UNFPAState of World Population 2003
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State of World Population
Overview of Adolescent Life
Gender Inequality and Reproductive Health
HIV/AIDS and Adolescents
Promoting Healthier Behavior
Meeting Reproductive Health Services Needs
Comprehensive Programmes for Adolescents
Giving Priority to Adolescents
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7


1. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 7.41. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

2. Rebourças, L. 2002. “Brazil Confronts Adolescent Sexual Health Issues.” Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau. Web site: www.prb.org//Template.cfm?Section= RB&template=/Content/ContentGroups/ Articles/02/Brazil_Confronts_Adolescent_ Sexual_Health_Issues.htm, accessed 13 November 2002.

3. Brown, A., et al. 2001. Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries: Evidence from WHO Case Studies (WHO/RHR/01.8). Occasional Paper. Geneva: Family and Community Health, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO, pg. 35. This section also draws extensively on: McCauley, A. P., and C. Salter. 1995. Meeting the Needs Of Young Adults. Population Reports. Series J, No. 41. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.

4. Examples from: Brown, et al. 2001, pp. 29-30.

5. Ibid., p. 30.

6. Ibid., p. 34.

7. Federal Centre for Health Education. 1998. Youth Sexuality 1998: Results of the Current Representative Survey. Cologne: The Centre.

8. See: Grunseit, A., and S. Kippax, 1993. Effects of Sex Education on Young People’s Sexual Behavior. Geneva: WHO; Kirby, D. 2001. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. Washington, D.C.: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Web site: www.teenpregnancy.org, accessed 7 July 2003; and Health Development Agency. 2001. Teenage Pregnancy: An Update on Key Characteristics of Effective Interventions. London: National Health Service. Web site: www.hda-online.org.uk/ documents/teenpreg.pdf, accessed 7 July 2003.

9. Brown, et al. 2001, p. 35.

10. Kirby 2001. Cited in: “Sexuality and Family Life Education Helps Prepare Young People,” No. 2 in a Series, by K. Katz and W. Finger. 2002. YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. Arlington, Virginia: YouthNet.

11. “AIDS Education Fails to Change Behavior.” 2 November 2002. East African Standard (Nairobi).

12. Perez, F., and F. Dabis. 2003. “HIV Prevention in Latin America: Reaching Youth in Colombia,” p. 85. AIDS Care 15(1): 77-87.

13. O’Donoghue, J. 2002. “Zimbabwe’s AIDS Action Programme for Schools.” Evaluation and Programme Planning 25(4): 387-396.

14. Stewart, H., et al. 2001. Reducing HIV Infection Among Youth: What Can Schools Do: Key Baseline Findings from Mexico, South Africa, and Thailand. Washington, D.C.: Horizons Program, the Population Council.

15. Perez and Dabis 2003.

16. Population Reference Bureau. 2000. The World’s Youth 2000. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau. Cited in: “Youth and HIV/AIDS: Can We Avoid Catastrophe,” by K. Kiragu. 2001. Population Reports. Series L. No. 12. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

17. Kirby 2001.

18. In assessing the reaction to the ABC message in Botswana, one analysis concluded that “human choices are constrained and depend on who and where one is, especially in such emotive and important an area as human sexuality. People cannot be assumed to be autonomous agents operating in a social vacuum. It has become increasingly clear that while some may have such choice, there are many others who have no such freedom, and the position of women, whether married, poor or young, has been a particular focus of concern.” Heald, S. 2002. “It’s Never As Easy as ABC: Understandings of AIDS in Botswana,” p.3. African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1): 1-10.

19. Source: Shelton, J. 29 July 2002. “Jim Shelton’s Pearls: ABC Approach to Behaviour Change.” Web site: www.jhuccp.org/pearls/2002/ 07-29.shtml.

20. Stanton, B. F., et al. 1998. “Increased Protected Sex and Abstinence Among Namibian Youth Following a HIV Riskreduction Intervention: A Randomized, Longitudinal Study.” AIDS 12(18): 2473-2480.

21. Barcelona, D., and L. Laski. 2002. “Introduction: What Are We Learning about Sexuality Education?” Quality/Calidad/Qualité: Universal Sexuality Education in Mongolia: Educating Today to Protect Tomorrow. No. 12: 1-5. New York: The Population Council.

22. Gerdts, C. 2002. “Universal Sexuality Education in Mongolia: Educating Today to Protect Tomorrow.” Universal Sexuality Education in Mongolia: Educating Today to Protect Tomorrow. Quality/Calidad/Qualité. No. 12: 5-31. New York: The Population Council.

23. Smith, J., and C. Colvin. 2000. Getting to Scale in Young Adult Reproductive Health Programs. FOCUS Tool Series. No. 3. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International; and UNFPA. n.d. “UNFPA in Action: Case Study: Critical Information: Getting the Message Out: Bangladesh, Colombia, Jamaica, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Philippines, Vanuatu, Vietnam.” New York: UNFPA. Web Site: www.unfpa.org/adolescents/casestudies/ case001.htm, accessed 5 January 2003.

24. Perez and Dabis 2003.

25. FOCUS on Young Adults. n.d. “Evaluation of Life Skills in Public Schools in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa: Baseline Survey Report.” Unpublished summary report. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

26. Pick de Weiss, S., et al. 1998. “Family Life Education Increases Contraceptive Knowledge and Use by Mexican Youth.” Operations Research Summaries. New York: The Population Council.

27. UNFPA n.d.

28. International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001a. “Working in Schools: Sex Education in Brazil.” IPPF/WHR Spotlight on Youth. No. 3. New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation.

29. Boland, R. 2003. Population and Law database (Harvard University). Special compendium provided on request, p. 10.

30. Ibid., p. 2.

31. Ibid., p. 1.

32. Ibid.

33. Pick, S., M. Givaudan, and J. Brown. 2000. “Quietly Working for School- Based Sexuality Education in Mexico: Strategies for Advocacy.” Reproductive Health Matters 8(16): 92-102.

34. Family Care International. 1999. Get the Facts: A Flipchart for Adolescents. New York: Family Care International.

35. Bond, K., and L. MacLaren. 1998. “Report on Consultancy to NIPHP Partners: Bangladesh: November 29-December 14, 1998.” Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

36. Barkat, A., et al. 1999. “An Assessment of RSDP/BRAC Adolescent Family Life Education Program.” Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults, Pathfinder International.

37. Meeting with Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) staff, 26 April 2000; and unpublished CEDPA memos and reports.

38. Senderowitz, J. 2000. “A Review of Program Approaches to Adolescent Reproductive Health.” Poptech Assignment. No. 2000.176. Arlington, Virginia: Population Technical Assistance Project.

39. “West African Youth Initiative Project: Summary of Key Findings.” n.d. Ibadan, Nigeria, and Washington, D.C.: Association for Reproductive and Family Health, African Regional Health Education Centre, and Advocates for Youth.

40. Speizer, I., B. Oleko Tambashe, and S. P. Tegang. 2001. “An Evaluation of the ‘Entre Nous Jeunes’ Peer-educator Program for Adolescents in Cameroon.” Studies in Family Planning 32(4): 339-351.

41. International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001b. “Working in Communities: Youth Peer Education in the Dominican Republic.” IPPF/WHR Spotlight on Youth. No. 2. New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region.

42. “Zambia Youth Reproductive Health.” 2001. OR Summary. No. 17. New York: Frontiers in Reproductive Health, the Population Council.

43. United Nations Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). 20 May 2002. “Training for HIV/Aids Youth Counsellors Launched.” Web site: www.aegis.com/news/irin/2002/IR020 510.html, accessed 5 December 2002.

44. Campbell, C., and C. MacPhail. 2002. “Peer Education, Gender and the Development of Critical Consciousness: Participatory HIV Prevention by South African Youth.” Social Science and Medicine 55(2): 331-345.

45. Australian Red Cross and Lao Red Cross. 2003. “Youth Peer Education: A Gendered Perspective.” Web site: http://archives.healthdev.net/genderaids/ msg00512.html, 23 April posting.

46. Abang, M. 1996. “Promoting HIV/AIDS Prevention on Nigerian Campuses: Students Take the Lead.” AIDScaptions 3(3). Cited in: “Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Evidence and Prevalence for Negotiation of Safe Sex Practices for Adolescent Girls,” by N. Luke. 2001. Paper prepared for the International Center for Research on Women for the AIDSMark Project. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

47. Irvin, A. 2000. Taking Steps of Courage: Teaching Adolescents about Sexuality and Gender in Nigeria and Cameroon. New York: International Women’s Health Coalition. Cited in: Luke 2001.

48. UNICEF Ghana. 2002. “Evaluation of HIV/AIDS Prevention Through Peer Education, Counselling, Health Care, Training, and Urban Refuges in Ghana.” Evaluation and Programme Planning 25(4): 409-420.

49. Beaujour, S. 2000. Quoted in: Colbert, R. 2000. “HIV/AIDS-Cabaret: Youth Motivated for Safe Sexual Relations.” Web site: panosinst.org/Island/IB46e.shtml, accessed 5 December 2002.

50. Usually, one or more socio-cultural characteristics, such as age, gender or sex, as well as personal experiences, such as drug use, child bearing at an early age, HIV status, etc., are shared by both the peer counsellor and the client.

51. This section is based on reporting by Francisco Llaguno, who visited UNFPAsupported projects throughout the Philippines in early 2003.

52. Kohn, D. 2002. “Working with Out-ofschool Youth in Belize and Peru.” Siecus Report: Sexual Health Issues Worldwide 30(5).

53. Kahuthia, G., and S. Radeny. 1999. “PATH, Kenya: Using Scouting as a Vehicle for Reaching Out-of School Youth.” FOCUS Project Highlights. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults. Web site: www.fhi.org/en/ youth/youthnet/publications/focus/ projecthighlights/kenyapath.htm, accessed 8 June 2003.

54. Fongkaew, W., and K. Bond. 2001. “Lifenet, Thailand: Promoting Social Action Networks for Youth Health.” FOCUS Project Highlights. Washington, D.C.: FOCUS on Young Adults. Web site: www.pathfind.org/pf/pubs/focus/ Project%20Highlights/lifenet5.html, accessed 6 January 2003.

55. Abaunza, H. 2002. “Sexual Health Exchange 2002-1: ‘Puntos de Encuentro’: Communication for Development in Nicaragua.” Amsterdam: KIT Information Services, Royal Tropical Institute. Web site: www.kit.nl/ils/ exchange_content/html/communication_ nicaragua_-_sexu.asp, accessed 15 July 2003.

56. “Nicaraguan Youth Begin to Play It Safe.” 2001. Communication Impact! No. 12. Baltimore, Maryland: Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University.

57. Excerpted from: Kilm, Y. M., et al. 2001. “Promoting Sexual Responsibility among Young People in Zimbabwe.” International Family Planning Perspectives 27(1): 11-19.

58. Moch, L., and C. Stevens. 1999. “Reaching Adolescents Through Hotlines and Radio Call-In Programs.” In Focus Series. FOCUS on Young Adults. Pathfinder International; “Key Youth Programs: Use Hotlines” n.d. Baltimore, Maryland: Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University. Web site: www.jhuccp.org/ resources/youth/key5.html, accessed January 7, 2003; and International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001c. “Youth Telephone Hotlines In Guatemala and Columbia.” IPPF/WHR Spotlight on Youth. No. 5. New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation.

59. Moch and Stevens 1999.

60. Palmer, A. 2002. “Reaching Youth Worldwide.” Working Paper 6. Baltimore, Maryland: Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins University.

61. Ibid.

62. “Studio 263 Key in Anti-Aids Drive: Director.” 5 December 2002. The Daily News (Harare). See Web site: allAfrica.com.

63. Family Health International. 2002. Behavioral Surveillance Survey 1999-2000. Arlington, Virginia: Family Health International; and Hope Enterprises Ltd. 2002a. Report of Adolescent Condom Survey, Jamaica, 2001. Prepared for the Commercial Market Strategies Project. Kingston, Jamaica: Hope Enterprises Ltd. Cited in: Adolescent Reproductive Health Behaviors and Outcomes in Jamaica, by K. Hardee, and L. Dougherty. 2002. Kingston, Jamaica: Youth.now, The Futures Group.

64. Rebourças 2002.

65. Holgate, Michael. 2000. “Programs for Adolescents: The ‘Ashe’ Experience in Jamaica.” Network 20(3): 28-29.

66. International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001d. Youth and Technology: IPPF/WHR Experiences to Promote Sexual and Reproductive Health. New York: International Planned Parenthood Federation.

67. Ibid.

68. Msimang, S., and S. Wilson (eds). 2002. Act Now: A Resource Guide for Young Women on HIV/AIDS. New York and Toronto: UNIFEM and Association for Women’s Rights in Development. Web site: www.awid.org/publications/ publications.html, accessed 5 December 2002.

69. Web site: www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/ sci_tech/features/health/sexwise, accessed 5 December 2002.

70. National Commission for International Cooperation and Sustainable Development. “The International Education Project: HIV/Aids and Youth: Beyond My Own Backyard.” Amsterdam: National Commission for International Cooperation and Sustainable Development. Web site: www.ict-edu.nl/ content/nederlands/learn/ middenframe_aids.html, accessed 15 December 2002.

71. Web site: www.youthshakers.org.

72. Palmer 2002.

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