1. Floro, M. 2001. "Gender Dimensions of the
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Working paper prepared for the United
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(UNIFEM) in preparation for the 2002
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2. Sen, A. 1998. "Mortality as an Indicator of
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3. Eastwood, R., and M. Lipton. 2001.
"Demographic Transition and Poverty:
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Matters: Demographic Change, Economic
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Headed Households and Female-Maintained
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45(2): 259-280; and Quisumbing, A. R.,
L. Haddad, and C. Peņa. 2001. "Are Women
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Journal of Development Economics
5. For an analysis using this approach, see:
Quisumbing, Haddad, and Peņa 2001. See
also: Razavi, S. 1999. "Gendered Poverty and
Well Being: Introduction." Development and
Change 30(3): 409-433; and Fukuda-Parr,
S. 1999. "What Does Feminization of Poverty
Mean? It Isn't Just Lack of Income." Feminist
Economics 5(2): 99-103.
6 See: UNIFEM. 2000. Progress of the World's
Women 2000: UNIFEM Biennial Report.
New York: UNIFEM.
7. Building on work by: Kishor, S. (1999.
"Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive
Use in Egypt." Paper presented at the Annual
Meeting of the Population Association of
America, 24-27 March 1999, New York, New
York; and 2000. "Empowerment of Women
in Egypt and Links to the Survival and
Health of their Infants." Ch. 6 in: Women's
Empowerment and Demographic Processes:
Moving Beyond Cairo, edited by H. B.
Presser and G. Sen. 2000. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.) and Smith, L. C., et al.
(2001. "The Importance of Women's Status
for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries."
Draft research report. Washington, D.C.:
International Food Policy Research Institute.)
using Demographic and Health Survey data.
8. Humana, C. 1986.World Human Rights
Guide, 2nd Edition. London: Hodder and
Stoughton; and Humana, C. 1992. World
Human Rights Guide, 3rd Edition. New York:
Oxford University Press. The discussion of
the Humana index is drawn from: The World
Bank. 2001a. Engendering Development
Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources,
and Voice. World Bank Policy Research
Report. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
9. Kishor, S. 1996. Status of Women: Indicators
for Twenty Five Countries. DHS Comparative
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10. Floro 2001.
11. UNDP. 1999. Human Development Report
1999: Globalization with a Human Face,
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12. Floro, M. S. 1995. "Women's Well-Being,
Poverty, and Work Intensity." Feminist
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13 UNDP. 1995. Human Development Report
1995: Gender and Development. New York:
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14. See, for example: Juster, F. T., and F. P.
Stafford. 1991. "The Allocation of Time:
Empirical Findings, Behavioural Models, and
Problems of Measurement." Journal of Economic
Literature 29(2): 471-522; McGuire,
J., and B. Popkin. 1990. Helping Women
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Beating the Zero Sum Game. World Bank
Technical Paper. No. 114. Washington, D.C.:
The World Bank; and Brown, L. R., and L.
Haddad. 1995. "Time Allocation Patterns
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International Food Policy Research Institute.
15. Women's Environment and Development
Organization. 1999. A Gender Agenda for
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Environment and Development Organization.
16. The World Bank. 2001a.
17. On the other hand, if young women take
paid work to help finance the cost of
marriage, parents may see this as helping
the husband's family more than their own,
further undercutting their motivation.
This may be offset by daughters' ability to
support their parents in old age.
18. Floro 2001.
20. Klasen, S. 1999. "Does Gender Inequality
Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence
from Cross-Country Regressions." Working
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(Background paper available at: http://
21. Based on simulations from African data
(Quisumbing, A.R. 1996. "Male-Female Differences
in Agricultural Productivity: Methodological
Issues and Empirical Evidence."
World Development 24: 1579-1595; and
Alderman, H., et al. 1995. "Gender Differentials
in Farm Productivity: Implications for
Household Efficiency and Agricultural Policy."
Food Consumption and Nutrition Division
Discussion Paper. No. 6. Washington, D.C.:
International Food Policy Research Institute.)
22. The World Bank. 2001b. World Development
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Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and
Oxford University Press.
23. When the underlying determinants of food
security are considered against data on
child underweight rates from 63 developing
countries from 1970-1995, representing 88
per cent of the developing world's population
(Smith, L C., and L. Haddad. 2000.
Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing
Countries: A Cross Country Analysis. IFPRI
Research Report. No. 111. Washington, D.C.:
International Food Policy Research Institute.).
24. This discussion draws from: The World Bank
25. Klasen 1999. Using data on 100 countries in
26. Over a longer time period. See: Gatti, R. 1999.
"A Cross-country Analysis of Fertility
Determinants." Washington, D.C.: Development
Research Group, the World Bank.
27. Hill, A., and E. M. King. 1995. "Women's
Education and Economic Well-being."
Feminist Economics 1(2): 1-26.
28. Swamy, A. et al. 2001. "Gender and
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Economics 64(1): 25-55.
29. Joint United Nations Programme on
HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2002. Report on the
Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: July 2002.
30. United Nations General Assembly Special
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and Africa." The New York Times. Web site:
31. Plus News. 3 December 2001. Africa:
Interview with Stephen Lewis, UN Special
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32. Gupta, G. R. 2000. Gender,Sexuality and
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33. Thompson, D. 2002. Coordinates 2002:
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34. UNAIDS. 2000. Report on the Global
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35. UNIFEM. Women are Key to Ending
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for Voluntary Counseling and Testing."
Presentation at the Xith International
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15-16 September 1999, Lusaka, Zambia.
Cited in: Gupta 2000.