UNFPAState of World Population 2002
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State of World Population
Characterizing Poverty
Macro-economics, Poverty, Population and Development
Women and Gender Inequality
Health and Poverty
HIV/AIDS and Poverty
Poverty and Education
Population, Poverty and Global Development Goals: the Way Ahead
Sources for Boxes
Graphs and Tables


Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8


1. Wolfensohn, J D., President of the World Bank. 2 April 2002. Statement to the International Monetary and Financial Committee. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund.

2. United Nations. 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.

3. The ICPD consensus language was adopted and strengthened in some respects by the Fourth World Conference on Women, 1995. (See: United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.) It has become a standard part of international agreements on social questions.

4. Eastwood, R., and M. Lipton. 2001. "Demographic Transition and Poverty: Effects via Economic Growth, Distribution and Conversion." Ch. 9 in: Population Matters: Demographic Change, Economic Growth, and Poverty in the Developing World, edited by N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley, and S. W. Sinding. 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press; and Eastwood, R., and M. Lipton. 1999. "The Impact of Changes in Human Fertility on Poverty." 36(1): 1-30.

5. Commission on Macro-economics and Health, World Health Organization (WHO). 2001. Macro-economics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. Geneva: WHO.

6. WHO. 1946. Constitution of the World Health Organization, adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, New York, 19 June-22 July 1946, and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States.

7. This conclusion has also been reaffirmed in all of the follow-up processes related to the conferences and in regional and national action plans. It is regularly invoked in technical studies and action proposals (e.g., the Commission on Macro-economics and Health, WHO 2001). Most international development documents, even those related to climate and environment (see, for example: nited Nations Environment Programme. 2002. Global Environment Outlook: 3: Past, Present and Future Perspectives [GEO- 3]. London: Earthscan and United Nations Environment Programme), ritually invoke- though rarely analyse-the importance of demographic trends.

8. UNFPA. 2000. The State of World Population 2000: Lives Together, World's Apart: Men and Women in a Time of Change, p. 25. New York: UNFPA.

9. Bhuiya, A., et al. 2000. "Bangladesh: An Intervention Study of Factors Underlying Increasing Equity in Child Survival." Ch. 16 in: Challenging Inequities in Health From Ethics to Action, edited by T. Evans, et al. 2000. London: Oxford University Press.

10. This analysis is from: Klasen, S. 2001. "In Search of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve Pro-Poor Growth?" Draft paper commissioned by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) for the "Growth and Equity" Task Team of the Strategic Partnership with Africa (SPA). Munich: niversity of Munich.

11. WHO and the World Bank. 2002. Dying for Change: Poor People's Experience of Health and Ill Health. The Voices of the Poor Study. Geneva: WHO.

12. Commission on Macro-economics and Health, WHO 2001.

13. AbouZahr, C., and J. P. Vaughan. 2000. "Assessing the Burden of Sexual and Reproductive Ill Health: Questions regarding the se of Disability-Adjusted Life Years." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78(5): 655-666.

14. In these analyses, populations are divided into successive wealth quintiles (groups comprising a fifth of the total population). Wealth scores are derived from country by country analyses of the ownership of a variety of consumer durables and the sources or types of water, energy and housing materials.

15. UNFPA. 1999. The State of World Population 1999: 6 Billion: A Time for Choices, pp. 41-42. New York: NFPA.

16. Epstein, H. 9 May 2002. "The Hidden Cause of AIDS." The New York Review of Books.

17. Loewenson, R., and A. Whiteside. 2001. HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty Reduction. United Nations Development Programme Policy Paper. New York: United Nations Development Programme (NDP).

18. Lloyd, C., C. E. Kaufman, and P. Hewett. 2000. "The Spread of Primary Schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Fertility Change." Population and Development Review 26(3): 483-515. New York: The Population Council.

19. UNFPA. 1997. The State of World Population 1997: The Right to Choose: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health, p. 50. New York: UNFPA.

20. Knodel. J., H. Napaporn, and S. Werasit. 1990. "Family Size and Education in the Context of Rapid Fertility Decline." Population and Development Review 16(1): 31-62. Cited in: "Population and Poverty: New Views on an Old Controversy," by T. W. Merrick. 2002. 28(1): 41-46.

21. Montgomery, M., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998. "Excess Fertility, Unintended Births, and Children's Schooling." Ch. 8 in: Critical Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in the Developing World, edited by C. H. Bledsoe, et al. 1998. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

22. This led to the incorporation of a year of post-partum contraception in the costed recommendations of the Commission on Macro-economics and Health. WHO guidelines and recommendations, though, call for birth intervals of 24-30 months for infant health and survival benefits.

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