UNFPAState of World Population 2002
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State of World Population
Characterizing Poverty
Macro-economics, Poverty, Population and Development
Women and Gender Inequality
Health and Poverty
HIV/AIDS and Poverty
Poverty and Education
Population, Poverty and Global Development Goals: the Way Ahead
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8


1.1 Wade, R. H. 2001. "The Rising Inequality of World Income Distribution." 38(4).

2. Ibid

3. Ibid

4. Sen, A. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford University Press

5. (Adjusted for purchasing power parity.) NDP. 2001. Human Development Report 2001: Making New Technologies Work for Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press.

6. Strauss, J. A., and D. Thomas. 1995. "Human Resources: Empirical Modeling of Household and Family Decisions." Ch. 34 in: Handbook of Development Economics, vol. 3A, edited by T. N. Srinivasan and J. Behrman. 1995. Amsterdam: North Holland.

7. Gallup, J. L., and J. D. Sachs. 2000. "The Economic Burden of Malaria." CID Working Paper. No. 52. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Center for International Development, Harvard University.

8. Jamison, D. T., L. J. Lau, and J. Wang. 1998. "Health's Contribution to Economic Growth, 1965-90." Pp. 1-80 in: Health, Health Policy, and Economic Outcomes. Health and Development Satellite. Final Report. Geneva: Director-General's Transition Team, WHO.

9. UNDP. 2000. Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development. New York: Oxford niversity Press.

10. The World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development: Through Gender Equality in Rights, Resources, and Voice. World Bank Policy Research Report. New York: Oxford University Press.

11. Williamson, J. 2001. "Demographic Change, Economic Growth and Inequality." Ch. 5 in: Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World, edited by N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley, and S. W. Sinding. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

12. Birdsall, N. 2001. "New Findings in Economics and Demography: Implications for Policies to Reduce Poverty." Ch. 14 in: Birdsall, Kelley, and Sinding 2001.

13. Merrick, T. 2001. "Population and Poverty in Households: A Review of Reviews," Ch. 8 in: Birdsall, Kelley, and Sinding 2001.

14. Paes de Barros, R., et al.. 2001. "Demographic Changes and Poverty in Brazil." Ch. 11 in: Birdsall, Kelley, and Sinding 2001.

15. Thus, practices governing provison of credit are likely to favour higher income applicants; institutions like banks, credit unions, even agricultural extension services are often located for ease of access by more prosperous clients, who can travel outside walking range.

16. Ravallion, M. 1994. Poverty Comparisons. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers; Foster, J., J. Greer, and E. Thorbecke. 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures." Econometrica 52(3): 761-766; Moser, C., M. Gatehouse, and H. Garcia. 1996. Urban Poverty Research Sourcebook: Module I: Sub-City Level Household Survey. United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat)/World Bank Urban Management Programme, MP Working Paper Series. No. 5. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and Streeten, P. 1994. "Poverty Concept and Measurement." Pp. 15- 30 in: Poverty Monitoring: An International Concern, edited by R. van der Hoeven and R. Anker. 1994. New York: St. Martin's Press.

17. Bilsborrow, R. 1994. "Towards a Rapid Assessment of Poverty." Pp. 150-158 in: van der Hoeven and Anker 1994.

18. Hatch, J., and L. Frederick. 1998. "Poverty Assessment by Microfinance Institutions: A Review of Current Practice." Micro-Enterprise Best Practices Project. Bethesda, Maryland: Development Alternatives, Inc.; Chung, K., et al. 1997. "Identifying the Food Insecure: The Application of Mixed-Method Approaches in India." Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute; Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1998. Estimating Wealth Effects Without Income or Expenditure Data: Or Tears: With an Application to Educational Enrollment in India. Policy Research Working Paper. No. 1994. Washington, D.C.: Development Economics Research Group, the World Bank; and Filmer, D., and L. Pritchett. 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries." Population and Development Review 25(1): 85-120.

19. Grootaert, C. 1983. "The Conceptual Basis of Measures of Household Welfare and Their Implied Survey Data Requirements." The Review of Income and Wealth. Series 29(1): 1-21; and Grootaert, C. 1988. Measuring and Analyzing Levels of Living in Developing Countries: An Annotated Questionnaire. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper. No. 24. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

20. Bilsborrow 1994; Boltvinik, J. 1994. "Poverty Measurement and Alternative Indicators of Development." Pp. 57-83 in: van der Hoeven and Anker 1994; and Hatch and Frederick 1998.

21. See also: Chung, et al. 1997

22. Ibid.

23. Hatch and Frederick 1998.

24. Zeller, M., et al. 2001. "An Operatinal Tool for Evaluating Poverty Outreach of Development Policies and Projects." Food Consumption and Nutrition Division. Discussion Paper. No. 111. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Instistute.

25. UNDP 2000.

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