UNFPAState of World Population 2004
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HOME: ÈTAT DE LA POPULATION MONDIAL 2004: Notes
Ètat de la population mondiale 2004
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Introduction
Population et pauvreté
Population et environnement
Migration et urbanisation
Égalité entre les sexes et affranchissement des femmes
Santé en matière de reproduction et planification familiale
Santé maternelle
Prévention du VIH/sida
Les adolescents et les jeunes
Santé en matière de reproduction pour les communautés en crise
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Notes

CHAPITRE PREMIER
CHAPITRE 2
CHAPITRE 3
CHAPITRE 4
CHAPITRE 5
CHAPITRE 6
CHAPITRE 7
CHAPITRE 8
CHAPITRE 9
CHAPITRE 10
CHAPITRE 11

CHAPITRE 7

1 Save the Children. 2001. Behind Every Healthy Child is a Healthy Mother. Rapport du Symposium on the Linkages Between Maternal Health, Family Planning, and Child Survival. Washington, D.C., 24 juillet 2001. Site Web: www.savethechildren.org/ publications/reproductive_health.pdf, consulté pour la dernière fois le 7 mai 2004.

2 OMS, UNICEF et UNFPA. 2003. Mortalité maternelle en 2000: Évaluations de l’OMS, de l’UNICEF et de l’UNFPA. Genève: OMS.

3 Safe Motherhood Initiative. 2003. Site Web: http://www.safemotherhood.org, consulté le 22 février 2004. La large fourchette qui va de 30 à 50 s’explique par les difficultés de définir et mesurer la morbidité maternelle. Il est courant que l’affection ne soit pas signalée dans tous les cas, soit mal classée ou non reconnue en raison des facteurs sociaux et culturels, de son caractère et des ressources disponibles pour l’évaluer.

4 ONU. 1995. Population et développement, vol. 1: Programme d’action adopté à la Conférence internationale sur la population et le développement: Le Caire: 5-13 septembre 1994, paragraphe 8.22. New York: Département de l’information économique et sociale et de l’analyse des politiques, ONU.

5 L. Freedman et al. 2004. “Rapport intérimaire de l’Équipe de travail 4 sur la santé infantile et la santé maternelle”, p. 54. New York: Projet du Millénaire.

6 J. Liljestrand. 2000. “Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality Worldwide.” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 12(6): 513-517.

7 A. Starrs. 1998. The Safe Motherhood Action Agenda: Priorities for the Next Decade, p. 9. New York: Family Care International.

8 Liljestrand. 2000.

9 UNFPA. 2004a. Saving Mothers’ Lives: The Challenge Continues. Brochure. New York: UNFPA.

10 ONU. 1999. Principales mesures pour la poursuite de l’application du Programme d’action de la Conférence internationale sur la population et le développement (A/S-21/5/Add.1), paragraphes 62 a) et 62 b). New York: ONU.

11 ONU. 2004. Examen et évaluation des progrès accomplis dans la réalisation des buts et objectifs du Programme d’action de la Conférence internationale sur la population et le développement: Rapport du Secrétaire général (E/CN.9/2004/3). New York: ONU.

12 OMS. 2003a. International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10e rév. Genève: OMS.

13 D. Maine et T. McGinn. 1999. “Maternal Mortality and Morbidity.” Ch. 31 de: Women and Health, édité par M. Goldman et M. Hatch. 1999. San Diego, Californie: Academic Press.

14 OMS, UNICEF et UNFPA 2003.

15 W. Graham et al. 2004. “The Familial Technique for Linking Maternal Death with Poverty.” The Lancet 363(9402): 23-27.

16 A. E. Kunst et T. Houweling, “A Global Picture of Poor-rich Differences in the Utilisation of Delivery Care.” Pp. 297-315 de: Safe Motherhood Strategies: A Review of the Evidence, par V. De Brouwere et W.Van Lerberghe. 2001. Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy Series. No 17. Anvers: ITG Press.

17 OMS. 2004. Communication personnelle concernant les publications à paraître.

18 Maine et McGinn 1999.

19 J. Fortney et J. Smith. 1996. The Base of the Iceberg: Prevalence and Perceptions of Maternal Morbidity in Four Developing Countries. Research Triangle Park, Caroline du Nord: Maternal and Neonatal Health Center, Family Health International.

20 F. Donnay et L. Weil. 2004. “Obstetric Fistula: The International Response.” The Lancet 363(9402): 71-72.

21 J. Gay et al. 2003. What Works: A Policy et Program Guide to the Evidence on Family Planning, Safe Motherhood, and STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions: Module 1: Safe Motherhood. Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project.

22 Saving Mother’s Lives: What Works: Field Guide for Implementing Best Practices in Safe Motherhood. 2002. Washington, D.C.: The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood/India.

23 Global Health Council. 2002. Promises to Keep: The Toll of Unintended Pregnancies on Women’s Lives in the Developing World. Washington, D.C.: Global Health Council.

24 OMS, UNICEF et UNFPA 2003.

25 Ibid.

26 J. Fortney et J. Smith. 1997. “Measuring Maternal Morbidity.” Pp. 43-50 de : Safe Motherhood Initiatives: Critical Issues, édité par M. Berer et T. K. S. Ravindran. 1999. Oxford, Royaume-Uni: Blackwell Science for Reproductive Health Matters.

27 UNFPA. 2004b. Investing in People: National Progress in Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action 1994-2004, p. 46. New York: UNFPA.

28 I. Pathmanathan et al. 2003. Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Human Development Network. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper. Washington D.C.: Banque mondiale.

29 Ibid.

30 UNFPA 2004b, p. 45.

31 Matériels fournis par la Division de l’Amérique latine et des Caraïbes, de l’UNFPA.

32 OMS et UNICEF. 2003. Antenatal Care in Developing Countries: Promises, Achievements and Missed Opportunities : An Analysis of Trends, Levels, and Differentials: 1990-2001. Genève et New York: OMS et UNICEF.

33 J. Liljestrand. 1999. “Commentary: Reducing Perinatal and Maternal Mortality in the World: The Major Challenges.” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 106(9): 877-880.

34 UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

35 W. Graham, J. S. Bell et H. W. Bullough. 2001. “Can Skilled Attendance at Delivery Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries?” Pp. 97-129 de: Safe Motherhood Strategies: A Review of the Evidence, par V. De Brouwere et W.Van Lerberghe. 2001. Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy Series. No 17. Anvers: ITG Press.

36 Comme les pays appliquent des définitions différentes concernant la formation et l’homologation des sages-femmes, il est difficile d’interpréter les données relatives à l’effet d’une assistance qualifiée lors de l’accouchement.

37 OMS, UNFPA, UNICEF et Banque mondiale. 1999. Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A Joint OMS/UNFPA/UNICEF/ World Bank Statement. Genève: OMS.

38 F. G. Cunningham et al. 1993. Williams Obstetrics, 19e édition. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange. Cité dans: “Background Paper of the Millennium Project Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health”, par L. Freedman et al. 2003. New York: Projet du Millénaire.

39 Graham, Bell et Bullough. 2001.

40 UNFPA 2004b, p. 45.

41 UNICEF, OMS et UNFPA. 1997. Guidelines for Monitoring and Availability and Use of Obstetric Services. New York: UNICEF.

42 Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD). 2003. AMDD Notebook, p. 7. No. 8. New York: Averting Maternal Death and Disability, Mailman School of Public Health, Université Columbia.

43 UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

44 UNFPA 2004a.

45 A. Cholil, M. B. Iskandar et R. Sciortino. 1998. The Life Saver: The Mother Friendly Movement in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonésie: Ministère d’État du rôle des femmes et Fondation Ford.

46 A. B. Lalonde et al. 2003. “Averting Maternal Death et Disability: The FIGO Save the Mothers Initiative: The Uganda- Canada Collaboration.” International Journal of Gynecology et Obstetrics 80(2): 204-212.

47 OMS. 2003b.

48 UNICEF, OMS et UNFPA 1997.

49 ONU 1995, paragraphe 8.25.

50 Voir: K. Hardee et al. A paraître. What Works: A Policy and Program Guide to the Evidence on Family Planning, Safe Motherhood, and STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions: Module 2: Postabortion Care. Washington, D.C. et Baltimore, Maryland: POLICY Project, the Futures Group; FRONTIERS Program, the Population Council; et INFO Project, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

51 “Appendix E: Postabortion Care in Kenya: Case Study.” p. 12 de: Global Evaluation of USAID’s Postabortion Care Program”, par L Cobb et al. 2001. Washington, D.C.: Poptech.

52 Postabortion Care Consortium Community Task Force. 2002. “Essential Elements of Postabortion Care: An Expanded and Updated Model.” PAC in Action, No. 2. Supplément spécial.

53 D. Billings, J. Fuentes Velásquez et R. Pérez-Cuevas. 2003. “Comparing the Quality of Three Models of Postabortion Care in Public Hospitals in Mexico City.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 112-120; B. Johnson et al. 2002. “Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy et Abortion in Zimbabwe through Postabortion Contraception.” Studies in Family Planning 33(2): 195-202; R. Medina et al. 2001. Expansion of Postpartum/Postabortion Contraception in Honduras. FRONTIERS Program Final Report. Washington, D.C.: The Population Council; et V. Lema et V. Mpanga. 2000. “Post-abortion Contraceptive Acceptability in Blantyre, Malawi.” East African Medical Journal 77(9): 488-493.

54 D. Huntington et L. Nawar. 2003. “Moving from Research to Program: The Egyptian Postabortion Care Initiative.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 121-125.

55 A. Megied et A. Hassan. 2003. “Decentralization of Post-abortion Care to District Hospitals and Rural Health Units.” Communication présentée au 17e Congrès mondial de gynécologie et d’obstétrique de la Fédération internationale de gynécologie et d’obstétrique (FIGO), Santiago, Chili, 2-7 novembre 2003.

56 T. T. Htay, J. Sauvarin et S. Khan. 2003. “Integration of Post-Abortion Care: The Role of Township Medical Officers and Midwives in Mynamar.” Reproductive Health Matters 11(21): 27-36.

57 H. Gebreselassie et T. Fetters. 2002. Responding to Unsafe Abortion in Ethiopia: A Facility-based Assessment of Postabortion Care Services in Public Health Sector Facilities in Ethiopia. Chapel Hill, Caroline du Nord: Ipas.

58 J. Solo et al. 1998. “Creating Linkages Between Incomplete Abortion Treatment and Family Planning Services in Kenya: What Works Best.» Operations Research Technical Assistance Africa Project II. Communication présentée à la réunion mondiale sur le thème Advances and Challenges in Postabortion Care Operations Research. New York: The Population Council.

59 The Population Council. 2000. Meeting Women’s Health Care Needs After Abortion. Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Brief. No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Frontiers in Reproductive Health, the Population Council.

60 S. Settergren et al. 1999. Community Perspectives on Unsafe Abortion et Postabortion Care: Bulawayo and Hwange Districts, Zimbabwe. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group International.

61 Voir: J. Gay et al., 2003.

62 R. Castro et al. 2000. “A Study of Maternal Mortality in Mexico Through a Qualitative Approach.” Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 9(6): 679-690.

63 G. Seone, V. Kaune et V. Cordova. 1996. Diagnostico: Barreras y Viabilizadores en la Atencion de Complicaciones Obstetricas y Neonatales. La Paz, Bolivie: MotherCare Bolivia, John Snow, Inc. et Marketing S.R.C.

64 E. Kempe et al. 1994. The Quality of Maternal et Neonatal Services in Yemen: Seen Through Women’s Eyes. Stockholm: Save the Children Sweden.

65 UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

66 JHPIEGO, Save the Children et Family Care International. 2003. Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies. Baltimore, Maryland: Maternal and Neonatal Health Project, JHPIEGO; et J. Gay et al., 2003.

67 J. Mercer. 2000. “Family-Centered Maternity Care in Moldova.” Dans: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Projects: 1993-2000, édité par S. Jessop et al. Arlington, Virginie: John Snow International.

68 P. Glatleider, P. Paluzzi et C. Conroy. 2000. “Changing the Way Maternity Care Is Delivered in the Ukraine.” Dans: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Project, 1993-2000, édité par S. Jessop et al. Arlington, Virginie: John Snow International.

69 MotherCare/SEATS. 2000. “MotherCare/SEATS, JSI Collaborative Project in Novosibirsk and Primorsky Krai, Russia”. Dans: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Projects: 1993-2000, édité par S. Jessop et al. Arlington, Virginie: John Snow International.

70 L. Campero et al. 1998. “‘Alone I Wouldn’t Have Known What To Do’: A Qualitative Study on Social Support During Labor and Delivery in Mexico.” Social Science and Medicine 47(3): 395-403; et A. Langer et al. 1993. “The Latin American Trial of Psychosocial Support During Pregnancy: A Social Intervention Evaluated Through an Experimental Design.” Social Science and Medicine 36(4): 495-507.

71 M. W. Carter. 2002. “‘Because He Loves Me’: Husbands’ Involvement in Maternal Health in Rural Guatemala.” Culture, Health, and Sexuality 4(3): 259-279

72 N. Abdel-Tawab et al. 2002. “Recovery from Abortion and Miscarriage in Egypt: Does Counseling Husbands Help?” Ch. 10 de: Responding to Cairo: Case Studies of Changing Practice in Reproductive Health and Family Planning, édité par N. Haberland et D. Measham. 2002. New York: The Population Council.

73 Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. 2002. “Men and Reproductive Health Programme Examples: India: Nandesari.” Site web The Reproductive Health Outlook: www.rho.org/html/ menrh_progexamples.htm#india-nandesari, consulté pour la dernière fois le 3 mai 2004; et S. Raju et A. Leonard. 2000. Men as Supportive Partners in Reproductive Health: Moving from Rhetoric to Reality, pp. 46-47, 52. New Delhi: South and East Asia Regional Office, the Population Council.

74 UNFPA. 2003. Maternal Mortality Update 2002: A Focus on Emergency Obstetric Care, pp. 17-34. New York: UNFPA.

75 UNFPA 2004a.

76 UNFPA 2004b, p. 46; et UNFPA 2004a.

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