UNFPAState of World Population 2003
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State of World Population
Overview of Adolescent Life
Gender Inequality and Reproductive Health
HIV/AIDS and Adolescents
Promoting Healthier Behavior
Meeting Reproductive Health Services Needs
Comprehensive Programmes for Adolescents
Giving Priority to Adolescents
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7


1 UNICEF. 1998. The Progress of Nations 1998. New York: UNICEF; and UNICEF. 2001. Early Marriage: Child Spouses. Innocenti Digest. No. 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Web site: www.unicef-icdc.org/publications/ pdf/digest7e.pdf.

2 United Nations. 2001. We the Children: End-decade Review of the Follow-up to the World Summit for Children: Report of the Secretary General (A/S-27/3). New York: United Nations.

3 Gaym, A. 2000. “A Review of Maternal Mortality at Jimma Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia.” Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 14(2): 215-223.

4 UNICEF 2001.

5 WHO. 1989. The Reproductive Health of Adolescents: A Strategy for Action. A Joint WHO/UNFPA/UNICEF Statement. Geneva: WHO.

6 ORC Macro. 2001. Final Report: Bangladesh. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. Web site: www.measuredhs.com, accessed 7 July 2003.

7 Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1998. Into a New World: Young Women’s Sexual and Reproductive Lives. New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute.

8 United Nations. 2002. World Population Monitoring 2002: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health: Selected Aspects (ESA/P/WP.717). New York: Commission on Population and Development, United Nations.

9 Ibid.

10 WHO. 1997. Abortion: A Tabulation of Available Data on the Frequency and Mortality of Unsafe Abortion, Third Edition. Geneva: WHO.

11 UNESCO. 2002. “Unwanted Pregnancy and Unsafe Abortion.” Package of Laws and Legislations Series 3: Legislation Review 2. Bangkok: Regional Clearing House on Population, Education and Communication (RECHPEC), UNESCO.

12 Harrison, K. A. 1985. “Childbearing, Health and Social Priorities: A Survey of 22,744 Consecutive Deliveries in Zaria, Northern Nigeria.” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 92(Supp. 5): 1-119.

13 The definitions also use various technical rules for assigning the status of currently pregnant or amenorrheic women (e.g., using their statements about whether and when they wanted their pregnancy) and for women who do not believe they are fecund. The details of the various definitions and a discussion of their reliability and validity can be reviewed in: Casterline, J. B., and S. W. Sinding. 2000. “Unmet Need for Family Planning in Developing Countries and Policy Implications.” Population and Development Review 26(4): 691–723; and Westoff, C. F., and A. Bankole. 1995. Unmet Need: 1990–1994. Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies. No. 16. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International, Inc.

14 Data are from the STATcompiler on the main survey web site (www.measuredhs.com), accessed 6 May 2003. Additional surveys are being processed or are in the field and will be available prior to publication of this report.

15 Data were available for seven countries in Latin America and 23 in sub-Saharan Africa.

16 However, data were available for only three Central Asian countries.

17 Gabon, South Africa, Togo and Zimbabwe show such high levels.

18 Yemen, with four times higher unmet than met spacing needs, was the only country with less than half—only 22 per cent—of demand met.

19 Senderowitz, J. 1999. Making Reproductive Health Services Youth Friendly. Research, Program and Policy Series. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

20 Boland, R. 2003. Population and Law database (Harvard University). Special compendium provided on request, p. 1.

21 Ibid., pp. 1-2.

22 Family Care International. 1999. Meeting the Cairo Challenge: A Summary Report: Implementing the ICPD Programme of Action, p. 9. New York: Family Care International.

23 Boland 2003, p. 2.

24 Ibid., p. 3.

25 Ibid., pp. 1-2.

26 Senderowitz, J. 1997. Reproductive Health Outreach Programs for Young Adults. Pathfinder International/FOCUS on Young Adults Research Series. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

27 Erulkar, A., and B. Mensch. 1997. Youth Centres in Kenya: Evaluation of the Family Planning Association of Kenya Programme. Nairobi: The Population Council; The Population Council. 2000. Overview of Youth Centre Assessments In Kenya, Zimbabwe and Ghana. New York: The Population Council; Glover, E. K., et al. 1998. Youth Centres in Ghana: Assessment of the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana Programme. Nairobi: The Population Council; and Phiri, A., and A. Erulkar. 1997. A Situation Analysis of the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council’s Youth Centres: Baseline Assessment. Naibori: Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council and the Population Council.

28 Action Health Incorporated. 1998. “The Youth Clinic.” Growing Up 6(2).

29 Boucard, G. 1998. “Mid-Term Evaluation: FOSREF Reproductive Health for Adolescents Project.” Prepared for UNFPA. New York: UNFPA.

30 Family Care International 1999, p. 101.

31 Ibid., p. 102.

32 Ibid., p. 99.

33 International Planned Parenthood Federation. n.d. “Burkina Faso Programme Review.” Unpublished report. London: International Planned Parenthood Federation.

34 International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001. “Integrating Sexual and Reproductive Health Services for Youth in Colombia.” IPPF/WHR Spotlight on Youth. No. 1. New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation.

35 Russian Federation. 2002. “Information Letter on improving the activities of youth centers for protection of reproductive health of adolescents, based on the results of the UNFPA project ‘Reproductive Health and Rights of People in the Russian Federation’ implemented in Moscow, Tver, Saint- Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Tomsk in 2000-2002.” Moscow: Ministry of Health, Russian Federation.

36 Jamaica Adolescent Reproductive Health Activity. November 2002. “Background Report, Mid-Term External Evaluation.” Washington, D.C.: The Futures Group International in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Margaret Sanger Center International, and Dunlop Corbin Communication.

37 Senderowitz, J., and C. Stevens. 2001. Leveraging the For-Profit Sector in Support of Adolescent and Young Adult Reproductive Health Programming. Washington, D.C.: Futures Institute for Sustainable Development.

38 Hughes, J. November 2000. Personal communication; and Erulkar, A. 2000. Unpublished memo.

39 Family Planning Service Expansion and Technical Support Project. 1999. “Evaluating the Impact of ZNA/MAPS Interventions on Reproductive Health Services for Youth.” Lusaka, Zambia: Family Planning Service Expansion and Technical Support Project, John Snow International; and Williams, T. 14 March 2001. Personal correspondence.

40 Murray, N., et al. 2001. Will Youth Be Negatively Affected by User Fees for Reproductive Health Products or Services? Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

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