1. The Statement of Commitment
may be found at:
2. See web site: www.south-south-ppd.org
, accessed 4 June 2004.
3. Agenda 21 of the 1992 UN
Conference on the Environment
and Development had included
some nominal costs but governments
did not agree on them and
they were presented as provisional.
4. United Nations. 1995. Population and
Development, vol. 1: Programme of
Action adopted at the International
Conference on Population and
Development: Cairo: 5-13 September
1994, paragraphs 13.14-13.16. New
York: Department of Economic and
Social Information and Policy
Analysis, United Nations.
5. This estimate did not take appropriate
account of family planning (and some
other reproductive health) supplies or
their delivery costs. These costs and
other components of reproductive
health infrastructure were included in
an aggregate total addressing infrastructure
for service delivery.
6. The report of the methodology can
be found in: Schwartlander, B., et al.
2001. “Resource Needs for
HIV/AIDS.” Science 292(5526):
2434-2436. See also: Stover, J.,
et al. 2002. “Can We Reverse the
HIV/AIDS Pandemic with an
Expanded Response?” The Lancet
7. The estimate for the ICPD components
of mass media, education
programmes, and additional condoms
for HIV/AIDS prevention was $1.7
billion; some $200 million higher
than projected in 1994.
8. A technical consultation on integrating
reproductive health and
HIV/AIDS programming was held
in May 2004, hosted by UNFPA.
A report of the meeting and the
background papers will be available
on the web site: www.unfpa.org.
9. New vertical programmes may also
divert resources and skilled personnel
from existing health system efforts.
Anecdotal evidence about the negative
impact of large resource flows
to HIV/AIDS is easy to find. Serious
studies of the policy and programme
impacts are in their early stages.
10. The increased use of sector-wide
funding and integrated programming
makes it difficult to track
resource streams for particular
activities. Estimating the proportion
of a multi-purpose allocation going
to particular elements is inherently
difficult. Evidence shows that support
for family planning has been a
declining share of total allocations.
(See United Nations. 2004. Flow of
Financial Resources for Assisting in the
Implementation of the Programme of
Action of the International Conference
on Population and Development:
A 10-year Review: Report of the
New York: United Nations.
11. Caution should be also exercised in
interpreting the high level of reported
domestic expenditures even in the
countries that do report. The
Programme of Action service delivery
estimates were made for primary
health care level interventions and, in
the area of HIV/AIDS, only for selected
prevention activities. Reports of
domestic expenditures use the general
functional categories of the basic
costed package, but higher level service
provision (including hospital care
and lower-level care given at these
more expensive facilities) are frequently
included. Since 1999, both
donor and domestic HIV/AIDS
reports are not restricted to only the
ICPD-specified prevention activities.
12. The project is directed by Jeffrey
Sachs, Special Adviser to the
Secretary-General, and UN
Administrator Mark Malloch Brown,
and is supported by Task Forces of
international experts. They are
analysing priority interventions to
accelerate progress and working
to ensure that Poverty Reduction
Strategies in developing countries
give priority to attaining the
Millennium Development Goals.
Details can be found at:
13. The Interim Reports of the Task
Forces on Child and Maternal
Mortality and on Primary Education
and Gender Equality both endorse
universal access to reproductive
health services (an ICPD goal) as
fundamental to the attainment of
the Millennium Development Goals
(accessible at the project website,
see the previous note).
14. A few countries, mostly Nordic
countries, have attained this level
of support. In contrast, the United
States provides the lowest share of relative
to GDP of major donor country.