UNFPAState of World Population 2002
Back to Main Menu
State of World Population
Characterizing Poverty
Macro-economics, Poverty, Population and Development
Women and Gender Inequality
Health and Poverty
HIV/AIDS and Poverty
Poverty and Education
Population, Poverty and Global Development Goals: the Way Ahead
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8


1. United Nations. 1999a. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole of the Twentyfirst Special Session of the General Assembly (A/S-21/5/Add.1). New York: United Nations; and United Nations. 2001. Road Map towards the Implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. Report of the Secretary-General for the Fifty-sixth session of the General Assembly (A/56/326). New York: United Nations.

2. Feachem, R. G. A. 2000. "Poverty and Inequity: A Proper Focus for the New Century." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(1): 1-2.

3. WHO. 2000. World Health Report 2000: Health Systems: Improving Performance. Geneva: WHO.

4. Priya, N. 2000. Health Sector Reforms in Zambia: Implications for Reproductive Health and Rights, p. 41. Center for Health and Gender Equity Working Papers. Takoma Park, Maryland: Center for Health and Gender Equity, the Population Council.

5. Walford, Veronica. 2002. Health in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). London: Health Systems Resource Centre, Department for International Development, Government of the United Kingdom.

6. UNFPA. 2002a. "Coverage of Population and Development Themes in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs): Challenges and Opportunities for UNFPA." Unpublished manuscript. New York: UNFPA.

7. Adapted from: Wagstaff, A., and A. L. B. Soucat. 2001. "HNP and the Poor: An Integrated Policy Framework for Improving Outcomes for the Poor." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Available on the Internet at: http:/poverty.worldbank.org/files/document 8125 session 6.pdf.

8. This section relies heavily on the insights from World Bank studies and their Distance Learning module (Wagstaff and Soucat 2001. See, also, earlier modules [http:/poverty. worldbank.org/files/document 8120 session 1. pdf to document 8125 session 5.pdf) by various authors.)

9. UNFPA. 2000a. UNFPA and Government Decentralization: A Study of Country Experiences. Evaluation Report. No. 18. New York: Office of Oversight and Evaluation, UNFPA.

10. Loewenson, R., and A. Whiteside. 2001. HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty Reduction. United Nations Development Programme Policy Paper. New York: UNDP.

11. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 13.8. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

12. Ibid., paragraph 13.11.

13 Ibid., paragraph 13.22.

14. Klasen, S. 2001. "In Search of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth?" Draft paper commissioned by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) for the "Growth and Equity" Task Team of the Strategic Partnership with Africa (SPA). Munich: University of Munich.

15. Hewett, P. C., and M. R. Montgomery. 2001. "Poverty and Public Services in Developing Country Cities." Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper. No. 154. New York: The Population Council.

16. United Nations. 1999b. Key Actions for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (A/S- 21/5/Add.1), paragraph 101. New York: United Nations.

17. See: United Nations. 2002a. World Urbanization Prospects 2001 (ESA/P/WP.173). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

18. UNFPA. 2002b. Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis: UNFPA Emergency Response. New York: UNFPA.

19. Source: UNFPA. 2002c. "Meeting the Development and Participation Rights of Adolescent Girls: Organized by UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1-6 February 2002 " Draft meeting report. New York: UNFPA.

20. Druschel, K., J. Quigly, and C. Sanchez. 2001. "State of the Microcredit Summit Campaign Report 2001." Unpublished manuscript.

21. For some noteworthy examples, see: UNFPA. 1997. Population and Reproductive Health Programmes: Applying Rapid Anthropological Procedures. New York, UNFPA; UNFPA. 2002d. The Trajectory of Life as Internally Displaced Persons in Angola. Luanda, Angola: UNFPA; and UNFPA in collaboration with the Population and Family Study Center. 2002. Situation and Voices: The Older Poor and Excluded in South Africa and India. Population and Development Strategies. No. 2. New York: UNFPA.

22. See, for example: Diamond, I., Z. Matthews, and R. Stephenson. 2001. Assessing the Health of the Poor: Towards a Pro-Poor Measurement Strategy. London: Health Systems Resource Centre, Department for International Development (DFID), Government of the United Kingdom.

23. They measure nuptiality; fertility; infant, child and maternal mortality; contraceptive knowledge and practice; vaccination; child growth; and the incidence and treatment for diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. DHS has also developed and tested special modules to address gender equality, male participation in health-seeking behaviour (including reproductive health), gender-based violence, female genital cutting, facility access and service costs. For methodological reviews of these approaches to proxy measurement of wealth in health surveys, see: Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries." Population and Development Review 25(1): 85-120; Montgomery, M. R., et al. 2000. "Measuring Living Standards with Proxy Variables." Demography 37(2): 155- 147; Bollen, K. A., J. L. Glanville, and G. Stecklov. 2001. "Economic Status Proxies in Studies of Fertility in Developing Countries: Does the Measure Matter?" MEASRE Evaluation Project. Working Paper. No. WP-01-38. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Carolina Population Center. (Available at: 24. Demobynes, G., et al. 2002. "Producing an Improved Geographic Profile: Methodology and Evidence from Three Developing Countries." Discussion Paper. No. 2002/39. Helsinki, Finland: World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU/WIDER), United Nations niversity.

25. At the International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD. (See: United Nations 1995.)

26. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 1999, and the conferences and five-year reviews of the Fourth World Conference on Women, the World Summit for Social Development and others.

27. The estimates did not incorporate costs of blood supply monitoring, testing and counseling systems or outreach to specialized high risk populations. It also did not include secondary prevention efforts like anti-retroviral treatments (e.g., to slow mother to child transmission or reduce viral loads in infected populations).

28. Commission on Macro-economics and Health, WHO. 2001. Macro-economics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. Geneva: WHO.

29. United Nations. 2002b. World Population Monitoring 2002: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health: Selected Aspects (ESA/P/WP.171). Presented at the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, New York, 1-5 April 2002.

30. It is difficult to directly compare the Commission on Macro-economics and Health and ICPD estimates, even for comparable services. The ICPD family planning component estimates included elements of the cost of health infrastructure; the reproductive health component incorporated elements that the CMH does not itemize but folds into an overall cost of health system strengthening; the ICPD costs for HIV/AIDS did not include treatment and care elements. Follow-up on the CMH can include important family planning and population data needs and can, based on implementation experience, attempt to estimate the substantial capacity building investments needed in countries with weakest infrastructures.

31. Commission on Macro-economics and Health, WHO 2001.

32. Sinding, S. 2002. "The Role of International Funding in Future Fertility Declines Among Intermediate Fertility Countries." Paper presented at the United Nations Population Division Expert Group Meeting on Completing the Fertility Transition, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, New York, 11-14 March 2002.

33. The World Bank. 1993. World Development Report 1993: Investing in Health. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

34. This work dates from the seminal efforts of: Nortman, D. L., J. Halvas, and A. Rabago. 1986. "A Cost-benefit Analysis of the Mexican Social Security Administration's Family Planning Programme." Studies in Family Planning 17(1): 1-6. See also: National Committee for Population and Family Planning (Hanoi, Viet Nam). 1997. Costs and Benefits of Viet Nam's National Investment in Population and Family Planning from 1979 to 2010. Final report. Hanoi, Viet Nam: National Committee for Population and Family Planning; Fiedler, J. L., and L. M. Day. 1997. "A Cost Analysis of Family Planning in Bangladesh." International Journal of Health Planning and Management 12(4): 251-277; Trussell, J., et al. 1997. "Medical Care Cost Savings from Adolescent Contraceptive se." Family Planning Perspectives 29(6): 248-255, 295; and Manzoor, Khaleda. 1994. "Cost-effectiveness of the Family Planning Programme in Pakistan." Pakistan Development Review 33(4): 711-226.

35. O'Neill, B. C., and L. Wexler. 2000. "The Greenhouse Externality to Childbearing: A Sensitivity Analysis." Climatic Change 47: 283-324.

36. Marseille, E., P. B. Hoffman, and J. G. Kahn. 2002. "HIV prevention before HAART in Sub-Saharan Africa." The Lancet 359(9320): 1851-1856.

37. This point was forceably argued by Peter Piot, Debrework Zewdie, and Tomris Türmen (2002. "HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment." The Lancet 360[9326]: 86) in their rejoinder to Marseille, Hoffman, and Khan 2002.

38. Commission on Macro-economics and Health, WHO 2001.

39. The selection bias that directs more education to girl children of educated parents, particularly mothers, has raised questions about the magnitude of the returns to girls' education relative to boys' education (see: Behrman, Jere. 2001. "Why Micro Matters." Ch. 13 in: Birdsall, Kelley, and Sinding 2001.). While some studies may over-estimate the statistical effect, the practical effect is clearly important in its own right. Both boys' and girls' education are the proper objectives of international commitments.

40. Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1995. Women's Education, Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour: Experiences from Developing Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press; and Diamond, I., M. Newby, and S. Varle. 1998. "Female Education and Fertility: Examining the Links." Ch. 2 in: Bledsoe, et al. 1998.

 Back to top  Previous Next 
      |      Main Menu      |      Press Kit      |      Charts & Graphs      |      Indicators   |