UNFPAState of World Population 2002
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State of World Population
Characterizing Poverty
Macro-economics, Poverty, Population and Development
Women and Gender Inequality
Health and Poverty
HIV/AIDS and Poverty
Poverty and Education
Population, Poverty and Global Development Goals: the Way Ahead
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8


1. Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries." Population and Development Review 25(1): 85-120.

2. The World Bank. 2001a. "Educational Attainment and Enrollment: Educational Attainment and Enrollment Profiles." Web site: http://www.worldbank.org/research/projects/ edattain/edattain.htm. Accessed December 2001.

3. Filmer and Pritchett 1999.

4. Ibid.

5. Ministère de l'Enseignement Pré-Universitaire et de l'Éducation Civique, Service Statistiques et Planification (Guinea), and ORC Macro. 2001. Schooling in Guinea: Findings from the GDHS-II 1999. Calverton, Maryland: Ministère de l'Enseignement Pré-Universitaire et de l'Éducation Civique, Service Statistiques et Planification (Guinea), and ORC Macro.

6. Filmer and Pritchett 1999.

7. The World Bank. 2001b. World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.

8. Birdsall, N. 1999. "Education: The People's Asset." CSED Working Paper. No. 5. Washington, D.C.: Center on Social and Economic Dynamics, the Brookings Institution.

9. UNICEF. 2001. A Decade of Transition: The MONEE Project: CEE/CIS/Baltics. Florence, Italy: Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF.

10. Case, A. 2001. "The Primacy of Education: Research Program in Development Studies." Working Paper. No. 203. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton niversity; and Lloyd, C. B. 2001. "Linkages between Demographic and Education Variables." Briefing note. Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Academy BASE Project. The magnitude and direction of the effect of school inputs (including various measures of quality) is the subject of a vast amount of research and controversy in the literature.

11. Anderson, K., A. Case, and D. Lam. 2001. "Causes and Consequences of Schooling Outcomes in South Africa: Evidence from Survey Data." PSC Research Report. No. 01-490. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Population Studies, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

12. Lloyd, C. B., et al. 2001. "Determinants of Educational Attainment among Adolescents in Egypt: Does School Quality Make a Difference? Research Division Working Paper. No. 150. New York: The Population Council.

13 Case 2001.

14. Psacharopoulos, George. 1994. "Returns to Investment in Education: A Global Update." World Development 22(9): 1325-1343. Cited in: Case 2001.

15. Birdsall 1999.

16. Montgomery, M., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998. "Excess Fertility, Unintended Births, and Children's Schooling." Ch. 8 in: Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World, edited by C. H. Bledsoe, et al. 1998. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

17. Behrman, J., P. Sengupta, and P. Todd. 2001. "Progressing through PROGRESA: An Impact Assessment of a School Subsidy Experiment." Mimeo. Washington, D.C.: University of Pennsylvania and the International Food Policy Research Institute.

18. Lutz, W., and A. Goujon. 2001. "The World's Changing Human Capital Stock: Multi-State Population Projections by Educational Attainment." Population and Development Review 27(2): 323-340.

19. Mensch, B. S., J. Bruce, and M. E. Greene. 1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls' Adolescence in the Developing World. New York: The Population Council.

20. These projections also incorporate the assumption that fertility differentials by education will diminish over time, a pattern that has been observed in countries with declining fertility.

21. Lutz and Goujon 2001.

22. Sawada, Y., and M. Lokshin. 2001. "Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan." Development Research Group Working Paper. No. 2541. Washington, D.C.: Development Research Group, the World Bank; and Sathar, Z. A., and C. B. Lloyd. 1994. "Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities among and within Families." Pakistan Development Review 33(2): 103-134.

23. Mensch, B. S., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998. "Gender Differences in the Schooling Experience of Adolescents in Low-income Countries: The Case of Kenya." Studies in Family Planning 29(2): 167-184.

24. Population Reference Bureau. 2000. The World's Youth 2000. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau.

25. The World Bank 2001a.

26. Filmer, D. 1999. "The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth." Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper. No. 5. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

27. Esim, S., N. Varia, and G. Durón. 1999. Adolescent Livelihoods: A Selective Review of Issues and Programs. Background paper for Essential Questions, Essential Tools. Workshop on Adolescent Girls' Livelihoods, Cairo, Egypt, 13-14 October 1999. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

28. Lloyd, et al. 2001

29. Mensch, B. S., et al. (2001. "Premarital Sex, Schoolgirl Pregnancy and School Quality in Rural Kenya." Studies in Family Planning 32[4]: 285-301) found that pregnancy was infrequently mentioned as a direct cause of dropout in Kenya and attributed as much as 12 per cent of discontinuation to pregnancy. Lack of money for fees, possibly exacerbated by family size and quality concerns, figured more prominently. In schools that are reported to treat boys and girls equally girls engage less in early sexual activity.

30. Eloundou-Enyegue, P., et al. 2000. "The Effects of High Fertility on Human Capital Formation nder Structural Adjustment in Africa." Paper prepared by the RAND Corporation under the POLICY Project. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation. Available on the web site: www.policyproject.com.

31. USAID. 2000. Proceedings: Symposium on Girls' Education: Evidence, Issues, Action: 17-18 May 2002. Strategies for Advancing Girls' Education Project. Washington, D.C.: USAID. Web site:http://sage.aed.org/. Accessed December 2001.

32. USAID. 1999. "Girls' Education: Good for Boys, Good for Development." Gender Matters. Information Bulletin. No. 5. Washington, D.C.: USAID.

33. See, for example: Filmer 1999; Lloyd, C. B., and A. K. Blanc. 1996. "Children's Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role of Fathers, Mothers, and Others." Population and Development Review. 22(2): 265-298; Montgomery and Lloyd 1998; and Thomas, D., R. F. Schoeni, and J. Strauss. 1996. "Parental Investments in Schooling: The Roles of Gender and Resources in Urban Brazil." RAND Labor and Population Program Working Papers. No. 96-02. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation.

34. Lloyd, C. B. 1994. "Investing in the Next Generation: The Implications of High Fertility at the Level of the Family." In: Population and Development: Old Debates, New Conclusions, edited by Robert Cassen. 1994. New Brunswick, New Jersey, and Oxford: Transaction Publishers.

35. Lloyd and Blanc 1996.

36. Montgomery and Lloyd 1998.

37. The World Bank. 2001c. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.

38. Smith, L. C., and L. Haddad. 2000. Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Cross Country Analysis. IFPRI Research Report. No.111. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

39. United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN). 2000. Fourth Report on the World Nutrition Situation: Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle. Geneva: United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination, Sub-Committee on Nutrition in collaboration with International Food Policy Research Institute.

40. Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1995. Women's Education, Autonomy, and Reproductive Behaviour: Experiences from Developing Countries. Oxford: Clarendon Press; and Diamond, I., M. Newby, and S. Varle. 1998. "Female Education and Fertility: Examining the Links." Ch. 2 in: Bledsoe, et al. 1998.

41. United Nations. 2001. World Population Monitoring 2000: Population, Gender and Development. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

42. United Nations. 1995. Women's Education and Fertility Behaviour: Recent Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys (Sales No. E.95.XIII.23). New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations

43. Birdsall 1999.

44. López, R., V. Thomas, and Y. Wang. 1998. "Addressing the Education Puzzle: The Distribution of Education and Economic Reforms." World Bank Working Papers. No. 2031. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

45. Education appears to affect health outcomes not only through its association with higher income but also through its positive effect on the ability to acquire health related information and services. (See the papers commissioned by the WHO's Commission on Macro-economics and Health on the web site: www.cmhealth.org.)

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