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  1. Economic data are from: The World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002. Washington D.C.: World Bank Development Data Centre.

  2. See: the review of a large body of research in Amy Ong Tsui's chapter, "Population Policies, Family Planning Programs, and Fertility: The Record." In: Global Fertility Transition, edited by Rodolfo A. Bulatao and John B. Casterline. 2001. New York: The Population Council; Bongaarts, John. 1997. "The Role of Family Planning Programs in Contemporary Fertility Transitions." Pp. 422-444 in: The Continuing Transition, edited by G.W. Jones, et al. 1997. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Caldwell, J. C. (Forthcoming.) "The Contemporary Population Challenge." Paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York, 11-14 March 2002; Angeles, G., et al. 1998. "The Impact of Family Planning Programs on Fertility Preferences, Contraceptive Method Choice and Fertility: Estimation of Reduced Form Models." Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The EVALUATION Project, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Sinding, S. 2002. "The Role of International Funding in Future Fertility Declines Among Intermediate Fertility Countries." Paper presented at the United Nations Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York, 11-14 March 2002.

  3. The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and Behrman, J., S. Duryea, and M. Szekely. 1999. "Intergenerational Schooling Mobility and Macro Conditions and Aggregate Schooling Policies in Latin America." In: New Markets, New Opportunities: Economic and Social Mobility in a Changing World, edited by N. Birdsall and C. Graham. 1999. Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institution and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

  4. The World Bank. 2002. From Many Lands. Washington D. C.: Voices of the Poor Project, the World Bank.


  1. UNFPA in collaboration with the Population and Family Study Center. 2002. Situation and Voices: The Older Poor and Excluded in South Africa and India. Population and Development Strategies. No. 2. New York: UNFPA.


  1. Important recent contributions to the fundamental debate can be found in: National Research Council. 2000. Beyond Six Billion: Forecasting the World's Population. Panel on Population Projections. Washington D. C.: National Academy Press; Bulatao, R. A., and J. B. Casterline (eds.) 2001. The Global Fertility Transition. Supplement to Population and Development Review 27; Lutz, W., J. Vaupel, and D. Ahlberg (eds.) 1999. Frontiers of Population Forecasting. Special monograph supplement to Population and Development Review 25. Idiosyncratic alternate assessments can be found in: Eberstadt, N. 2001. "The Population Implosion." Foreign Policy 123, debated in: Barroso, C., et al. 2001. "Is There A Population Implosion?" Environmental Change and Security Report. No. 7, pp. 101-124. Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars. The implications of these decisions were reviewed at: the Expert Group Meeting on Policy Responses to Population Ageing and Population Decline, New York, New York, 16-18 October 2000; the Workshop on Prospects for Fertility Decline in High Fertility Countries, New York, 9-11 July 2001; and the Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, New York, 11-14 March 2002 (see: web site: http://www.un.org/ esa/population/unpop.htm).


  1. Haddad, L., et al. 1996. "Food Security and Nutrition Implications of Intrahousehold Bias: A Review of Literature." Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper. No. 19. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute; and Marcoux, A. 2001. "The 'Feminization of Hunger': What Do the Surveys Tell Us?" Sustainable Development Dimensions. Working Paper. No. 22. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  2. Adato, M., et al., A. 2000. "The Impact of PROGRESA on Women's Status and Intrahousehold Relations." Final report. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute; and Gomez de Leon, J., et al. 1997. "The Evaluation of PROGRESA." Paper prepared for a seminar on Evaluation of the New Anti-Poverty Programme in Mexico, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, D.C., 10 December 1997.
  3. Hashemi, S., S. Schuler, and A. Riley. 1996. "Rural Credit Programs and Women's Empowerment in Bangladesh." World Development 24(4): 635-653; Kabeer, N. 1998. "Money Can't Buy Me Love: Re- Evaluating Gender, Credit, and Empowerment in Rural Bangladesh." IDS Discussion Paper. No. 363. Brighton, United Kingdom: University of Sussex; Khandker, S. R., and M. A. Latif. 1996. "The Role of Family Planning and Targeted Credit Programs in Demographic Change in Bangladesh." World Bank Discussion Paper. No. 337. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; Morduch, J. 1997. "The Microfinance Revolution." Paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Department of Economics, Harvard University; Pitt, M., and S. Khandker. 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?" Journal of Political Economy 106(5): 958-996; Rahman, M., and J. DaVanzo. 1997. "Influence of the Grameen Bank on Contraceptive se in Bangladesh." Draft paper presented at the Population Council, New York, New York, 15 December 1997; and Schuler, S. R., and S. M. Hashemi. 1994. "Credit Programs, Women's Empowerment, and Contraceptive se in Rural Bangladesh." Studies in Family Planning 25(2): 65-76.


  1. Correa, S., S. Piola, and M. Arilha. 1999. "Brazil Case Study," p. 26. Pp. 25-26 in Reproductive Health in Policy and Practice: Case Studies from Brazil, India, Morocco and ganda, edited by L. Ashford and C. Makinson. 1999. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau; International Planned Parenthood Federation. 2001. Brazil country profile. www.ippfwhr.org; and Gogna, M. 2000. "Comparative Analysis of Case Studies." In: Reproductive Health Programmes for Adolescents: The Cases of Buenos Aires, Mexico D.F., and São Paulo, by CEDES, El Colegio de Mexico, and NEPO/NICAMP. Buenos Aires: CEDES.
  1. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2000. HIV and Health-care Reform in Phayao: From Crisis to Opportunity, p. 75-76. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Case Study. UNAIDS Best Practices Collection. Geneva: UNAIDS.


  1. Ahmed, R. 2000. "The Food for Education Programme in Bangladesh." In: Out of the Shadow of Famine: Evolving Food Policy in Bangladesh, edited by R. Ahmed, S. Haggblade, and P. Dorosh. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press; and Arends-Kuenning, M., and S. Amin. 1998. "The Effects of Schooling Incentive Programs on Household Resource Allocation." Working Paper. No. 133. New York: The Population Council.


  1. All quotes are taken from: Commission on Macro-economics and Health, World Health Organization (WHO). 2001. Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. Geneva: WHO.
  1. Narayan, D. 2000. "What do the Poor Have to Say about Health, Nutrition and Population?" Report from the World Bank Seminars on Poverty, Health, Nutrition, and Population, February 2000. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Based on: Narayan, D., et al. 1999. "Global Synthesis: Consultations with the Poor." Draft discussion paper prepared for the Global Synthesis Workshop: Consultations with the Poor, Washington, D.C., 22-23 September 1999. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  2. Presentation by: C. Velasco (Pro Mujer, Bolivia), S. Daley-Harris (Director, Microcredit Summit Campaign; Research Education Fund), and E. Vor der Brugge (Senior Vice President, Freedom from Hunger) at NFPA, May 2002; and Steele, F., S. Amin, and R. T. Naved. 2001. "Savings/credit Group Formation and Change in Contraception." Demography 38(2): 267-282.
  3. See: The World Bank. 1993. World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. Washington D.C.: The World Bank; and Murray, C. J. L., and A. D. Lopez (eds.). 1996. The Global Burden of Disease. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, vol. 1. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. For a more extended discussion, see: AbouZahr, C., and J. P. Vaughan. 2000. "Assessing the Burden of Sexual and Reproductive Ill-Health: Questions regarding the Use of Disability-Adjusted Life Years." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(5): 655-666.
  4. European Union Development Council. 2002. Resolution on Health and Poverty of the Council and the Governments of Member States, 2429th Council Meeting, Brussels, Belgium, 30 May 2002. Web site: http://ue.eu.int.
  5. Dodd, N., J. Upadhyay, and P. Friel. 2001. "Commodity Security." IPPF Medical Bulletin 35(6): 3-4; and UNFPA. 2002. Reproductive Health Essentials: Securing the Supply: Global Strategy for Reproductive Health Commodity Security. New York: UNFPA.
  6. Government of Nicaragua. July 2001. "Strengthened Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy." Managua: Government of Nicaragua.

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