysis.

89. UNDP. 2003. Millennium Development Goals: National Reports: A Look Through a Gender Lens. New York: UNDP.

90. Valdes, T. 2002. "Index of Fulfilled Commitments 1995-2000: A Social Watch Instrument for Women." International Seminar: Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges before the Millennium Development Goals, Washington, D.C., 10-11 June 2002. Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Development Bank. Web site: http://www.iadb.org/sds/doc/SOCSes4GeneroTeresaValdes1.pdf, accessed 22 June 2005. See also: FLACSO Chile. "Area de Estudios de Genero, Grupo Iniciativa Mujeres." Santiago, Chile: FLACSO. Web site: http://www.flacso.cl/, accessed 22 June 2005.

91. United Nations 2005a, para. 737. See also: United Nations. 2003. Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Definitions, Rationale, Concepts, and Sources (ST/ESA/STAT/SER.F/95). New York: United Nations Development Group, United Nations.

92. United Nations 2002.

93. United Nations 2003.

94. Grown, C., and G. R. Gupta. 2004. "An Agenda for Engendering: the Millennium Project Task Force on Education and Gender Equality." In: Seeking Accountability on Women's Human Rights: Women Debate the Millennium Development Goals, by the Women's International Coalition for Economic Justice. 2004. New York: Women's International Coalition for Economic Justice.

95. United Nations. 2001. "Aide-Memoire: Regional Meeting to Discuss a Needs Assessment on: National Machineries for Gender Equality in African Countries." Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

96. United Nations 2005a, para. 725. See also: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2002. "Strategies for Gender Equality: Is Mainstreaming a Dead End?" Report from an Informal Consultation of Gender Focal Points in Multilateral Development Organizations, Oslo, Norway, November 2002.

97. United Nations 2005a, paras. 724, 726, and 736; and UNDP. 2003. "From Recovery to Transition: Women, the Untapped Resource." Essentials. No. 11. New York: Evaluation Office, UNDP.

98. UN Millennium Project 2005b.

99. United Nations 2005a, para. 703.

100. Center of Arab Women, Training and Research. n.d. Training Session on "Gender Institutionalization through Planning and Budgeting," Tunis, December 2003. Web site: www.cawtar.org.tn, accessed 22 May 2005. See also: UNDP, Government of Tunisia, and AGFUND. 2002. "Support to the Center for Arab Women's Training and Research: CAWTAR" (RAB/02/001/A/01/31). Project document. New York: UNDP.

101. Sharp, R. 2003. Budgeting for Equity: Gender Budget Initiatives within a Framework of Performance Oriented Budgeting. UNIFEM: New York; and Elson, D. 2005. "Monitoring Government Budgets for Compliance with CEDAW: Report Highlights and Key Conclusions." New York: UNIFEM. Web site: www.gen-der-budgets.org/en/ev-72845-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html, accessed 22 May 2005.

102. United Nations. 2005d. United Nations Development Fund for Women: Implementing the Multi-Year Funding Framework: 2004 (DP/2005/24). New York: United Nations.

103. UN Millennium Project 2005b, pp. 25, 149, and 150.

104. UNIFEM. 2005. Gender Responsive Budgets: Program Results (2001-2004). Brochure. New York: UNIFEM.

105. UN Millennium Project 2005b, p. 147.

106. United Nations 2005a, para. 690.

107. UNIFEM 2005; and UNIFEM. May-June 2004. "Gender Budgets: Tracking Gender Equality." Currents. Electronic Newsletter. Web site: http://www.unifem.org/news/currents/currents200406.html, accessed 3 July 2005.

108. United Nations 2005d; and UNIFEM May-June 2004.

109. United Nations. 2000. Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly: S-23/3 Further Actions and Initiatives to Implement the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (A/RES/S-23/3). New York: United Nations.

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