UNFPAEL ESTADO DE LA POBLACIÓN MUNDIAL 2003
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panorama general de la vida de los adolescentes
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Notas

CAPÍTULO 1
CAPÍTULO 2
CAPÍTULO 3
CAPÍTULO 4
CAPÍTULO 5
CAPÍTULO 6
CAPÍTULO 7

CAPÍTULO 3

1 UNICEF, ONUSIDA, y OMS. 2002. Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunities in Crisis. Nueva York: UNICEF.

2 Nota: Las cifras se han redondeado. Fuente: UNICEF, UNAIDS y OMS 2002. Young People and HIV/AIDS. Mencionado en: López, V. M. 2002. “HIV & Young People. A Review of the State of the Epidemic and Its Impact on World Youth”. Informe preparado como contribución a la publicación: UNICEF. 2003. World Youth Report 2003. Nueva York: UNICEF.

3 USAID, UNICEF y ONUSIDA. 2002. Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Programme Strategies. Washington, D.C.: The Synergy Project.

4 Ainsworth, M. y M. Over. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. World Bank Policy Research Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

5 ONUSIDA y OMS. 2001. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2001 (UNAIDS/01.74E – WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2001.2). Ginebra: UNAIDS/WHO.

6 Royce, R., y otros. 1997. “Sexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS”. The New England Journal of Medicine 336(15): págs. 1072 a 1078. Citado en: “Youth and HIV/AIDS: Can We Avoid Catastrophe”, por K. Kiragu. 2001. Population Reports. Series L. No. 12. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University.

7 Best, K. 2000. “Many Youths Face Grim STD Risks”. Network 20(3): págs. 4 a 9.

8 Luke, N. 2001. “Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-saharan Africa: A Review of the Evidence on Prevalence and Implications for Negotiation of Safe Sex Practices for Adolescent Girls”. Documento preparado para el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones sobre la Mujer, AIDSMark Project. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

9 Fuglesang, M. 1997. “Lessons for Life: Past and Present Modes of Sexuality Education in Tanzanian Society”.Social Science and Medicine 44(8): págs. 1245 a 1254. Citado en: Luke 2001.

10 UNICEF, ONUSIDA y OMS 2002.

11 Ibid. Los datos se obtuvieron de las Encuestas de Indicadores Múltiples Agrupados (MICS) del UNICEF y las Encuestas Demográficas y de Salud, 1999-2001.

12 Brown, A., y otros. 2001. Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries: Evidence from WHO Case Studies (WHO/RHR/01.8). Occasional Paper. Ginebra: Salud de la Familia y la Comunidad, Departamento de Salud Reproductiva e Investigación, WHO.

13 Kiragu 2001.

14 OMS. 1998. The Second Decade: Improving Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/FRH/ADH/98.18), pág. 6. Ginebra: Programa de Salud y Desarrollo del Adolescente, WHO.

15 MacPhail, C., B. G. Williams y C. Campbell. 2002. “Relative Risk of HIV Infection among Young Men and Women in a South African Township”. International Journal of STD and AIDS 13(5): págs. 331 a 342.

16 ONUSIDA y OMS. 1997. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Policies and Principles for Prevention and Care. UNAIDS Best Practices Collection: Key Material. Ginebra: UNAIDS. Citado en: The Tip of the Iceberg: The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth, por T. Summers, J. Kates, y G. Murphy. 2002. Menlo Park, California: The Kaiser Family Foundation.

17 Brown, y otros. 2001.

18 Skhom, H. y otros. 2002. “Survey on Health Seeking Behaviour of Women Working in the Entertainment Sector in Phnom Penh”. Phnom Penh, Camboya: Centro de Estudios Superiores, Pharmaciens sans frontières y Family Health International.

19 Brown, y otros. 2001.

20 UNICEF, ONUSIDA y OMS 2002.

21 ONUSIDA. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: June 2000 (UNAIDS/00/13E). Ginebra: UNAIDS. Citado en: Kiragu 2001.

22 Babalola, S., D. Awasum, y B. Quenum- Renaud. 2002. “The Correlates of Safe Sex Practices among Rwandan Youth: A Positive Deviance Approach.” African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1): págs. 11 a 21.

23 Jackson, J., y otros. 1998. The Jamaica Adolescent Study. Kingston, Jamaica, y Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Fertility Management Unit, University of the West Indies, y Family Health International.

24 Reichman, L., y J. Tanne. 2002. Timebomb: The Global Epidemic of Multi- Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. Nueva York: McGraw-Hill. Citado en: What Works: A Policy and Program Guide to Effective STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions, por J. Gay, y otros. (De próxima publicación). Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project.

25 Thompson, D. 2002. Coordinates 2002: Charting Progress against AIDS, TB and Malaria. Ginebra: WHO.

26 Ibid.

27 UNICEF, ONUSIDA, y OMS 2002.

28 USAID, UNICEF y ONUSIDA 2002, pág. 9.

29 Ibid.

30 Banco Mundial. 2002. Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope. Washington, D.C.: Banco Mundial. Citado en: The Tip of the Iceberg: The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth, por T. Summers, J. Kates, y G. Murphy. 2002. Menlo Park, California: The Kaiser Family Foundation.

31 USAID, UNICEF y ONUSIDA 2002.

32 Ramlow, R. 2001. “Social Marketing for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Indonesia”. Presentación en el Dialogue on Social Marketing and Other Commercial Approaches to Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health, Washington, D.C., 15 de febrero de 2001. Washington, D.C.: Pathfinder International/FOCUS on Young Adults.

33 Population Services International y Population Reference Bureau. 2000. Social Marketing for Adolescent Sexual Health: Results of Operations Research Projects in Botswana, Cameroon, Guinea, and South Africa. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International y Population Reference Bureau; Agha, S. 2000. “An Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Cameroon, Botswana, South Africa, and Guinea”. Population Services International Research Division Working Paper. No. 29. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International; y Van Rossen, R., and D. Meekers. 1999. “The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Targeted Social Marketing to Promote Adolescent Reproductive Health in Guinea”. Population Services International Research Division Working Paper. No. 23. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International.

34 Meekers, D. y M. Klein. 2003. “Determinants of Condom Use Among Young People in Urban Cameroon”. Studies in Family Planning 33(4): págs. 335 a 346.

35 Nyamongo, I. 1995. “Investigation into Condom Acceptability, Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes about HIV Infection and AIDS Among Adolescent Students in Kenya”. Informe inédito. Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi. Citado en: Brown, y otros 2001.

36 Kgosidintsi, N. 1997. “Sexual Behaviour and Risk of HIV Infection Among Adolescent Females in Botswana”. Informe inédito. Gabarone, Botswana: National Institute of Development, Research and Documentation. Citado en: Brown, y otros. 2001.

37 Heald, S. 2002. “It’s Never As Easy as ABC: Understandings of AIDS in Botswana”. African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1): págs. 1 a 10.

38 Sarafian, I. 2001. “Final Report on Findings: HIV/AIDS and Youth in Suriname”. Paramaribo, Suriname: PAHO/WHO.

39 Best 2000.

40 FOCUS on Young Adults. 2001. Advancing Young Adult Reproductive Health: Actions for the Next Decade. End of Programme Report: 2001. Washington, D.C.: Pathfinder International and the Futures Group.

41 Horizons Program, Kenya Project Partners, y Uganda Project Partners. 2001. HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Among Youth: Results from an Exploratory Study in Nairobi, Kenya, and Kampala and Masaka Uganda. Washington, D.C.: Horizons Program, The Population Council.

42 Thompson 2002.

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