UNFPAState of World Population 2004
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State of World Population
Population and Poverty
Population and the Environment
Migration and Urbanization
Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment
Reproductive Health and Family Planning
Maternal Health
Preventing HIV/AIDS
Adolescents and Young People
Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis
Action Priorities
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11


1. Save the Children. 2001. Behind Every Healthy Child is a Healthy Mother. Report of the Symposium on the Linkages Between Maternal Health, Family Planning, and Child Survival. Washington, D.C., 24 July 2001. Web site: www.savethechildren.org/ publications/reproductive_health.pdf, last accessed 7 May 2004.

2. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. 2003. Maternal Mortality in 2000: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA. Geneva: WHO.

3. Safe Motherhood Initiative. 2003. Web site: http://www.safemotherhood.org, accessed 22 February 2004. The wide range of 30 to 50 reflects the difficulties of defining and measuring maternal morbidity. Underreporting, misclassification and failure to recognize the condition are common due to social and cultural factors, the nature of the conditions and the resources available to assess them.

4. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 8.22. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

5. Freedman, L., et al. 2004. “Interim Report of Task Force 4 on Child Health and Maternal Health,” p. 54. New York: UN Millennium Project.

6. Liljestrand, J. 2000. “Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality Worldwide.” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 12(6): 513-517.

7. Starrs, A. 1998. The Safe Motherhood Action Agenda: Priorities for the Next Decade, p. 9. New York: Family Care International.

8. Liljestrand 2000.

9.UNFPA. 2004a. Saving Mothers’ Lives: The Challenge Continues. Brochure. New York: UNFPA.

10. United Nations. 1999. Key Actions for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (A/S-21/5/Add.1), paragraph 62(a) and 62(b). New York: United Nations.

11. United Nations. 2004. Review and Appraisal of the Progress Made In Achieving the Goals and Objectives of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2004/3). New York: United Nations.

12. WHO. 2003a. International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, 10th rev. Geneva: WHO.

13 Maine, D., and T. McGinn. 1999. “Maternal Mortality and Morbidity.” Ch. 31 in: Women and Health, edited by M. Goldman and M. Hatch. 1999. San Diego, California: Academic Press.

14. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA 2003.

15. Graham, W., et al. 2004. “The Familial Technique for Linking Maternal Death with Poverty.” The Lancet 363(9402): 23-27.

16. Kunst, A. E., and T. Houweling, “A Global Picture of Poor-rich Differences in the Utilisation of Delivery Care.” Pp. 297-315 in: Safe Motherhood Strategies: A Review of the Evidence, by V. De Brouwere and W.Van Lerberghe. 2001. Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy Series. No 17. Antwerp: ITG Press.

17. WHO. 2004. Personal communication on forthcoming publications.

18. Maine and McGinn 1999.

19. Fortney, J., and J. Smith, J. 1996. The Base of the Iceberg: Prevalence and Perceptions of Maternal Morbidity in Four Developing Countries. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Maternal and Neonatal Health Center, Family Health International.

20. Donnay, F., and L. Weil. 2004. “Obstetric Fistula: The International Response.” The Lancet 363(9402): 71-72.

21. Gay, J., et al. 2003. What Works: A Policy and Program Guide to the Evidence on Family Planning, Safe Motherhood, and STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions: Module 1: Safe Motherhood. Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project.

22. Saving Mother’s Lives: What Works: Field Guide for Implementing Best Practices in Safe Motherhood. 2002. Washington, D.C.: The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood/India.

23. Global Health Council. 2002. Promises to Keep: The Toll of Unintended Pregnancies on Women’s Lives in the Developing World. Washington, D.C.: Global Health Council.

24. WHO, UNICEF, and UNFPA 2003.

25. Ibid.

26. Fortney, J., and J. Smith. 1999. “Measuring Maternal Morbidity.” Pp. 43-50 in Safe Motherhood Initiatives: Critical Issues, edited by M. Berer and T. K. S. Ravindran. 1999. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Science for Reproductive Health Matters.

27. UNFPA. 2004b. Investing in People: National Progress in Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action 1994-2004, p. 46. New York: UNFPA.

28. Pathmanathan, I., et al. 2003. Investing in Maternal Health: Learning from Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Human Development Network. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

29. Ibid.

30. UNFPA 2004b, p. 45.

31. Materials provided by the UNFPA Division of Latin America and the Caribbean.

32. WHO and UNICEF. 2003. Antenatal Care in Developing Countries: Promises, Achievements and Missed Opportunities : An Analysis of Trends, Levels, and Differentials: 1990-2001. Geneva and New York: WHO and UNICEF.

33. Liljestrand, J. 1999. “Commentary: Reducing Perinatal and Maternal Mortality in the World: The Major Challenges.” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 106(9): 877-880.

34. UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

35. Graham, W., J. S. Bell, and H. W. Bullough. 2001. “Can Skilled Attendance at Delivery Reduce Maternal Mortality in Developing Countries?” Pp. 97-129 in: Safe Motherhood Strategies: A Review of the Evidence, by V. De Brouwere and W.Van Lerberghe. 2001. Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy Series. No 17. Antwerp: ITG Press.

36. Evidence regarding the effect of skilled attendance at delivery is complicated by the different definitions used by countries in the training and regulation of midwives.

37. WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, and the World Bank. 1999. Reduction of Maternal Mortality: A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF/World Bank Statement. Geneva: WHO.

38. Cunningham, F. G., et al. 1993. Williams Obstetrics, 19th Edition. Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lange. Cited in: “Background Paper of the Millennium Project Task Force on Child Health and Maternal Health,” by L. Freedman, et al. 2003. New York: United Nations Millennium Project.

39. Graham, Bell, and Bullough 2001.

40. UNFPA 2004b, p. 45.

41. UNICEF, WHO, and UNFPA. 1997. Guidelines for Monitoring and Availability and Use of Obstetric Services. New York: UNICEF.

42.Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD). 2003. AMDD Notebook, p. 7. No. 8. New York: Averting Maternal Death and Disability, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University.

43. UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

44. UNFPA 2004a.

45. Cholil, A., M. B. Iskandar, and R. Sciortino. 1998. The Life Saver: The Mother Friendly Movement in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: The State Ministry for the Role of Women and the Ford Foundation.

46. Lalonde, A. B., et al. 2003. “Averting Maternal Death and Disability: The FIGO Save the Mothers Initiative: The Uganda-Canada Collaboration.” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 80(2): 204-212.

47. WHO. 2003b.

48. UNICEF, WHO, and UNFPA 1997.

49. United Nations 1995, paragraph 8.25.

50. See: Hardee, K., et al. Forthcoming. What Works: A Policy and Program Guide to the Evidence on Family Planning, Safe Motherhood, and STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions: Module 2: Postabortion Care. Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland: POLICY Project, the Futures Group; FRONTIERS Program, the Population Council; and INFO Project, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

51. “Appendix E: Postabortion Care in Kenya: Case Study.” p. 12 in: Global Evaluation of USAID’s Postabortion Care Program,” by L Cobb, et al. 2001. Washington, D.C.: Poptech.

52. Postabortion Care Consortium Community Task Force. 2002. “Essential Elements of Postabortion Care: An Expanded and Updated Model.” PAC in Action, No. 2. Special Supplement.

53. Billings, D., J. Fuentes Velásquez, and R. Pérez-Cuevas. 2003. “Comparing the Quality of Three Models of Postabortion Care in Public Hospitals in Mexico City.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 112-120; Johnson, B., et al. 2002. “Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy and Abortion in Zimbabwe through Postabortion Contraception.” Studies in Family Planning 33(2): 195-202; Medina, R., et al. 2001. Expansion of Postpartum/Postabortion Contraception in Honduras. FRONTIERS Program Final Report. Washington, D.C.: The Population Council; and Lema, V., and V. Mpanga. 2000. “Post-abortion Contraceptive Acceptability in Blantyre, Malawi.” East African Medical Journal 77(9): 488-493.

54. Huntington, D., and L. Nawar. 2003. “Moving from Research to Program: The Egyptian Postabortion Care Initiative.” International Family Planning Perspectives 29(3): 121-125.

55. Megied, A., and A. Hassan. 2003. “Decentralization of Post-abortion Care to District Hospitals and Rural Health Units.” Paper presented at the 17th International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Santiago, Chile, 2-7 November 2003.

56. Htay, T. T., J. Sauvarin, and S. Khan. 2003. “Integration of Post-Abortion Care: The Role of Township Medical Officers and Midwives in Mynamar.” Reproductive Health Matters 11(21): 27-36.

57. Gebreselassie, H., and T. Fetters. 2002. Responding to Unsafe Abortion in Ethiopia: A Facility-based Assessment of Postabortion Care Services in Public Health Sector Facilities in Ethiopia. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Ipas.

58. Solo, J., et al. 1998. “Creating Linkages Between Incomplete Abortion Treatment and Family Planning Services in Kenya: What Works Best.” Operations Research Technical Assistance Africa Project II. Paper Presented at the Global Meeting, Advances and Challenges in Postabortion Care Operations Research. New York: The Population Council.

59. The Population Council. 2000. Meeting Women’s Health Care Needs After Abortion. Frontiers in Reproductive Health Program Brief. No. 1. Washington, D.C.: Frontiers in Reproductive Health, the Population Council.

60. Settergren, S., et al. 1999. Community Perspectives on Unsafe Abortion and Postabortion Care: Bulawayo and Hwange Districts, Zimbabwe. Washington, D.C.: POLICY Project, the Futures Group International.

61. See: Gay, J., et al., 2003.

62. Castro, R., et al. 2000. “A Study of Maternal Mortality in Mexico Through a Qualitative Approach.” Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine 9(6): 679-690.

63. Seone, G., V. Kaune, and V. Cordova. 1996. Diagnostico: Barreras y Viabilizadores en la Atencion de Complicaciones Obstetricas y Neonatales. La Paz, Bolivia: MotherCare Bolivia, John Snow, Inc., and Marketing S.R.C.

64. Kempe, E., et al. 1994. The Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Services in Yemen: Seen Through Women’s Eyes. Stockholm: Save the Children Sweden.

65. UNFPA 2004b, p. 46.

66. JHPIEGO, Save the Children, and Family Care International. 2003. Shaping Policy for Maternal and Newborn Health: A Compendium of Case Studies. Baltimore, Maryland: Maternal and Neonatal Health Project, JHPIEGO; and Gay, J., et al., 2003.

67. Mercer, J. 2000. “Family-Centered Maternity Care in Moldova.” In: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Projects: 1993-2000, edited by S. Jessop, et al. Arlington, Virginia: John Snow International.

68. Glatleider, P., P. Paluzzi, and C. Conroy. 2000. “Changing the Way Maternity Care Is Delivered in the Ukraine.” In: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Project:, 1993-2000, edited by S. Jessop, et al. Arlington, Virginia: John Snow International.

69. MotherCare/SEATS. 2000. “MotherCare/SEATS, JSI Collaborative Project in Novosibirsk and Primorksy Krai, Russia.” In: MotherCare’s Initiatives: Actions and Results of 31 Projects: 1993-2000, edited by S. Jessop, et al. Arlington, Virginia: John Snow International.

70. Campero, L., et al. 1998. “‘Alone I Wouldn’t Have Known What To Do’: A Qualitative Study on Social Support During Labor and Delivery in Mexico.” Social Science and Medicine 47(3): 395-403; and Langer, A., et al. 1993. “The Latin American Trial of Psychosocial Support During Pregnancy: A Social Intervention Evaluated Through an Experimental Design.” Social Science and Medicine 36(4): 495-507.

71. Carter, M. W. 2002. “‘Because He Loves Me’: Husbands’ Involvement in Maternal Health in Rural Guatemala.” Culture, Health, and Sexuality 4(3): 259-279

72. Abdel-Tawab, N., et al. 2002. “Recovery from Abortion and Miscarriage in Egypt: Does Counseling Husbands Help?” Ch. 10 in: Responding to Cairo: Case Studies of Changing Practice in Reproductive Health and Family Planning, edited by N. Haberland and D. Measham. 2002. New York: The Population Council.

73. Program for Appropriate Technology in Health. 2002. “Men and Reproductive Health Programme Examples: India: Nandesari.” Reproductive Health Outlook web site: www.rho.org/html/menrh_ progexamples.htm#india-nandesari, last accessed 3 May 2004; and Raju, S., and A. Leonard. 2000. Men as Supportive Partners in Reproductive Health: Moving from Rhetoric to Reality, pp. 46-47, 52. New Delhi: South and East Asia Regional Office, the Population Council.

74. UNFPA. 2003. Maternal Mortality Update 2002: A Focus on Emergency Obstetric Care, pp. 17-34. New York: UNFPA.

75. UNFPA 2004a.

76. UNFPA 2004b, p. 46; and UNFPA 2004a.

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