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UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund

State of World Population 2005

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Sources for Boxes

CHAPTER 1

2. UNFPA. 2003. Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Population and Reproductive Health as Critical Determinants. Population and Development Strategies Series. No. 10; UNFPA. 2005. "Reducing Poverty and Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: Arguments for Investing in Reproductive Health and Rights." Stockholm Round Table background document; UN Millennium Project. 2005. Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, Box 5.5, p. 82. Report to the UN Secretary-General; The World Bank. 2003a. Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals; and UN Millennium Project. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women.

CHAPTER 2

3. United Nations. 2003. Human Security Now: Protecting and Empowering People; Middleberg, M. I. 2003. Promoting Reproductive Security in Developing Countries. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum; and UN Millennium Project. n.d. "Fast Facts: Faces of Poverty." Web site: www.unmillenniumproject.org/facts/index.htm, accessed June 3, 2005.

5. Bruce, J., C. Lloyd, and A. Leonard. 1995. Families in Focus: New Perspectives on Mothers, Fathers and Children, pp. 13 and 15. New York: The Population Council; UN Millennium Project. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women, pp. 11, 13,and 89. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality; Diaz-Munoz, A. R., and E. Jelin. 2003. "Major Trends Affecting Families: South America in Perspective." Prepared for United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Social Policy and Development Programme on the Family; UNFPA. n.d. "The Older Years." Web site: http://www.unfpa.org/intercenter/cycle/older.htm, last accessed 9 May 2005; and The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice, pp. 25 and 66.

CHAPTER 3

6. Jonsson, U. 2003. Human Rights Approach to Development Programming.Nairobi: UNICEF.

8. Cruz, V. A., and A. E. Badilla. 2005. VIH/SIDA y Derechos Humanos: de las limitaciones a los desafíos. Análisis comparativo del marco jurídico de los países centroamericanos sobre VIH/SIDA., Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, ONUSIDA, UNFPA, Organización Internacional del Trabajo.

9. Adapted from: UNFPA. 2004. Culture Matters: Working with Communities and Faith-based Organizations: Case Studies From Country Programmes.

CHAPTER 4

12. Starrs, A., and P. Ten Hoope-Bender. 2004. "Dying for Life." Pp. 78-81 in: Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All: Special Report: ICPD at Ten: Where are We Now, by Countdown 2015. 2004. New York, London, and Washington, D.C.: Family Care International, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Population Action International; Caro, D. A., S. F. Murray, and P. Putney. 2004. "Evaluation of the Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program." A Grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health." Silver Spring, Maryland: Cultural Practice; Bruce, J., et al. 1995. Families in Focus: New Perspectives on Mothers, Fathers and Children. New York: The Population Council; The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice; WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA. 2004. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA; UNFPA. 2004. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Breaking the Cycle of Transmission; Population Services International. 2004. Giving Families More Room to Breathe: Voluntary Birth Spacing Provides Health, Economic and Social Benefits. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International; and Rutstein, S. O. 2005. "Effects of Preceding Birth Intervals on Neonatal, Infant and Under-five Years Mortality and Nutritional Status in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys." International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 89(Suppl. 1): S7-S24. The recommended birth spacing interval was being reviewed by the World Health Organization in June 2005 based on recent research.

13. UNAIDS, UNFPA, and UNIFEM. 2004. Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis; UNAIDS in: UNFPA. 2002. "Addressing Gender Perspectives in HIV Prevention." HIV Prevention Now: Programme Briefs. No. 4; UNAIDS. 2004. "Fact Sheet: Women and AIDS: A Growing Challenge." Geneva: UNAIDS; UNAIDS and WHO. 2004. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2004 (UNAIDS/04.45E); Luke, N., and K. Kurtz. 2002. Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence of Behavior and Implications for Negotiating Safer Sexual Practices. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International and International Center for Research on Women; A Mother's Promise Campaign. 2003. A Mother's Promise the World Must Keep: The 10th Anniversary of the Cairo Consensus. Washington, D.C.: Communications Consortium Media Center; UNAIDS. 2001. UNAIDS Resource Packet on Gender and AIDS. Cited in: "Addressing Gender Perspectives in HIV Prevention," by UNFPA. 2002. HIV Prevention Now: Programme Briefs. No. 4; UNAIDS. 1999. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Taking Stock of Research and Programmes (UNAIDS/99.16E). UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key Material; UNIFEM. 2002. "Women's Human Rights: Gender and HIV/AIDS;" Sternberg, S. 23 February 2005. "In India, Sex Trade Fuels HIV's Spread: Women Trapped as Male-dominated Economy Booms." USA Today; International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS. 2004. Visibility, Voices and Visions: A Call for Action from HIV Positive Women to Policy Makers; and UN Millennium Project. 2005. Combating AIDS in the Developing World, p. 54. Task Force on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Essential Medicines; Commission on Human Rights. 2005, Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective: Violence Against Women (E/CN.4/2005/72), para.33; and Blanc, A. K., et al. 1996. Negotiating Reproductive Outcomes in Uganda. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. and ISAE Makerere University.

15. Boender, C. et al 2004. The 'So What' Report: A Look at Whether Integrating A Gender Focus into Programs Makes a Difference to Outcomes. Interagency Gender Working Group Task Force Report. Washington, D.C.: Interagency Gender Working Group; Yinger, N. 1998. Unmet Need for Family Planning: Reflecting Women's Perceptions, pp. 9, 14 and 17. ICRW Research Report. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women; Alan Guttmacher Institute. 2003. In Their Own Right: Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Men Worldwide; Zlider, V. M., et al. 2003. "New Survey Findings: The Reproductive Revolution Continues." Population Reports. Series M. No 17. Baltimore, Maryland: the INFO Project, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; and Barnett, B., and J. Stein, 1998. Women's Voices and Women's Lives: The Impact of Family Planning: A Synthesis of Findings from the Women's Studies Project, p. 101. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Family Health International; and Stanback, J., and K. A. Twum-Baah. 2001. "Why do Family Planning Providers Restrict Access to Services: An Examination in Ghana." International Family Planning Perspectives 27(1): 37-41.

CHAPTER 5

19. Family Care International. 2005. A Better Future for Rural Girls: Manager's Briefing Kit.

22. "The Executive Summary of the Lancet Neonatal Survival Series." Web site: www.who.int/child-adolescenthealth/New_Publications/NEONATAL/The_Lancet/Executive_Summary.pdf, last accessed 18 July 2005; Countdown 2015. 2004. Countdown 2015: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All: Special Report: ICPD at Ten: Where are We Now? New York, London, and Washington, D.C.: Family Care International, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Population Action International; United Nations. 2001. We the Children: End-decade Review of the Follow-up to the World Summit for Children: Report of the Secretary-General (A/S-27/3); UN Millennium Project. 2005. Who's Got the Power: Transforming Health Systems for Women and Children, p. 76. Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health; and Action Canada for Population and Development. 2004. Why Invest in Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights? Web site: www.acpd.ca/acpd.cfm/en/section//SRResources/articleID/123, last accessed 18 July 2005.

24. Luke, N. 2005. "Confronting the 'Sugar Daddy' Stereotype: Age and Economic Asymmetries and Risky Sexual Behavior in Urban Kenya." International Family Planning Perspectives 31(1): 6-14; Luke, N., and K. M. Kurtz, 2002. Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence of Behavior and Implications for Negotiating Safer Sexual Practices. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International and International Center for Research on Women; and Fitzgerald, D. W., et al. 2000. "Economic Hardship and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Haiti's Rural Artibonite Valley." American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 62(4): 496-501.

CHAPTER 6

26. Centro de Análisis Sociocultural - Universidad Centroamericana, CEPAL and UNFPA. 2005a. "Masculinidad y factores socioculturales asociados al comportamiento de los hombres frente a la paternidad en Centroamérica." Draft summary; and "Estudio Masculinidad y factores socioculturales asociados al comportamiento de los hombres frente a la paternidad en Centroamerica: Caso Nicaragua." Draft. Emphasis on education in the context of fatherhood and gender equality is also found in: CEPAL. 2002. Paternidad Responsable en el Istmo centroamericano (LC/MEX/L.475/Rev.1).

27. Greene, M. E., et al. Forthcoming. "Involving Men in Reproductive Health: Contributions to Development." Occasional paper prepared for the United Nations Millennium Project; Government of Cambodia. 2003. "Policy on Women, the Girl Child, and STI/HIV/AIDS." Phnom Penh: Ministry of Women's and Veterans' Affairs; Baker, G., et al. 2003. "Men's Participation as Fathers in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Literature Review with Policy Considerations." Final draft. Document prepared for the World Bank; James, B. 2002. European, Australian and Canadian Policies to Reconcile Paid Work and Family Life. Report prepared for the Ministry of Women's Affairs of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand; CEPAL. 2002. Paternidad Responsible en el Istmo Centroamericano; Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. 2002. "The Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy." Hanoi; Ministry of Health; Republic of Botswana. 1994. "Botswana Family Planning General Policy Guidelines and Services Standards." Gaborone: Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning, Department of Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health; Deven, F., and P. Moss. 2002. "Leave Arrangements for Parents: Overview and Future Outlook." Community, Work and Family 5(3): 237- 255; and O'Brien, M. 2004. Shared Caring: Bringing Fathers into the Frame. EOC Working Paper Series. No. 18. Manchester, United Kingdom: Equal Opportunities Commission. For Jamaica, see: www.moec.gov.jm/youth/YouthPolicy.pdf, accessed 28 April 2005. For Costa Rica, see: http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/observa/CRindicadores/naci.htm, accessed 18 September 2004.

CHAPTER 7

28. United Nations. 1993. 48/104: Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women (A/RES/48/104); and United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995 (DPI/1766/Wom), paras. 114-116.

29. UNFPA. 2001. Workshop Report: Integrating Socio-Cultural Research into Population and Reproductive Health Programmes. Kathmandu, Nepal: Country Technical Services Team for South and West Asia, UNFPA; UNFPA, and Department of Women and Child Development, Government of Haryana, India. 2003. Jagriti: Rural Women Transforming their Lives. New Delhi: UNFPA; UNFPA. 2004. China: Sex Ratio: Facts and Figures. Brochure; UNFPA, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. 2003. Missing: Mapping the Adverse Child Sex Ratio in India. Brochure; UNFPA. 2003. "The Missing Girls of India." Dispatches. No. 59; UNFPA. 1999. Violence Against Girls and Women: A Public Health Priority; UNICEF. n.d. "China: The Children: Protection." Web site: www.unicef.org/china/children_1142.html, accessed 14 July 2005; UNFPA. n.d. "Population Issues: India: Restoring the Sex Ratio Balance." Web site: www.unfpa.org/culture/case_studies/india_study.htm, accessed 18 June 2005; and UNFPA. 2003. UNFPA Global Population Policy Update. Issue 1.

31. The campaign was co-coordinated byvUNDP and UNIFEM, in collaboration with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF, UNFPA, UNAIDS, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. See web sites: www.undp.org.rclac/gender and www.paho.org. Symposium 2001: Gender Violence, Health and Rights in the Americas, 4-7 June 2001, was co-sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization/WHO; UNIFEM; UNFPA; UNDP; UNICEF; the Inter-American Commission of Women of the Organization of American States; the Latin American and Caribbean Feminist Network against Domestic and Sexual Violence (ISIS International); the Latin American and Caribbean Women 's Health Network; and the Center for Research in Women 's Health, a WHO collaborating centre in Canada. Web site: www.paho.org/english/hdp/hdw/Symposium2001FinalReport.pdf, last accessed 19 July 2005.

CHAPTER 8

33. UN Millennium Project. 2005. Taking Action: Achieving Gender Equality and Empowering Women. Task Force on Education and Gender Equality; UNIFEM, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, UNDP, and the Department for International Development of the United Kingdom. 2004. "A Fair Share for Women: Cambodia Gender Assessment." Phnom Penh; McGrew, L. 2004. Good Governance from the Ground Up: Women's Roles in Post-Conflict Cambodia.Washington, D.C.: Hunt Alternatives Fund; and Royal Government of Cambodia. 2004. Nation Religion King: The Progress Report on Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action on Women's Issues 1995-2005. Phnom Penh: Ministry of Women's Affairs.

34. Powley, E., and S. N. Anderlini. 2004. "Democracy and Governance," p. 38. Pp. 36-47 in: Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action, by International Alert and Women Waging Peace. 2004. Washington, D.C. and London: Hunt Alternatives Fund and International Alert; Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2005. "Women in National Parliaments: World Classification." Situation as of 30 April 2005. Web site: www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm, accessed 3 July 2005; and Powley, E. 2003. "Strengthening Governance: The Role of Women in Rwanda's Transition." Washington, D.C.: Hunt Alternatives Fund.

CHAPTER 9

38. Boender, C., et al. 2004. The 'So What' Report: A Look at Whether Integrating a Gender focus into Programs Makes a Difference to Reproductive Health Outcomes?

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