UNFPAState of World Population 2004
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State of World Population
Population and Poverty
Population and the Environment
Migration and Urbanization
Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment
Reproductive Health and Family Planning
Maternal Health
Preventing HIV/AIDS
Adolescents and Young People
Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis
Action Priorities
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11


1. The Statement of Commitment may be found at: www.unfpa.org/ipci/index.htm.

2. See web site: www.south-south-ppd.org , accessed 4 June 2004.

3. Agenda 21 of the 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development had included some nominal costs but governments did not agree on them and they were presented as provisional.

4. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, paragraphs 13.14-13.16. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

5. This estimate did not take appropriate account of family planning (and some other reproductive health) supplies or their delivery costs. These costs and other components of reproductive health infrastructure were included in an aggregate total addressing infrastructure for service delivery.

6. The report of the methodology can be found in: Schwartlander, B., et al. 2001. “Resource Needs for HIV/AIDS.” Science 292(5526): 2434-2436. See also: Stover, J., et al. 2002. “Can We Reverse the HIV/AIDS Pandemic with an Expanded Response?” The Lancet 360(9326): 73-77.

7. The estimate for the ICPD components of mass media, education programmes, and additional condoms for HIV/AIDS prevention was $1.7 billion; some $200 million higher than projected in 1994.

8. A technical consultation on integrating reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programming was held in May 2004, hosted by UNFPA. A report of the meeting and the background papers will be available on the web site: www.unfpa.org.

9. New vertical programmes may also divert resources and skilled personnel from existing health system efforts. Anecdotal evidence about the negative impact of large resource flows to HIV/AIDS is easy to find. Serious studies of the policy and programme impacts are in their early stages.

10. The increased use of sector-wide funding and integrated programming makes it difficult to track resource streams for particular activities. Estimating the proportion of a multi-purpose allocation going to particular elements is inherently difficult. Evidence shows that support for family planning has been a declining share of total allocations. (See United Nations. 2004. Flow of Financial Resources for Assisting in the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development: A 10-year Review: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2004/4). New York: United Nations.

11. Caution should be also exercised in interpreting the high level of reported domestic expenditures even in the countries that do report. The Programme of Action service delivery estimates were made for primary health care level interventions and, in the area of HIV/AIDS, only for selected prevention activities. Reports of domestic expenditures use the general functional categories of the basic costed package, but higher level service provision (including hospital care and lower-level care given at these more expensive facilities) are frequently included. Since 1999, both donor and domestic HIV/AIDS reports are not restricted to only the ICPD-specified prevention activities.

12. The project is directed by Jeffrey Sachs, Special Adviser to the Secretary-General, and UN Development Programme Administrator Mark Malloch Brown, and is supported by Task Forces of international experts. They are analysing priority interventions to accelerate progress and working to ensure that Poverty Reduction Strategies in developing countries give priority to attaining the Millennium Development Goals. Details can be found at: www.unmillenniumproject.org.

13. The Interim Reports of the Task Forces on Child and Maternal Mortality and on Primary Education and Gender Equality both endorse universal access to reproductive health services (an ICPD goal) as fundamental to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (accessible at the project website, see the previous note).

14. A few countries, mostly Nordic countries, have attained this level of support. In contrast, the United States provides the lowest share of relative to GDP of major donor country.

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