UNFPAState of World Population 2003
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State of World Population
Overview of Adolescent Life
Gender Inequality and Reproductive Health
HIV/AIDS and Adolescents
Promoting Healthier Behavior
Meeting Reproductive Health Services Needs
Comprehensive Programmes for Adolescents
Giving Priority to Adolescents
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7


1. UNICEF, UNAIDS, and WHO. 2002. Young People and HIV/AIDS: Opportunities in Crisis. New York: UNICEF.

2. Note: Figures are rounded. Source: UNICEF, UNAIDS, and WHO 2002. Cited in: Lopez, V. M. 2002. “HIV and Young People. A Review of the State of the Epidemic and Its Impact on World Youth.” Report prepared as input for: UNICEF. 2003. World Youth Report 2003. New York: UNICEF.

3. USAID, UNICEF, and UNAIDS. 2002. Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Programme Strategies. Washington, D.C.: The Synergy Project.

4. Ainsworth, M., and M. Over. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. World Bank Policy Research Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

5. UNAIDS and WHO. 2001. AIDS Epidemic Update: December 2001 (UNAIDS/01.74E – WHO/CDS/CSR/NCS/2001.2). Geneva: UNAIDS/WHO.

6. Royce, R., et al. 1997. “Sexual Transmission of HIV/AIDS.” The New England Journal of Medicine 336(15): 1072-1078. Cited in: “Youth and HIV/AIDS: Can We Avoid Catastrophe,” by K. Kiragu. 2001. Population Reports. Series L. No. 12. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.

7. Best, K. 2000. “ Many Youths Face Grim STD Risks.” Network 20(3): 4-9.

8. Luke, N. 2001. “Cross-generational and Transactional Sexual Relations in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Evidence on Prevalence and Implications for Negotiation of Safe Sex Practices for Adolescent Girls.” Paper prepared for the International Center for Research on Women for the AIDSMark Project. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

9. Fuglesang, M. 1997. “Lessons for Life: Past and Present Modes of Sexuality Education in Tanzanian Society.” Social Science and Medicine 44(8): 1245-1254. Cited in: Luke 2001.

10. UNICEF, UNAIDS, and WHO 2002.

11. Ibid. Data are from the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and the Demographic and Health Surveys, 1999-2001.

12. Brown, A., et al. 2001. Sexual Relations among Young People in Developing Countries: Evidence from WHO Case Studies (WHO/RHR/01.8). Occasional Paper. Geneva: Family and Community Health, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO.

13. Kiragu 2001.

14. WHO. 1998. The Second Decade: Improving Adolescent Health and Development (WHO/FRH/ADH/98.18), p. 6. Geneva: Adolescent Health and Development Programme, WHO.

15. MacPhail, C., B. G. Williams, and C. Campbell. 2002. “Relative Risk of HIV Infection among Young Men and Women in a South African Township.” International Journal of STD and AIDS 13(5): 331-342.

16. UNAIDS and WHO. 1997. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Policies and Principles for Prevention and Care. UNAIDS Best Practices Collection: Key Material. Geneva: UNAIDS. Cited in: The Tip of the Iceberg: The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth, by T. Summers, J. Kates, and G. Murphy. 2002. Menlo Park, California: The Kaiser Family Foundation.

17. Brown, et al. 2001.

18. Skhom, H., et al. 2002. “Survey on Health Seeking Behaviour of Women Working in the Entertainment Sector in Phnom Penh.” Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Center for Advanced Study, Pharmaciens sans Frontieres and Family Health International.

19. Brown, et al. 2001.

20. UNICEF, UNAIDS, and WHO 2002.

21. UNAIDS. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: June 2000 (UNAIDS/00/13E). Geneva: UNAIDS. Cited in: Kiragu 2001.

22. Babalola, S., D. Awasum, and B. Quenum-Renaud. 2002. “The Correlates of Safe Sex Practices among Rwandan Youth: A Positive Deviance Approach.” African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1): 11-21.

23. Jackson, J., et al. 1998. The Jamaica Adolescent Study. Kingston, Jamaica, and Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Fertility Management Unit, University of the West Indies, and Family Health International.

24. Reichman, L., and J. Tanne. 2002. Timebomb: The Global Epidemic of Multi- Drug Resistant Tuberculosis. New York: McGraw-Hill. Cited in: What Works: A Policy and Program Guide to Effective STI/HIV/AIDS Interventions, by J. Gay, et al. (Forthcoming.) Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project.

25. Thompson, D. 2002. Coordinates 2002: Charting Progress against AIDS, TB and Malaria. Geneva: WHO.

26. Ibid.

27. UNICEF, UNAIDS, and WHO 2002.

28. USAID, UNICEF, and UNAIDS 2002, p., 9.

29. Ibid.

30. The World Bank. 2002. Education and HIV/AIDS: A Window of Hope. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in: The Tip of the Iceberg: The Global Impact of HIV/AIDS on Youth, by T. Summers, J. Kates, and G. Murphy. 2002. Menlo Park, California: The Kaiser Family Foundation.

31. USAID, UNICEF, and UNAIDS 2002.

32. Ramlow, R. 2001. “Social Marketing for HIV/AIDS Prevention in Indonesia.” Presentation at the Dialogue on Social Marketing and Other Commercial Approaches to Improving Adolescent Reproductive Health, Washington, D. 15 February 2001. Washington, D.C.: Pathfinder International/FOCUS on Young Adults.

33. Population Services International and Population Reference Bureau. 2000. Social Marketing for Adolescent Sexual Health: Results of Operations Research Projects in Botswana, Cameroon, Guinea, and South Africa. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International and Population Reference Bureau; Agha, 2000. “An Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Programs in Cameroon, Botswana, South Africa, and Guinea.” Population Services International Research Division Working Paper. No. 29. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International; and Van Rossen, R., and D. Meekers. 1999. “The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Targeted Social Marketing to Promote Adolescent Reproductive Health in Guinea.” Population Services International Research Division Working Paper. No. 23. Washington, D.C.: Population Services International.

34. Meekers, D., and M. Klein. 2003. “Determinants of Condom Use Among Young People in Urban Cameroon.” Studies in Family Planning 33(4): 335-346.

35. Nyamongo, I. 1995. “Investigation into Condom Acceptability, Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes about HIV Infection and AIDS Among Adolescent Students in Kenya.” Unpublished report. Nairobi, Kenya: Institute of African Studies, University of Nairobi. Cited in: Brown, et al. 2001.

36. Kgosidintsi, N. 1997. “Sexual Behaviour and Risk of HIV Infection Among Adolescent Females in Botswana.” Unpublished report. Gabarone, Botswana: National Institute of Development, Research and Documentation. Cited in: Brown, et al. 2001.

37. Heald, S. 2002. “It’s Never As Easy as ABC: Understandings of AIDS in Botswana.” African Journal of AIDS Research 1(1): 1-10.

38. Sarafian, I. 2001. “Final Report on Findings: HIV/AIDS and Youth in Suriname.” Paramaribo, Suriname: PAHO/WHO.

39. Best 2000.

40. FOCUS on Young Adults. 2001. Advancing Young Adult Reproductive Health: Actions for the Next Decade. End of Programme Report: 2001. Washington, D.C.: Pathfinder International and the Futures Group.

41. Horizons Program, Kenya Project Partners, and Uganda Project Partners. 2001. HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Among Youth: Results from an Exploratory Study in Nairobi, Kenya, and Kampala and Masaka, Uganda. Washington, D.C.: Horizons Program, the Population Council.

42. Thompson 2002.

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