UNFPAState of World Population 2002
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State of World Population
Characterizing Poverty
Macro-economics, Poverty, Population and Development
Women and Gender Inequality
Health and Poverty
HIV/AIDS and Poverty
Poverty and Education
Population, Poverty and Global Development Goals: the Way Ahead
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8


1. Floro, M. 2001. "Gender Dimensions of the Financing for Development Agenda." Working paper prepared for the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) in preparation for the 2002 United Nations Conference on Financing for Development (FfD). New York: UNIFEM.

2. Sen, A. 1998. "Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure." Economic Journal 108(446): 1-25.

3. Eastwood, R., and M. Lipton. 2001. "Demographic Transition and Poverty: Effects via Economic Growth, Distribution and Conversion," p. 235. Ch. 9 in: Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World, edited by N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley, and S.W. Sinding. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Buvinic, M., and G. R. Gupta. 1997. "Female- Headed Households and Female-Maintained Families: Are They Worth Targeting to Reduce Poverty in Developing Countries?" Economic Development and Cultural Change 45(2): 259-280; and Quisumbing, A. R., L. Haddad, and C. Peña. 2001. "Are Women Overrepresented Among the Poor? An Analysis of Poverty in Ten Developing Countries." Journal of Development Economics 66(1): 225-269.

5. For an analysis using this approach, see: Quisumbing, Haddad, and Peña 2001. See also: Razavi, S. 1999. "Gendered Poverty and Well Being: Introduction." Development and Change 30(3): 409-433; and Fukuda-Parr, S. 1999. "What Does Feminization of Poverty Mean? It Isn't Just Lack of Income." Feminist Economics 5(2): 99-103.

6 See: UNIFEM. 2000. Progress of the World's Women 2000: UNIFEM Biennial Report. New York: UNIFEM.

7. Building on work by: Kishor, S. (1999. "Women's Empowerment and Contraceptive Use in Egypt." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, 24-27 March 1999, New York, New York; and 2000. "Empowerment of Women in Egypt and Links to the Survival and Health of their Infants." Ch. 6 in: Women's Empowerment and Demographic Processes: Moving Beyond Cairo, edited by H. B. Presser and G. Sen. 2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.) and Smith, L. C., et al. (2001. "The Importance of Women's Status for Child Nutrition in Developing Countries." Draft research report. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.) using Demographic and Health Survey data.

8. Humana, C. 1986.World Human Rights Guide, 2nd Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton; and Humana, C. 1992. World Human Rights Guide, 3rd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press. The discussion of the Humana index is drawn from: The World Bank. 2001a. Engendering Development Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

9. Kishor, S. 1996. Status of Women: Indicators for Twenty Five Countries. DHS Comparative Study Series. No. 21. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International

10. Floro 2001.

11. UNDP. 1999. Human Development Report 1999: Globalization with a Human Face, Table 27. New York. Oxford University Press.

12. Floro, M. S. 1995. "Women's Well-Being, Poverty, and Work Intensity." Feminist Economics 1(3): 1-25.


13 UNDP. 1995. Human Development Report 1995: Gender and Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

14. See, for example: Juster, F. T., and F. P. Stafford. 1991. "The Allocation of Time: Empirical Findings, Behavioural Models, and Problems of Measurement." Journal of Economic Literature 29(2): 471-522; McGuire, J., and B. Popkin. 1990. Helping Women Improve Nutrition in the Developing World: Beating the Zero Sum Game. World Bank Technical Paper. No. 114. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and Brown, L. R., and L. Haddad. 1995. "Time Allocation Patterns and Time Burdens: A Gendered Analysis of Seven Countries." Paper. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.

15. Women's Environment and Development Organization. 1999. A Gender Agenda for the World Trade Organization: A WEDO Primer. November 1999. New York: Women's Environment and Development Organization.

16. The World Bank. 2001a.

17. On the other hand, if young women take paid work to help finance the cost of marriage, parents may see this as helping the husband's family more than their own, further undercutting their motivation. This may be offset by daughters' ability to support their parents in old age.

18. Floro 2001.

19. Ibid

20. Klasen, S. 1999. "Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions." Working Paper. No. 7. For: The World Bank 2001a. (Background paper available at: http:// www.worldbank.org/gender/prr/wp7.pdf.)

21. Based on simulations from African data (Quisumbing, A.R. 1996. "Male-Female Differences in Agricultural Productivity: Methodological Issues and Empirical Evidence." World Development 24[10]: 1579-1595; and Alderman, H., et al. 1995. "Gender Differentials in Farm Productivity: Implications for Household Efficiency and Agricultural Policy." Food Consumption and Nutrition Division Discussion Paper. No. 6. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.)

22. The World Bank. 2001b. World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.

23. When the underlying determinants of food security are considered against data on child underweight rates from 63 developing countries from 1970-1995, representing 88 per cent of the developing world's population (Smith, L C., and L. Haddad. 2000. Explaining Child Malnutrition in Developing Countries: A Cross Country Analysis. IFPRI Research Report. No. 111. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.).

24. This discussion draws from: The World Bank 2001a.

25. Klasen 1999. Using data on 100 countries in 1990.

26. Over a longer time period. See: Gatti, R. 1999. "A Cross-country Analysis of Fertility Determinants." Washington, D.C.: Development Research Group, the World Bank.

27. Hill, A., and E. M. King. 1995. "Women's Education and Economic Well-being." Feminist Economics 1(2): 1-26.

28. Swamy, A. et al. 2001. "Gender and Corruption." Journal of Development Economics 64(1): 25-55.

29. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: July 2002. Geneva: UNAIDS.

30. United Nations General Assembly Special Session on AIDS, June 2001; and Mocumbi, Pascoal. 2001. "A Time for Frankness on AIDS and Africa." The New York Times. Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2001/06//20/ opinion20MOC.html.

31. Plus News. 3 December 2001. Africa: Interview with Stephen Lewis, UN Special Envoy. Parts 1 and 2. New York: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

32. Gupta, G. R. 2000. Gender,Sexuality and HIV/AIDS:The What, the Why and the How. Plenary Address at the XIIIth International Conference on AIDS, 9-14 June 2000, Durban, South Africa. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women.

33. Thompson, D. 2002. Coordinates 2002: Charting Progress against AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, p. 14. Geneva: WHO.

34. UNAIDS. 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: June 2000, p. 11. Geneva: UNAIDS.

35. UNIFEM. Women are Key to Ending HIV/AIDS. Critical Issues 2001. New York: UNIFEM.

36. Maman, S. et al. 1999. "Women's Barriers to HIV Testing and Disclosure: Challenges for Voluntary Counseling and Testing." Presentation at the Xith International Conference on AIDS and STDs in Africa, 15-16 September 1999, Lusaka, Zambia. Cited in: Gupta 2000.

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