UNFPAState of World Population 2003
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State of World Population
Overview of Adolescent Life
Gender Inequality and Reproductive Health
HIV/AIDS and Adolescents
Promoting Healthier Behavior
Meeting Reproductive Health Services Needs
Comprehensive Programmes for Adolescents
Giving Priority to Adolescents
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7


1. This summary is based on: Cohen, B. 2003. “Youth in Cities: An Overview of Key Demographic Shifts.” Power Point presentation at the meeting, Youth Explosion in Developing World Cities: Approaches to Reducing Poverty and Conflict in an Urban Age, Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars, Washington, D.C., 20 February 2003.

2. Significant multi-national surveys and qualitative studies of young people are being undertaken by a variety of research institutions in the United States including the Alan Guttmacher Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Family Care International. A review of the existing literature is underway under the auspices of the Committee on Population of the National Research Council, United States National Academy of Sciences (the Transitions to Adulthood project).

3. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 7.2. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

4. United Nations. 2002. World Youth Report 2003: Report of the Secretary- General (E/CN.5/2003/4), para. 16. New York: Commission for Social Development, United Nations.

5. Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999. “The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries. Population and Development Review 25(1): 85-120.

6. This section depends on preliminary results based on six Demographic and Health Survey data sets (Bolivia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Rajastan (India) and Turkey) tabulated for: Rosen, J. (Forthcoming.) Adolescent Health and Development: A Resource Guide for World Bank Staff and Government Counterparts. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

7. Differentials from the reports in the series: Socio-economic Differences in Health, Nutrition and Population in [Country], prepared by D. R. Gwatkin, et al., for the HNP/Poverty Thematic Group of the World Bank. See also: UNFPA. 2002. The State of World Population 2002: People, Poverty and Possibilities: Making Development Work for the Poor, Figure 7, p. 37. New York: UNFPA.

8. Source for this section: Curtain, R. 2002. “Youth in Extreme Poverty: Dimensions and Country Responses.” (Draft only.) Web site: http://www.un.org/esa/ socdev/unyin/helsinki/ch03_poverty_ curtain.pdf, accessed 6 January 2003.

9. For a full discussion of the demographic bonus, see: UNFPA 2002 and its referenced materials.

10. National variation in age structures and dynamics can be as dramatic as the diversity of challenges to development and of opportunities to address them.

11. Differentials in health and fertility are reviewed in: UNFPA 2002, ch. 4.

12. Demographic and Health Survey data analysed by the Population Council. Web site: www.popcouncil.org/gfd/ gfddhs.html, accessed 1 April 2003. Note: data not collected for most countries in South and East Asia.

13. USAID, UNICEF, and UNAIDS. 2002. Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report on Orphan Estimates and Programme Strategies. Washington, D.C.: The Synergy Project.

14. Ibid.

15. UNICEF. 2001a. The State of the World’s Children 2001: Early Childhood. New York: UNICEF.

16. See: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Arlington, Virginia. Web site: www.operationlookout.org/ lookoutmag/why_children_run_away.htm, accessed 8 June 2003; ChildLine. London. Web site: www.childline.org.uk/ Whydochildrenandyoungpeoplerunaway, orbecomehomeless.asp, accessed 8 June 2003; and Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. Toronto, Canada. Web site: http://www.camh.net, accessed 19 December 2002.

17. Volpi, E. 2002. “Street Children: Promising Practices and Approaches.” WBI Working Papers. Washington, D.C., The World Bank Institute, the World Bank.

18. International Youth Foundation. 2001. Annual Report 2001: I Want to Belong. Baltimore, Maryland: International Youth Foundation.

19. Larson, R., et al. 2002. “Changes in Adolescents’ Interpersonal Experiences: Are They being Prepared for Adult Relationships in the Twenty-first Century?” Journal of Research on Adolesence 12(1): 31-68; and WHO and National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2000. Street Children and Drug Abuse: Social and Health Consequences: Meeting Proceeds, September 17-19,2000: Marina Del Rey, California. Geneva and Washington, D.C.: WHO and National Institute on Drug Abuse.

20. WHO and National Institute on Drug Abuse 2000. p. 16.

21. WHO. 2000. Working with Street Children: Module 1: A Profile of Street Children (WHO/MSD/MDP/00.14). Geneva: Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence, WHO.

22. WHO and National Institute on Drug Abuse 2000. p. 14.

23. Walters, A. S. 1999. “HIV Prevention in Street Youth.” Journal of Adolescent Health 25(3): 187-198.

24. Leiderman, S. M. 1996. “Learning to Recognize Environmental Refugees,” p. 1. Statement prepared for: Symposium No. 316, “Environmental Refugees: Anticipation, Intervention, Restoration.” Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Baltimore, Maryland, 13 February 1996. For an extended discussion of population, environment and development linkages, see: UNFPA. 2001. The State of World Population 2001: Footprints and Milestones: Population and Environmental Change. New York: UNFPA.

25. The Population Council. n.d. Facts about Adolescents from the Demographic and Health Survey: Statistical Tables for Program Planning. New York: Population Council. See web site: www.popcouncil.org/gfd/gfddhs.html, accessed 30 May 2003.

26. Amin, S., et al. 1998. “Transition to Adulthood of Female Garment-factory Workers in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family Planning 29(2): 185-200.

27. Ajuwon, A. J., et al. 2002. “HIV Riskrelated Behavior, Sexual Coercion, and Implications for Prevention Strategies among Female Apprentice Tailors, Ibadan, Nigeria.” AIDS and Behavior 6(3): 229-235.

28. UNICEF. 2001b. Early Marriage: Child Spouses. Innocenti Digest. No. 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Web site: www.unicef-icdc. org/publications/pdf/digest7e.pdf.

29. International Center for Research on Women. 2003. “Research for Policy Action: Adolescents and Migration in Thailand.” Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women. Web site: http://www.icrw.org/ projects/thaimigration/thaimigration.htm, accessed 24 April 2003.

30. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion. 2000. “Adolescent and young workers in temporary migration to the United States, 1998-2000.” Migracion Internacional 4(11) :1-8.

31. UNICEF 2001a.

32. UNICEF. 2000a. “Children in War: Special Focus.” London: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org.uk/news/ soldiers.htm, accessed 8 July 2003.

33. UNHCR. 1999. “Global Appeal: Programme Overview.” Web site: www.unhcr.ch/fdrs/ga99/children.htm.

34. Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children. 2002. Fending for Themselves: Afghan Refugee Children and Adolescents Working in Urban Pakistan. New York: Women’s Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

35. Source for this paragraph: UNICEF 2000a.

36. Mensch, B., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene. 1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls’ Adolescence in the Developing World. New York: The Population Council; Adams, A. M., S. Madhavan, and D. Simon. 2002. “Women’s Social Networks and Child Survival in Mali.” Social Science and Medicine 54(2): 165-78; and Kohler H.P., J. R. Behrman, and S. C. Watkins. 2001. “The Density of Social Networks and Fertility Decisions: Evidence from South Nyanza District, Kenya.” Demography 38(1): 43-58.

37. United Nations. 2003. Concise Report on World Population Monitoring: 2003: Population, Education and Development: Report of The Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2003/2), pg. 13. New York: United Nations.

38. UNESCO. 2002. Regional and Adult Illiteracy Rate and Population by Gender. Paris: Literacy and Non-Formal Education Sector, Institute for Statistics, UNESCO.

39.39 UNESCO. 2 September 2002. “Statistics Show Slow Progress Toward Universal Literacy.” Press release. Paris: UNESCO.

40. UNDP. 2002. Human Development Report 2002: Deepening Democracy in a Fragmented World, p. 10. New York: Oxford University Press.

41. UNICEF. 2000b. Educating Girls, Transforming the Future. New York: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org/ pubsgen/girlsed/girlsed.pdf, accessed 8 July 2003.

42. Partners on Sustainable Strategies for Girls’ Education. n.d. “Research Data: Gender Disparity Countries.” Web site: www.girlseducation.org/PGE_Active_ Pages/Data/TargetCountries/main.asp, accessed 20 January 2003.

43. Caldwell, J. C., P. H. Reddy, and P. Caldwell. 1983. “The Causes of Marriage Change in South India.” Population Studies 37(3): 343-361; Khattab, H. 1996. Women’s Perceptions of Sexuality in Rural Giza. Monograph in Reproductive Health. No. 1. Cairo: Reproductive Health Working Group, the Population Council; and Levine, S. E. 1993. Dolor y Alegría: Women and Social Change in Urban Mexico. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

44. Mensch, B. S., and C. B. Lloyd. 1997. “Gender Differences in the Schooling Experiences of Adolescents in Low- Income Countries: The Case of Kenya.” Policy Research Division Working Paper. No. 95. New York: The Population Council.

45. Mensch, Bruce, and Greene 1998.

46. Caldwell, Reddy, and Caldwell 1983; Khattab 1996; and Levine 1993.

47. Data in this section are from: United Nations 2003.

48. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour and Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour. 2002. Every Child Counts: New Global Estimates on Child Labour. Geneva: International Labour Office, ILO.

49. UNICEF. n.d. “Child Labour: UNICEF: Building a Protective Environment for Children.” New York: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org/media/childlabour/ factsheet.htm, accessed 7 June 2003; and UNICEF. 2000c. The Progress of Nations 2000. New York: UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org/pon00/ pon2000.pdf, accessed 5 January 2003.

50. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour and Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour 2002.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. UNFPA. n.d. “Fast Facts on Adolescents and Youth.” New York: UNFPA. Web site: www.unfpa.org/adolescents/facts.htm, accessed 23 January 2003.

54. ILO. Statistical Database. Data for 2000. Geneva: ILO. Web site: http://laborsta.ilo.org/cgi-bin/ brokerv8.exe, accessed 19 April 2003.

55. Ibid.

56. UNICEF n.d., and UNICEF 2000.

57. Emerson, P. M., and A. P. Souza. 2002. “The Effect of Adolescent Labor on Adult Earnings and Female Fertility in Brazil.” Draft background paper submitted to the National Research Council’s Transitions to Adulthood project.

58. This relationship is complexly determined and not necessarily causal. Preferences for work and children may be jointly determined. However, early workers who leave school may not see reproductive health materials that are often reserved for older students.

59. Cohen 2003.

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