UNFPAState of World Population 2004
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State of World Population
Population and Poverty
Population and the Environment
Migration and Urbanization
Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment
Reproductive Health and Family Planning
Maternal Health
Preventing HIV/AIDS
Adolescents and Young People
Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis
Action Priorities
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11


1. UNAIDS. 2004. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic: 4th Global Report (UNAIDS/04.16E). Geneva: UNAIDS.

2. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 8.28. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

3. Ibid., paragraph 8.29.

4. Ibid., paragraph 7.28.

5. Askew, I., and M. Berer. 2003. “The Contribution of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services to Fight Against HIV/AIDS: A Review.” Reproductive Health Matters 11(22): 51-73.

6. Berkley, S., P. Piot, and A. Whiteside. 2003. “Scenarios: The Global Health Crisis,” p. 1. Produced for the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting, Davos, Switzerland, 23-28 January 2003.

7. Bell, C., S. Devarajan, and H. Gersbach. 2003. The Long-run Economic Cost of AIDS: Theory and an Application to South Africa. Policy Research Working Paper. No. 155. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

8. Global HIV Prevention Working Group. 2003. Access to HIV Prevention: Closing the Gap. Web site: http://www.kff.org/hivaids/ loader.cfm?url=/commonspot/ security/getfile.cfm&PageID=14225, last accessed 30 June 2004.

9. Ibid.

10. Askew and Berer 2003, p. 57.

11. See the June 2002 special issue on integration: International Family Planning Perspectives 28(2).

12. Richey, L. A. 2003. “HIV/AIDS in the Shadows of Reproductive Health Interventions,” p. 31. Reproductive Health Matters 11(22): 30-35.

13. International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region. 2000. Opening Windows to Gender: A Case Study of a Major International Population Agency. IPPF/WHR Working Paper. No. 1. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region; Becker, J., and E. Leitman. 1997. “Introducing Sexuality within Family Planning: Three Positive Experiences from Latin America and the Caribbean.” Quality/Calidad/Qualité. No. 8. New York: The Population Council; and Hardee, K. 2004. “The Intersection of Access, Quality of Care and Gender in Reproductive Health and STI/HIV Services: Evidence from Kenya, India and Guatemala.” Draft. Washington, D.C.: Interagency Gender Working Group and the POLICY Project, the Futures Group.

14. Banda, H. N., S. Bradley, and K. Hardee. 2004. Provision and Use of Family Planning in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Zambia: Perspectives of Providers, Family Planning and Antenatal Care Clients and HIV-Positive Women. Final report. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group, and the Support for Analysis and Research (SARA) Project; and Gichuhi, W., and S. Bradley. 2004. Provision and Use of Family Planning in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Kenya: Perspectives of Providers, Family Planning and Antenatal Care Clients, and HIV-Positive Women. Final report. Washington, D.C.: The Futures Group, POLICY Project and SARA Project, Academy for Educational Development.

15. Rothenberg, R. B., et al. 2000. “The Effect of Treating Sexually Transmitted Diseases on the Transmission of HIV in Dually Infected Persons: A Clinic-based Estimate: Ad Hoc STD/HIV Transmission Group.” Sexually Transmitted Diseases 27(7): 411-416. Cited in: Askew and Berer 2003.

16. Grosskurth, H., et al. 1995. “Impact of Improved Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases on HIV Infection in Rural Tanzania: Randomised Controlled Trial.” The Lancet. 346(8974): 530-536.

17. Sloan, N. L., et al. 2000. “Screening and Syndromic Approaches to Identify Gonorrhea and Chlamydial Infection Among Women.” Studies in Family Planning 31(1): 55-68.

18. Lush, L., G. Walt, and J. Ogden. 2003. “Transferring Policies for Treating Sexually Transmitted Infections: What’s Wrong with Global Guidelines?” Health Policy and Planning 18(1): 18-30.

19. Askew and Berer 2003, pp. 53-54.

20. Gray, R. H. 2003. “Guest Commentary: Contraception and HIV Acquisition in Rakai, Uganda.” The Pop Reporter 3(7). Baltimore, Maryland: INFO Project, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

21. Chaya, N., K-H. Amen, and M. Fox. 2002. Condoms Count: Meeting the Need in the Era of HIV/AIDS: The PAI Report Card 2002. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.

22. WHO. 2002. WHO Information Update regarding Reuse of the Female Condom. Geneva: WHO. Web site: www.who.int/reproductive-health/ rtis/reuse.en.html, accessed 20 February 2004.

23. Rivers, K., et al. 1998. “Gender Relations, Sexual Communication and the Female Condom.” Critical Public Health 8(4): 273-290. Cited in: “Programming for the Female Condom: Why is the Jury Still Out,” by T. Hatzell. 2001. Presentation at the Forum, Technical Update on the Female Condom, Washington, D.C., 18 December 2001.

24. Finger, W. R. 2000. “Zimbabwe Project Promotes Female Condom Use.” Network 20(2): 20.

25. Camlin, C., and C. Chimbwete. 2003. “Does Knowing Someone with AIDS Affect Condom Use: An Analysis from South Africa.” AIDS Education and Prevention 15(3): 231-244.

26. Brady, M. 2003. “Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy, and Safeguarding Fertility: Triple Protection Needs of Young Women,” p. 137. Reproductive Health Matters 11(22): 134-141.

27. The Microbicide Initiative. 2002. Mobilization for Microbicides: The Decision Decade. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Cited in: Chaya, Amen, and Fox 2002.

28. International Planned Parenthood Federation South Asia Regional Office and UNFPA. 2004. Integrating HIV Voluntary Counselling and Testing Services into Reproductive Health Settings: Stepwise Guidelines for Programme Planners, Managers and Service Providers. London and New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation South Asia Regional Office and UNFPA.

29. “The Glion Call to Action on Family Planning and HIV/AIDS in Women and Children: 3-5 May 2004.” Geneva: WHO.

30. WHO and UNAIDS. 2003. Treating 3 Million by 2005: Making it Happen: The WHO Strategy. Geneva: WHO and UNAIDS.

31. Ibid., p. 31.

32. Banda, Bradley, and Hardee 2004.

33. Pisani, E., et al. 2003. “Back to Basics in HIV Prevention: Focus on Exposure.” British Medical Journal 326(7403):1384-1387.

34. Banda, Bradley, and Hardee 2004.

35. Askew and Berer 2003, p. 55.

36. Office of Health, Ministry of Health and Prevention, Government of Senegal. 2002. Mapping Integration of FP/MCH and STI/HIV/AIDS Services in Senegal’s Kaolack Region, p. 40. Arlington, Virginia: Advance Africa.

37. Hardee, K., and J. Smith. 2000. “Increasing Returns on Reproductive Health Services in the Era of Health Sector Reform.” POLICY Occasional Paper. No. 5. Washington D.C.: The Futures Group International.

38. Berer, M. 2003. “HIV/AIDS, Sexual and Reproductive Health: Intimately Related,” p. 9. Reproductive Health Matters 11(22): 6-11.

39. Scillia, A. September-October 2001. “Senegal: Ray of Hope as Transmission Rates Slow.” The Courier ACP-EU, pp. 16-17; and UN Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. n.d. “Senegal: Country Profile.” IRIN PlusNews. Web site: www.irinnews.org/AIDS/ senegal.asp, accessed 23 February 2004.

40. Chase, M. 25 February 2004. “Saying No to ‘Sugar Daddies’: Can a Financial Prophylactic Shield Girls From Liaisons That Spread AIDS in Africa?” The Wall Street Journal, pp. B1-2.

41. UNFPA. 2004. Investing in People: National Progress in Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action, p. 128. New York: UNFPA.

42. Ibid., p. 130.

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