1. United Nations. 1999a. Report of the Ad
Hoc Committee of the Whole of the Twentyfirst
Special Session of the General Assembly
(A/S-21/5/Add.1). New York: United
Nations; and United Nations. 2001. Road
Map towards the Implementation of
the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Report of the Secretary-General for the
Fifty-sixth session of the General Assembly
(A/56/326). New York: United Nations.
2. Feachem, R. G. A. 2000. "Poverty and
Inequity: A Proper Focus for the New
Century." Bulletin of the World Health
Organization 78(1): 1-2.
3. WHO. 2000. World Health Report 2000:
Health Systems: Improving Performance.
4. Priya, N. 2000. Health Sector Reforms in
Zambia: Implications for Reproductive
Health and Rights, p. 41. Center for Health
and Gender Equity Working Papers. Takoma
Park, Maryland: Center for Health and
Gender Equity, the Population Council.
5. Walford, Veronica. 2002. Health in Poverty
Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). London:
Health Systems Resource Centre, Department
for International Development, Government
of the United Kingdom.
6. UNFPA. 2002a. "Coverage of Population
and Development Themes in Poverty
Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs):
Challenges and Opportunities for UNFPA."
Unpublished manuscript. New York: UNFPA.
7. Adapted from: Wagstaff, A., and A. L. B.
Soucat. 2001. "HNP and the Poor: An
Integrated Policy Framework for Improving
Outcomes for the Poor." Washington, D.C.:
The World Bank. Available on the Internet at:
8125 session 6.pdf.
8. This section relies heavily on the insights
from World Bank studies and their Distance
Learning module (Wagstaff and Soucat
2001. See, also, earlier modules [http:/poverty.
session 1. pdf to document 8125 session
5.pdf) by various authors.)
9. UNFPA. 2000a. UNFPA and Government
Decentralization: A Study of Country Experiences.
Evaluation Report. No. 18. New York:
Office of Oversight and Evaluation, UNFPA.
10. Loewenson, R., and A. Whiteside. 2001.
HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty Reduction.
United Nations Development Programme
Policy Paper. New York: UNDP.
11. United Nations. 1995. Population and
Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action
adopted at the International Conference
on Population and Development: Cairo:
5-13 September 1994, paragraph 13.8. New
York: Department of Economic and Social
Information and Policy Analysis, United
12. Ibid., paragraph 13.11.
13 Ibid., paragraph 13.22.
14. Klasen, S. 2001. "In Search of the Holy
Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth?"
Draft paper commissioned by Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
(GTZ) for the "Growth and Equity" Task
Team of the Strategic Partnership with Africa
(SPA). Munich: University of Munich.
15. Hewett, P. C., and M. R. Montgomery. 2001.
"Poverty and Public Services in Developing
Country Cities." Population Council Policy
Research Division Working Paper. No. 154.
New York: The Population Council.
16. United Nations. 1999b. Key Actions for the
Further Implementation of the Programme
of Action of the International Conference
on Population and Development (A/S-
21/5/Add.1), paragraph 101. New York:
17. See: United Nations. 2002a. World Urbanization
Prospects 2001 (ESA/P/WP.173).
New York: Population Division, Department
of Economic and Social Affairs,
18. UNFPA. 2002b. Reproductive Health for
Communities in Crisis: UNFPA Emergency
Response. New York: UNFPA.
19. Source: UNFPA. 2002c. "Meeting the
Development and Participation Rights of
Adolescent Girls: Organized by UNFPA,
UNICEF and WHO, Dhaka, Bangladesh,
1-6 February 2002 " Draft meeting report.
New York: UNFPA.
20. Druschel, K., J. Quigly, and C. Sanchez. 2001.
"State of the Microcredit Summit Campaign
Report 2001." Unpublished manuscript.
21. For some noteworthy examples, see: UNFPA.
1997. Population and Reproductive Health
Programmes: Applying Rapid Anthropological
Procedures. New York, UNFPA; UNFPA.
2002d. The Trajectory of Life as Internally
Displaced Persons in Angola. Luanda,
Angola: UNFPA; and UNFPA in collaboration
with the Population and Family Study Center.
2002. Situation and Voices: The Older Poor
and Excluded in South Africa and India.
Population and Development Strategies. No. 2.
New York: UNFPA.
22. See, for example: Diamond, I., Z. Matthews,
and R. Stephenson. 2001. Assessing
the Health of the Poor: Towards a Pro-Poor
Measurement Strategy. London: Health
Systems Resource Centre, Department for
International Development (DFID),
Government of the United Kingdom.
23. They measure nuptiality; fertility; infant,
child and maternal mortality; contraceptive
knowledge and practice; vaccination; child
growth; and the incidence and treatment for
diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. DHS has
also developed and tested special modules
to address gender equality, male participation
in health-seeking behaviour (including
reproductive health), gender-based violence,
female genital cutting, facility access and
service costs. For methodological reviews of
these approaches to proxy measurement
of wealth in health surveys, see: Filmer, D.,
and L. Pritchett. 1999. "The Effect of
Household Wealth on Educational Attainment:
Evidence from 35 Countries."
Population and Development Review
25(1): 85-120; Montgomery, M. R., et al.
2000. "Measuring Living Standards with
Proxy Variables." Demography 37(2): 155-
147; Bollen, K. A., J. L. Glanville, and G.
Stecklov. 2001. "Economic Status Proxies in
Studies of Fertility in Developing Countries:
Does the Measure Matter?" MEASRE
Evaluation Project. Working Paper.
No. WP-01-38. Chapel Hill, North Carolina:
Carolina Population Center. (Available at:
24. Demobynes, G., et al. 2002. "Producing an
Improved Geographic Profile: Methodology
and Evidence from Three Developing
Countries." Discussion Paper. No. 2002/39.
Helsinki, Finland: World Institute for
Development Economics Research
(UNU/WIDER), United Nations niversity.
25. At the International Conference on
Population and Development, ICPD. (See:
United Nations 1995.)
26. The United Nations General Assembly
Special Session in 1999, and the conferences
and five-year reviews of the Fourth World
Conference on Women, the World Summit
for Social Development and others.
27. The estimates did not incorporate costs of
blood supply monitoring, testing and counseling
systems or outreach to specialized
high risk populations. It also did not include
secondary prevention efforts like anti-retroviral
treatments (e.g., to slow mother to child
transmission or reduce viral loads in infected
28. Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, WHO. 2001. Macro-economics and
Health: Investing in Health for Economic
Development. Geneva: WHO.
29. United Nations. 2002b. World Population
Monitoring 2002: Reproductive Rights and
Reproductive Health: Selected Aspects
(ESA/P/WP.171). Presented at the Commission
on Population and Development, United
Nations, New York, New York, 1-5 April 2002.
30. It is difficult to directly compare the
Commission on Macro-economics and
Health and ICPD estimates, even for comparable
services. The ICPD family planning
component estimates included elements of
the cost of health infrastructure; the reproductive
health component incorporated
elements that the CMH does not itemize but
folds into an overall cost of health system
strengthening; the ICPD costs for HIV/AIDS
did not include treatment and care elements.
Follow-up on the CMH can include important
family planning and population data
needs and can, based on implementation
experience, attempt to estimate the substantial
capacity building investments needed
in countries with weakest infrastructures.
31. Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, WHO 2001.
32. Sinding, S. 2002. "The Role of International
Funding in Future Fertility Declines Among
Intermediate Fertility Countries." Paper
presented at the United Nations Population
Division Expert Group Meeting on Completing
the Fertility Transition, Population
Division, Department of Economic and Social
Affairs, United Nations, New York, New
York, 11-14 March 2002.
33. The World Bank. 1993. World Development
Report 1993: Investing in Health.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
34. This work dates from the seminal efforts
of: Nortman, D. L., J. Halvas, and A. Rabago.
1986. "A Cost-benefit Analysis of the
Mexican Social Security Administration's
Family Planning Programme." Studies in
Family Planning 17(1): 1-6. See also: National
Committee for Population and Family Planning
(Hanoi, Viet Nam). 1997. Costs and Benefits
of Viet Nam's National Investment in
Population and Family Planning from 1979 to
2010. Final report. Hanoi, Viet Nam: National
Committee for Population and Family
Planning; Fiedler, J. L., and L. M. Day. 1997.
"A Cost Analysis of Family Planning in
Bangladesh." International Journal of Health
Planning and Management 12(4): 251-277;
Trussell, J., et al. 1997. "Medical Care Cost
Savings from Adolescent Contraceptive
se." Family Planning Perspectives 29(6):
248-255, 295; and Manzoor, Khaleda. 1994.
"Cost-effectiveness of the Family Planning
Programme in Pakistan." Pakistan
Development Review 33(4): 711-226.
35. O'Neill, B. C., and L. Wexler. 2000. "The
Greenhouse Externality to Childbearing:
A Sensitivity Analysis." Climatic Change
36. Marseille, E., P. B. Hoffman, and J. G. Kahn.
2002. "HIV prevention before HAART in
Sub-Saharan Africa." The Lancet 359(9320):
37. This point was forceably argued by Peter
Piot, Debrework Zewdie, and Tomris
Türmen (2002. "HIV/AIDS Prevention and
Treatment." The Lancet 360: 86) in
their rejoinder to Marseille, Hoffman, and
38. Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, WHO 2001.
39. The selection bias that directs more education
to girl children of educated parents,
particularly mothers, has raised questions
about the magnitude of the returns to girls'
education relative to boys' education (see:
Behrman, Jere. 2001. "Why Micro Matters."
Ch. 13 in: Birdsall, Kelley, and Sinding 2001.).
While some studies may over-estimate the
statistical effect, the practical effect is clearly
important in its own right. Both boys' and
girls' education are the proper objectives of
40. Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1995. Women's Education,
Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour:
Experiences from Developing Countries.
Oxford: Clarendon Press; and Diamond, I., M.
Newby, and S. Varle. 1998. "Female Education
and Fertility: Examining the Links." Ch. 2 in:
Bledsoe, et al. 1998.