UNFPAState of World Population 2004
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State of World Population
Population and Poverty
Population and the Environment
Migration and Urbanization
Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment
Reproductive Health and Family Planning
Maternal Health
Preventing HIV/AIDS
Adolescents and Young People
Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis
Action Priorities
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11


1. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, Chapter 9, Section B. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

2. Ibid., paragraphs 9.1 and 9.12.

3. This and subsequent discussions are indebted to the work of Mark R. Montgomery and colleagues, including: Montgomery, M. R. 2004. “Urbanization, Poverty and Health in the Developing World.” Presentation at the United Nations Population Division, New York, 8 April 2004; and Montgomery, M., and P. Hewett. 2004. “Urban Poverty and Health in Developing Countries: Household and Neighborhood Effects.” Policy Research Division Working Papers. No. 184. New York: The Population Council.

4. Current estimates are taken from: United Nations. 2004. “Executive Summary.” World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

5. See: Dyson, T. 2003. “HIV/AIDS and Urbanization.” Population and Development Review 29(3): 427-442.

6 UNFPA. 2004. Investing in People: National Progress in Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action. New York: UNFPA. Such a report on recent action is consistent with the finding of the UN Population Division that almost three quarters of developing countries have policies to reduce the migration flow to metropolitan areas, including those adopted earlier. (See: United Nations 2004.)

7. Source: United Nations. 2002. International Migration Report 2002 (Sales No. E.03.XIII.4). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

8. Estimating the number of migrants is difficult, due to a lack of comparable data. While many countries regularly conduct censuses, dissemination of the information generated has been limited or slow, especially for developing countries. Political considerations sometimes influence the reporting of migration statistics in some countries.

9. A long-term migrant is a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence. From the perspective of the country of departure, the person will be a long-term emigrant and from that of the country of arrival, the person will be a long-term immigrant. A short-term migrant is a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least three months but less than a year (12 months), except in cases where the movement to that country is for purposes of recreation, holiday, visits to friends and relatives, business, medical treatment or religious pilgrimage. For purposes of international migration statistics, the country of usual residence of short-term migrants is considered the country of destination during the period they spend in it. (See: United Nations. 1998. Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration: Revision 1 [ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/58/Rev.1]. Statistical Papers. Series M. No. 58. Rev. 1. New York: Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.). According to UNHCR High Commissioner’s 20 August 2003 Report to the General Assembly (See: United Nations. 2003. Report by the High Commissioner to the General Assembly on Strengthening the Capacity of the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees to Carry Out Its Mandate [A/AC.96/980]. New York: United Nations.), while a clear distinction between voluntary and forced migration should continue to be made, the problems of refugees and asylum-seekers (who are forced-migrants), will need to be addressed within the wider context of international migration.

10. Although reference is usually made to “countries”, “areas” refers here to both countries (for international migration) and cities/villages within countries (for internal migration).

11. The World Bank. 2003. Global Development Finance 2003: Striving for Stability in Development Finance. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

12. United Nations 1995, paragraph 10.2.

13 Ibid., paragraphs 10.3-10.8.

14. Ogata, S., and A. Sen. 2003. “People on the Move.” Ch. 3 in Human Security Now: Commission on Human Security. Final Report of the Commission on Human Security. New York: Commission on Human Security.

15. The General Assembly, in its resolution 54/212 of 22 December 1999, requested the Secretary-General to submit at its fifty-sixth session, “. . . a report that will, inter alia, summarize the lessons learned, as well as best practices on migration management and policies, from the various activities relating to international migration and development that have been carried out at the regional and interregional levels . . . .” (See: United Nations. 2000. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 54/212: International Migration and Development [A/RES/54/212]. New York: United Nations.)

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