1. This summary is based on: Cohen, B.
2003. “Youth in Cities: An Overview of
Key Demographic Shifts.” Power Point
presentation at the meeting, Youth
Explosion in Developing World Cities:
Approaches to Reducing Poverty and
Conflict in an Urban Age, Woodrow
Wilson Center for International Scholars,
Washington, D.C., 20 February 2003.
2. Significant multi-national surveys and
qualitative studies of young people are
being undertaken by a variety of
research institutions in the United States
including the Alan Guttmacher Institute,
the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention and Family Care International.
A review of the existing literature is
underway under the auspices of the
Committee on Population of the
National Research Council, United
States National Academy of Sciences
(the Transitions to Adulthood project).
3. United Nations. 1995. Population and
Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action
adopted at the International Conference on
Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13
September 1994, paragraph 7.2. New
York: Department of Economic and
Social Information and Policy Analysis,
4. United Nations. 2002. World Youth
Report 2003: Report of the Secretary-
General (E/CN.5/2003/4), para. 16.
New York: Commission for Social
Development, United Nations.
5. Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999.
“The Effect of Household Wealth on
Educational Attainment: Evidence
from 35 Countries. Population and
Development Review 25(1): 85-120.
6. This section depends on preliminary
results based on six Demographic and
Health Survey data sets (Bolivia, Nepal,
Niger, Nigeria, Rajastan (India) and
Turkey) tabulated for: Rosen, J.
(Forthcoming.) Adolescent Health and
Development: A Resource Guide for World
Bank Staff and Government Counterparts.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
7. Differentials from the reports in the
series: Socio-economic Differences in
Health, Nutrition and Population in
[Country], prepared by D. R. Gwatkin, et
al., for the HNP/Poverty Thematic Group
of the World Bank. See also: UNFPA.
2002. The State of World Population
2002: People, Poverty and Possibilities:
Making Development Work for the Poor,
Figure 7, p. 37. New York: UNFPA.
8. Source for this section: Curtain, R. 2002.
“Youth in Extreme Poverty: Dimensions
and Country Responses.” (Draft only.)
Web site: http://www.un.org/esa/
curtain.pdf, accessed 6 January 2003.
9. For a full discussion of the demographic
bonus, see: UNFPA 2002 and its
10. National variation in age structures and
dynamics can be as dramatic as the
diversity of challenges to development
and of opportunities to address them.
11. Differentials in health and fertility are
reviewed in: UNFPA 2002, ch. 4.
12. Demographic and Health Survey data
analysed by the Population Council.
Web site: www.popcouncil.org/gfd/
gfddhs.html, accessed 1 April 2003.
Note: data not collected for most
countries in South and East Asia.
13. USAID, UNICEF, and UNAIDS. 2002.
Children on the Brink 2002: A Joint Report
on Orphan Estimates and Programme
Strategies. Washington, D.C.: The
15. UNICEF. 2001a. The State of the World’s
Children 2001: Early Childhood. New York:
16. See: National Center for Missing and
Exploited Children. Arlington, Virginia.
Web site: www.operationlookout.org/
accessed 8 June 2003; ChildLine.
London. Web site: www.childline.org.uk/
orbecomehomeless.asp, accessed 8
June 2003; and Centre for Addiction
and Mental Health. Toronto, Canada.
Web site: http://www.camh.net,
accessed 19 December 2002.
17. Volpi, E. 2002. “Street Children:
Promising Practices and Approaches.”
WBI Working Papers. Washington, D.C.,
The World Bank Institute, the World Bank.
18. International Youth Foundation. 2001.
Annual Report 2001: I Want to Belong.
Baltimore, Maryland: International Youth
19. Larson, R., et al. 2002. “Changes in
Adolescents’ Interpersonal Experiences:
Are They being Prepared for Adult
Relationships in the Twenty-first
Century?” Journal of Research on
Adolesence 12(1): 31-68; and WHO and
National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2000.
Street Children and Drug Abuse: Social and
Health Consequences: Meeting Proceeds,
September 17-19,2000: Marina Del Rey,
California. Geneva and Washington, D.C.:
WHO and National Institute on Drug
20. WHO and National Institute on Drug
Abuse 2000. p. 16.
21. WHO. 2000. Working with Street
Children: Module 1: A Profile of Street
Geneva: Department of Mental Health
and Substance Dependence, WHO.
22. WHO and National Institute on Drug
Abuse 2000. p. 14.
23. Walters, A. S. 1999. “HIV Prevention in
Street Youth.” Journal of Adolescent
Health 25(3): 187-198.
24. Leiderman, S. M. 1996. “Learning to
Recognize Environmental Refugees,” p. 1.
Statement prepared for: Symposium
No. 316, “Environmental Refugees:
Anticipation, Intervention, Restoration.”
Annual Meeting of the American
Association for the Advancement of
Science, Baltimore, Maryland, 13
February 1996. For an extended discussion
of population, environment and
development linkages, see: UNFPA.
2001. The State of World Population 2001:
Footprints and Milestones: Population and
Environmental Change. New York: UNFPA.
25. The Population Council. n.d. Facts about
Adolescents from the Demographic and
Health Survey: Statistical Tables for
Program Planning. New York: Population
Council. See web site:
accessed 30 May 2003.
26. Amin, S., et al. 1998. “Transition to
Adulthood of Female Garment-factory
Workers in Bangladesh.” Studies in Family
Planning 29(2): 185-200.
27. Ajuwon, A. J., et al. 2002. “HIV Riskrelated
Behavior, Sexual Coercion, and
Implications for Prevention Strategies
among Female Apprentice Tailors,
Ibadan, Nigeria.” AIDS and Behavior 6(3):
28. UNICEF. 2001b. Early Marriage: Child
Spouses. Innocenti Digest. No. 7.
Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti
Research Centre. Web site: www.unicef-icdc.
29. International Center for Research on
Women. 2003. “Research for Policy
Action: Adolescents and Migration in
Thailand.” Washington, D.C.:
International Center for Research on
Women. Web site: http://www.icrw.org/
accessed 24 April 2003.
30. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion. 2000.
“Adolescent and young workers in temporary
migration to the United States,
1998-2000.” Migracion Internacional
31. UNICEF 2001a.
32. UNICEF. 2000a. “Children in War:
Special Focus.” London: UNICEF.
Web site: www.unicef.org.uk/news/
soldiers.htm, accessed 8 July 2003.
33. UNHCR. 1999. “Global Appeal:
Programme Overview.” Web site:
34. Women’s Commission for Refugee
Women and Children. 2002. Fending for
Themselves: Afghan Refugee Children and
Adolescents Working in Urban Pakistan.
New York: Women’s Commission for
Refugee Women and Children.
35. Source for this paragraph: UNICEF
36. Mensch, B., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene.
1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls’
Adolescence in the Developing World.
New York: The Population Council;
Adams, A. M., S. Madhavan, and
D. Simon. 2002. “Women’s Social
Networks and Child Survival in Mali.”
Social Science and Medicine 54(2): 165-78;
and Kohler H.P., J. R. Behrman, and S. C.
Watkins. 2001. “The Density of Social
Networks and Fertility Decisions:
Evidence from South Nyanza District,
Kenya.” Demography 38(1): 43-58.
37. United Nations. 2003. Concise Report
on World Population Monitoring: 2003:
Population, Education and Development:
Report of The Secretary-General
(E/CN.9/2003/2), pg. 13. New York:
38. UNESCO. 2002. Regional and Adult
Illiteracy Rate and Population by Gender.
Paris: Literacy and Non-Formal
Education Sector, Institute for Statistics,
39.39 UNESCO. 2 September 2002. “Statistics
Show Slow Progress Toward Universal
Literacy.” Press release. Paris: UNESCO.
40. UNDP. 2002. Human Development Report
2002: Deepening Democracy in a
Fragmented World, p. 10. New York:
Oxford University Press.
41. UNICEF. 2000b. Educating Girls,
Transforming the Future. New York:
UNICEF. Web site: www.unicef.org/
8 July 2003.
42. Partners on Sustainable Strategies for
Girls’ Education. n.d. “Research Data:
Gender Disparity Countries.” Web site:
accessed 20 January 2003.
43. Caldwell, J. C., P. H. Reddy, and P.
Caldwell. 1983. “The Causes of Marriage
Change in South India.” Population
Studies 37(3): 343-361; Khattab, H.
1996. Women’s Perceptions of Sexuality in
Rural Giza. Monograph in Reproductive
Health. No. 1. Cairo: Reproductive Health
Working Group, the Population Council;
and Levine, S. E. 1993. Dolor y Alegría:
Women and Social Change in Urban
Mexico. Madison, Wisconsin: University
of Wisconsin Press.
44. Mensch, B. S., and C. B. Lloyd. 1997.
“Gender Differences in the Schooling
Experiences of Adolescents in Low-
Income Countries: The Case of Kenya.”
Policy Research Division Working Paper.
No. 95. New York: The Population
45. Mensch, Bruce, and Greene 1998.
46. Caldwell, Reddy, and Caldwell 1983;
Khattab 1996; and Levine 1993.
47. Data in this section are from: United
48. International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labour and
Statistical Information and Monitoring
Programme on Child Labour. 2002. Every
Child Counts: New Global Estimates on
Child Labour. Geneva: International
Labour Office, ILO.
49. UNICEF. n.d. “Child Labour: UNICEF:
Building a Protective Environment for
Children.” New York: UNICEF. Web site:
factsheet.htm, accessed 7 June 2003;
and UNICEF. 2000c. The Progress of
Nations 2000. New York: UNICEF.
Web site: www.unicef.org/pon00/
pon2000.pdf, accessed 5 January 2003.
50. International Programme on the
Elimination of Child Labour and
Statistical Information and Monitoring
Programme on Child Labour 2002.
53. UNFPA. n.d. “Fast Facts on Adolescents
and Youth.” New York: UNFPA. Web site:
accessed 23 January 2003.
54. ILO. Statistical Database. Data for 2000.
Geneva: ILO. Web site: http://laborsta.ilo.org/cgi-bin/
brokerv8.exe, accessed 19 April 2003.
56. UNICEF n.d., and UNICEF 2000.
57. Emerson, P. M., and A. P. Souza. 2002.
“The Effect of Adolescent Labor on
Adult Earnings and Female Fertility in
Brazil.” Draft background paper submitted
to the National Research Council’s
Transitions to Adulthood project.
58. This relationship is complexly determined
and not necessarily causal.
Preferences for work and children may
be jointly determined. However, early
workers who leave school may not see
reproductive health materials that are
often reserved for older students.
59. Cohen 2003.