1. Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999. "The Effect
of Household Wealth on Educational
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Population and Development Review 25(1):
2. The World Bank. 2001a. "Educational
Attainment and Enrollment: Educational
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edattain/edattain.htm. Accessed December
3. Filmer and Pritchett 1999.
5. Ministčre de l'Enseignement Pré-Universitaire
et de l'Éducation Civique, Service
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ORC Macro. 2001. Schooling in Guinea:
Findings from the GDHS-II 1999. Calverton,
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6. Filmer and Pritchett 1999.
7. The World Bank. 2001b. World Development
Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. Washington,
D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford
8. Birdsall, N. 1999. "Education: The People's
Asset." CSED Working Paper. No. 5.
Washington, D.C.: Center on Social and
Economic Dynamics, the Brookings Institution.
9. UNICEF. 2001. A Decade of Transition: The
MONEE Project: CEE/CIS/Baltics. Florence,
Italy: Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF.
10. Case, A. 2001. "The Primacy of Education:
Research Program in Development Studies."
Working Paper. No. 203. Princeton, New
Jersey: Princeton niversity; and Lloyd, C. B.
2001. "Linkages between Demographic and
Education Variables." Briefing note. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: American Academy BASE
Project. The magnitude and direction of
the effect of school inputs (including various
measures of quality) is the subject of a
vast amount of research and controversy in
11. Anderson, K., A. Case, and D. Lam. 2001.
"Causes and Consequences of Schooling
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01-490. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Population
Studies, Institute for Social Research,
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12. Lloyd, C. B., et al. 2001. "Determinants of
Educational Attainment among Adolescents
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13 Case 2001.
14. Psacharopoulos, George. 1994. "Returns to
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World Development 22(9): 1325-1343.
Cited in: Case 2001.
15. Birdsall 1999.
16. Montgomery, M., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998.
"Excess Fertility, Unintended Births, and
Children's Schooling." Ch. 8 in: Critical
Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility
in the Developing World, edited by C. H.
Bledsoe, et al. 1998. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy Press.
17. Behrman, J., P. Sengupta, and P. Todd.
2001. "Progressing through PROGRESA:
An Impact Assessment of a School Subsidy
Experiment." Mimeo. Washington, D.C.:
University of Pennsylvania and the
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18. Lutz, W., and A. Goujon. 2001. "The World's
Changing Human Capital Stock: Multi-State
Population Projections by Educational
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Review 27(2): 323-340.
19. Mensch, B. S., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene. 1998.
The Uncharted Passage: Girls' Adolescence
in the Developing World. New York: The
20. These projections also incorporate the
assumption that fertility differentials by
education will diminish over time, a pattern
that has been observed in countries with
21. Lutz and Goujon 2001.
22. Sawada, Y., and M. Lokshin. 2001.
"Household Schooling Decisions in Rural
Pakistan." Development Research Group
Working Paper. No. 2541. Washington, D.C.:
Development Research Group, the World
Bank; and Sathar, Z. A., and C. B. Lloyd. 1994.
"Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan:
Inequalities among and within Families."
Pakistan Development Review 33(2): 103-134.
23. Mensch, B. S., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998. "Gender
Differences in the Schooling Experience of
Adolescents in Low-income Countries: The
Case of Kenya." Studies in Family Planning
24. Population Reference Bureau. 2000.
The World's Youth 2000. Washington, D.C.:
Population Reference Bureau.
25. The World Bank 2001a.
26. Filmer, D. 1999. "The Structure of Social
Disparities in Education: Gender and
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Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
27. Esim, S., N. Varia, and G. Durón. 1999.
Adolescent Livelihoods: A Selective Review
of Issues and Programs. Background paper
for Essential Questions, Essential Tools.
Workshop on Adolescent Girls' Livelihoods,
Cairo, Egypt, 13-14 October 1999. Washington,
D.C.: International Center for Research
28. Lloyd, et al. 2001
29. Mensch, B. S., et al. (2001. "Premarital Sex,
Schoolgirl Pregnancy and School Quality
in Rural Kenya." Studies in Family Planning
32: 285-301) found that pregnancy was
infrequently mentioned as a direct cause
of dropout in Kenya and attributed as
much as 12 per cent of discontinuation to
pregnancy. Lack of money for fees, possibly
exacerbated by family size and quality
concerns, figured more prominently. In
schools that are reported to treat boys
and girls equally girls engage less in early
30. Eloundou-Enyegue, P., et al. 2000. "The
Effects of High Fertility on Human Capital
Formation nder Structural Adjustment
in Africa." Paper prepared by the RAND
Corporation under the POLICY Project.
Santa Monica, California: RAND
Corporation. Available on the web site:
31. USAID. 2000. Proceedings: Symposium on
Girls' Education: Evidence, Issues, Action:
17-18 May 2002. Strategies for Advancing
Girls' Education Project. Washington, D.C.:
USAID. Web site:http://sage.aed.org/.
Accessed December 2001.
32. USAID. 1999. "Girls' Education: Good for Boys,
Good for Development." Gender Matters.
Information Bulletin. No. 5. Washington, D.C.:
33. See, for example: Filmer 1999; Lloyd, C. B.,
and A. K. Blanc. 1996. "Children's Schooling
in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Fathers,
Mothers, and Others." Population and
Development Review. 22(2): 265-298;
Montgomery and Lloyd 1998; and Thomas,
D., R. F. Schoeni, and J. Strauss. 1996.
"Parental Investments in Schooling: The
Roles of Gender and Resources in Urban
Brazil." RAND Labor and Population Program
Working Papers. No. 96-02. Santa Monica,
California: RAND Corporation.
34. Lloyd, C. B. 1994. "Investing in the Next
Generation: The Implications of High Fertility
at the Level of the Family." In: Population and
Development: Old Debates, New Conclusions,
edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. New Brunswick,
New Jersey, and Oxford: Transaction Publishers.
35. Lloyd and Blanc 1996.
36. Montgomery and Lloyd 1998.
37. The World Bank. 2001c. Engendering
Development: Through Gender Equality
in Rights, Resources, and Voice. Washington,
D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford
38. Smith, L. C., and L. Haddad. 2000. Explaining
Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries:
A Cross Country Analysis. IFPRI Research
Report. No.111. Washington, D.C.:
International Food Policy Research Institute.
39. United Nations Administrative Committee
on Coordination, Sub-Committee on
Nutrition (ACC/SCN). 2000. Fourth Report
on the World Nutrition Situation: Nutrition
Throughout the Life Cycle. Geneva: United
Nations Administrative Committee on
Coordination, Sub-Committee on Nutrition
in collaboration with International Food
Policy Research Institute.
40. Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1995. Women's Education,
Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour:
Experiences from Developing Countries.
Oxford: Clarendon Press; and Diamond, I., M.
Newby, and S. Varle. 1998. "Female Education
and Fertility: Examining the Links." Ch. 2 in:
Bledsoe, et al. 1998.
41. United Nations. 2001. World Population
Monitoring 2000: Population, Gender and
Development. New York: Population Division,
Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
42. United Nations. 1995. Women's Education
and Fertility Behaviour: Recent Evidence
from the Demographic and Health Surveys
(Sales No. E.95.XIII.23). New York:
Population Division, Department of Economic
and Social Affairs, United Nations
43. Birdsall 1999.
44. López, R., V. Thomas, and Y. Wang. 1998.
"Addressing the Education Puzzle: The
Distribution of Education and Economic
Reforms." World Bank Working Papers. No.
2031. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
45. Education appears to affect health outcomes
not only through its association with higher
income but also through its positive effect
on the ability to acquire health related
information and services. (See the papers
commissioned by the WHO's Commission
on Macro-economics and Health on the
web site: www.cmhealth.org.)