1. Wolfensohn, J D., President of the World
Bank. 2 April 2002. Statement to the
International Monetary and Financial
Committee. Washington, D.C.: International
2. United Nations. 2001. World Population
Prospects: The 2000 Revision. New York:
Population Division, Department of Economic
and Social Affairs, United Nations.
3. The ICPD consensus language was adopted
and strengthened in some respects by the
Fourth World Conference on Women, 1995.
(See: United Nations. 1996. The Beijing
Declaration and the Platform for Action:
Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing,
China: 4-15 September 1995. New York:
Department of Public Information, United
Nations.) It has become a standard part of
international agreements on social questions.
4. Eastwood, R., and M. Lipton. 2001.
"Demographic Transition and Poverty:
Effects via Economic Growth, Distribution
and Conversion." Ch. 9 in: Population
Matters: Demographic Change, Economic
Growth, and Poverty in the Developing
World, edited by N. Birdsall, A. C. Kelley,
and S. W. Sinding. 2001. Oxford: Oxford
University Press; and Eastwood, R., and M.
Lipton. 1999. "The Impact of Changes in
Human Fertility on Poverty." 36(1): 1-30.
5. Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, World Health Organization
(WHO). 2001. Macro-economics and
Health: Investing in Health for Economic
Development. Geneva: WHO.
6. WHO. 1946. Constitution of the World Health
Organization, adopted by the International
Health Conference, New York, New York,
19 June-22 July 1946, and signed on 22 July
1946 by the representatives of 61 States.
7. This conclusion has also been reaffirmed in
all of the follow-up processes related to
the conferences and in regional and national
action plans. It is regularly invoked in technical
studies and action proposals (e.g.,
the Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, WHO 2001). Most international
development documents, even those related
to climate and environment (see, for example:
nited Nations Environment Programme.
2002. Global Environment Outlook: 3:
Past, Present and Future Perspectives [GEO-
3]. London: Earthscan and United Nations
Environment Programme), ritually invoke-
though rarely analyse-the importance of
8. UNFPA. 2000. The State of World
Population 2000: Lives Together, World's
Apart: Men and Women in a Time of
Change, p. 25. New York: UNFPA.
9. Bhuiya, A., et al. 2000. "Bangladesh: An
Intervention Study of Factors Underlying
Increasing Equity in Child Survival."
Ch. 16 in: Challenging Inequities in Health
From Ethics to Action, edited by T. Evans,
et al. 2000. London: Oxford University Press.
10. This analysis is from: Klasen, S. 2001. "In
Search of the Holy Grail: How to Achieve
Pro-Poor Growth?" Draft paper commissioned
by Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) for the
"Growth and Equity" Task Team of the
Strategic Partnership with Africa (SPA).
Munich: niversity of Munich.
11. WHO and the World Bank. 2002. Dying
for Change: Poor People's Experience
of Health and Ill Health. The Voices of the
Poor Study. Geneva: WHO.
12. Commission on Macro-economics and
Health, WHO 2001.
13. AbouZahr, C., and J. P. Vaughan. 2000.
"Assessing the Burden of Sexual and
Reproductive Ill Health: Questions regarding
the se of Disability-Adjusted Life Years."
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
14. In these analyses, populations are divided
into successive wealth quintiles (groups
comprising a fifth of the total population).
Wealth scores are derived from country
by country analyses of the ownership of a
variety of consumer durables and the
sources or types of water, energy and housing
15. UNFPA. 1999. The State of World
Population 1999: 6 Billion: A Time for
Choices, pp. 41-42. New York: NFPA.
16. Epstein, H. 9 May 2002. "The Hidden Cause
of AIDS." The New York Review of Books.
17. Loewenson, R., and A. Whiteside. 2001.
HIV/AIDS: Implications for Poverty
Reduction. United Nations Development
Programme Policy Paper. New York: United
Nations Development Programme (NDP).
18. Lloyd, C., C. E. Kaufman, and P. Hewett.
2000. "The Spread of Primary Schooling in
Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for Fertility
Change." Population and Development
Review 26(3): 483-515. New York: The
19. UNFPA. 1997. The State of World Population
1997: The Right to Choose: Reproductive
Rights and Reproductive Health, p. 50. New
20. Knodel. J., H. Napaporn, and S. Werasit.
1990. "Family Size and Education in the
Context of Rapid Fertility Decline."
Population and Development Review 16(1):
31-62. Cited in: "Population and Poverty:
New Views on an Old Controversy," by
T. W. Merrick. 2002. 28(1): 41-46.
21. Montgomery, M., and C. B. Lloyd. 1998.
"Excess Fertility, Unintended Births, and
Children's Schooling." Ch. 8 in: Critical
Perspectives on Schooling and Fertility in
the Developing World, edited by C. H.
Bledsoe, et al. 1998. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy Press.
22. This led to the incorporation of a year of
post-partum contraception in the costed
recommendations of the Commission on
Macro-economics and Health. WHO guidelines
and recommendations, though, call
for birth intervals of 24-30 months for infant
health and survival benefits.