1. United Nations. 1995. Population and
Development, vol. 1: Programme of
Action adopted at the International
Conference on Population and
Development: Cairo: 5-13 September
1994, Chapter 9, Section B. New
York: Department of Economic and
Social Information and Policy
Analysis, United Nations.
2. Ibid., paragraphs 9.1 and 9.12.
3. This and subsequent discussions
are indebted to the work of Mark R.
Montgomery and colleagues,
including: Montgomery, M. R. 2004.
“Urbanization, Poverty and Health in
the Developing World.” Presentation
at the United Nations Population
Division, New York, 8 April 2004;
and Montgomery, M., and P. Hewett.
2004. “Urban Poverty and Health in
Developing Countries: Household
and Neighborhood Effects.” Policy
Research Division Working Papers.
No. 184. New York: The Population
4. Current estimates are taken from:
United Nations. 2004. “Executive
Summary.” World Urbanization
Prospects: The 2003 Revision.
New York: Population Division,
Department of Economic and
Social Affairs, United Nations.
5. See: Dyson, T. 2003. “HIV/AIDS
and Urbanization.” Population and
Development Review 29(3): 427-442.
6 UNFPA. 2004. Investing in People:
National Progress in Implementing the
ICPD Programme of Action. New York:
UNFPA. Such a report on recent
action is consistent with the finding
of the UN Population Division that
almost three quarters of developing
countries have policies to reduce
the migration flow to metropolitan areas, including those adopted
earlier. (See: United Nations 2004.)
7. Source: United Nations. 2002.
International Migration Report 2002
(Sales No. E.03.XIII.4). New York:
Population Division, Department of
Economic and Social Affairs, United
8. Estimating the number of migrants
is difficult, due to a lack of comparable
data. While many countries
regularly conduct censuses, dissemination
of the information generated
has been limited or slow, especially
for developing countries. Political
considerations sometimes influence
the reporting of migration statistics
in some countries.
9. A long-term migrant is a person
who moves to a country other than
that of his or her usual residence
for a period of at least a year (12
months), so that the country of destination
effectively becomes his or
her new country of usual residence.
From the perspective of the country
of departure, the person will be a
long-term emigrant and from that
of the country of arrival, the person
will be a long-term immigrant. A
short-term migrant is a person who
moves to a country other than that
of his or her usual residence for a
period of at least three months but
less than a year (12 months), except
in cases where the movement to
that country is for purposes of
recreation, holiday, visits to friends
and relatives, business, medical
treatment or religious pilgrimage.
For purposes of international migration
statistics, the country of usual
residence of short-term migrants is
considered the country of destination
during the period they spend
in it. (See: United Nations. 1998.
Recommendations on Statistics of
International Migration: Revision 1
Statistical Papers. Series M. No. 58.
Rev. 1. New York: Statistics Division,
Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, United Nations.). According
to UNHCR High Commissioner’s 20
August 2003 Report to the General
Assembly (See: United Nations. 2003.
Report by the High Commissioner to
the General Assembly on Strengthening
the Capacity of the Office of the High
Commissioner for Refugees to Carry
Out Its Mandate [A/AC.96/980].
New York: United Nations.), while a
clear distinction between voluntary
and forced migration should continue
to be made, the problems of refugees
and asylum-seekers (who are
forced-migrants), will need to be
addressed within the wider context
of international migration.
10. Although reference is usually made
to “countries”, “areas” refers here
to both countries (for international
migration) and cities/villages within
countries (for internal migration).
11. The World Bank. 2003. Global
Development Finance 2003: Striving
for Stability in Development Finance.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
12. United Nations 1995, paragraph
13 Ibid., paragraphs 10.3-10.8.
14. Ogata, S., and A. Sen. 2003. “People
on the Move.” Ch. 3 in Human
Security Now: Commission on
Human Security. Final Report of
the Commission on Human Security.
New York: Commission on Human
15. The General Assembly, in its resolution
54/212 of 22 December 1999,
requested the Secretary-General to
submit at its fifty-sixth session,
“. . . a report that will, inter alia,
summarize the lessons learned, as
well as best practices on migration
management and policies, from the
various activities relating to international
migration and development
that have been carried out at the
regional and interregional levels . . . .”
(See: United Nations. 2000.
Resolution adopted by the General
Assembly: 54/212: International
Migration and Development
[A/RES/54/212]. New York: