The statistical tables in this year's State of World Population report
once again give special attention to indicators that can help
track progress in meeting the quantitative and qualitative goals
of the International Conference on Population and Development
(ICPD) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the
areas of mortality reduction, access to education, access to reproductive
health services including family planning, and HIV/AIDS
prevalence among young people. Several changes have been made
in other indicators, as noted below. Future reports will include
different process measures when these become available, as ICPD
and MDG follow-up efforts lead to improved monitoring systems.
Improved monitoring of the financial contributions of governments,
non-governmental organizations and the private sector
should also allow better future reporting of expenditures and
resource mobilization for ICPD/MDG implementation efforts. The
sources for the indicators and their rationale for selection follow,
INDICATORS OF MORTALITY
Infant mortality, male and female life expectancy at birth. Source:
United Nations Population Division. 2001.World Population Prospects:
The 2000 Revision (Data diskettes, "Demographic Indicators 1950-
2050"). New York: United Nations. These indicators are measures
of mortality levels, respectively, in the first year of life (which is
most sensitive to development levels) and over the
Maternal mortality ratio. Source: Kenneth Hill, Carla AbouZahr,
& Tessa Wardlaw. "Estimates of Maternal Mortality for 1995."
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 79(3): 182-193. Geneva: World
Health Organization. These are consensus estimates of WHO,
UNICEF and UNFPA. This indicator presents the number of deaths
to women per 100,000 live births which result from conditions
related to pregnancy, delivery and related complications. Precision
is difficult, though relative magnitudes are informative. Estimates
below 50 are not rounded; those 50-100 are rounded to the
nearest 5; 100-1,000, to the nearest 10; and above 1,000, to the nearest
100. Several of the estimates differ from official government
figures. The estimates are based on reported figures wherever possible,
using approaches to improve the comparability of information
from different sources. See the source for details on the origin of
particular national estimates. Estimates and methodologies are regularly
reviewed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, academic institutions
and other agencies and are revised where necessary, as part of the
ongoing process of improving maternal mortality data. Because
of changes in methods, prior estimates for 1990 levels may not be
strictly comparable with these estimates.
INDICATORS OF EDUCATION
Male and female gross primary enrolment ratios, male and female
gross secondary enrolment ratios. Source: Spreadsheets provided
by UNESCO (data to be published in the series) UNESCO Statistical
Yearbook and World Education Report. Montreal: UNESCO Institute
for Statistics (www.unesco.org/statistics). Gross enrolment
ratios indicate the number of students enrolled in a level in the
education system per 100 individuals in the appropriate age
group. They do not correct for individuals who are older than the
level-appropriate age due to late starts, interrupted schooling or
Male and female adult illiteracy. Source: Spreadsheets provided
by UNESCO (data to be published in the Education for All: Status
and Trends series. Montreal: UNESCO website: (www.unesco.org/statistics).
Illiteracy definitions are subject to variation in different
countries; three widely accepted definitions are in use. In so far as
possible, data refer to the proportion who cannot, with understanding,
both read and write a short simple statement on everyday
life. Adult illiteracy (rates for persons above 15 years of age) reflects
both recent levels of educational enrolment and past educational
attainment. The above education indicators have been updated
using the UN Population Division estimates from World Population
Prospects (The 1998 Revision). Data are Estimates and projections
Proportion completing final grade of primary education. Source:
World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002. Washington,
D.C.: Development Data Center, the World Bank, based on data
provided by UNESCO (Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics).
Data are most recent within the years 1992-2000.
INDICATORS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
Births per 1,000 women aged 15-19. Source: United Nations
Population Division. 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000
Revision (Data diskettes, "Demographic Indicators 1950-2050"); and
United Nations Population Division. 2000. Age Patterns of Fertility:
The 2000 Revision. New York: United Nations. This is an indicator of
the burden of fertility on young women. Since it is an annual level
summed over all women in the age cohort, it does not reflect fully
the level of fertility for women during their youth. Since it indicates
the annual average number of births per woman per year, one
could multiply it by five to approximate the number of births to
1,000 young women during their late teen years. The measure does
not indicate the full dimensions of teen pregnancy as only live
births are included in the numerator. Stillbirths and spontaneous
or induced abortions are not reflected.
Contraceptive prevalence. Source: United Nations Population
Division. 2002. Database on Contraceptive Use (updated June 2002).
New York: United Nations. These data are derived from sample survey
reports and estimate the proportion of married women
(including women in consensual unions) currently using, respectively,
any method or modern methods of contraception. Modern or
clinic and supply methods include male and female sterilization,
IUD, the pill, injectables, hormonal implants, condoms and female
barrier methods. These numbers are roughly but not completely
comparable across countries due to variation in the timing of the
surveys, and in the details of the questions. Unlike in past years,
all country and regional data refer to women aged 15-49. All of
the data were collected in 1972 or later. The most recent survey
data available are cited; 80 per cent of the data refer to the period
HIV prevalence rate, M/F, 15-24. Source: UNAIDS. 2000.
Country HIV/AIDS information spreadsheet on UNAIDS web site.
These data derive from surveillance system reports and model
estimates. Data provided for men and women aged 15-24 are, respectively,
averages of High and Low Estimates for each country. The
reference year is 1999. Male-female differences reflect physiological
and social vulnerability to the illness and are affected by age
differences between sexual partners.
DEMOGRAPHIC, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS
Total population 2002, projected population 2050, average annual
population growth rate for 2000-2005. Source: United Nations
Population Division. 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000
Revision (Data diskettes, "Demographic Indicators 1950-2050"; and
United Nations Population Division. 2001. Annual Populations
1950-2050: The 2000 Revision. New York: United Nations.) These indicators
present the size, projected future size and current period
annual growth of national populations.
Per cent urban, urban growth rates. Source: United Nations
Population Division. 2002. World Urbanization Prospects: The 2001
Revision: Data Tables and Highlights ( ESA/P/WP.173.) New York:
United Nations. These indicators reflect the proportion of the
national population living in urban areas and the growth rate in
urban areas projected for 2000-2005.
Agricultural population per hectare of arable and permanent
crop land. Source: Data provided by Food and Agriculture
Organization (from FAO Statistical Development Service), using
agricultural population data based on the total populations from
United Nations Population Division. 1999. World Population Prospects:
The 1998 Revision. New York: United Nations. This indicator
relates the size of the agricultural population to the land suitable
for agricultural production. It is responsive to changes in both
the structure of national economies (proportions of the workforce
in agriculture) and in technologies for land development. High
values can be related to stress on land productivity and to fragmentation
of land holdings. However, the measure is also sensitive
to differing development levels and land use policies. Data refer to
the year 1999.
Total fertility rate (period: 2000-2005). Source: United Nations
Population Division. 2000. World Population Prospects: The 2000
Revision (Data diskettes, "Demographic Indicators 1950-2050"). New
York: United Nations. The measure indicates the number of
children a woman would have during her reproductive years if she
bore children at the rate estimated for different age groups in
the specified time period. Countries may reach the projected level
at different points within the period.
Births with skilled attendants. Source: World Health
Organization; updated information for less developed countries/
regions provided by WHO (2001 Global Estimates, as of February
2002). Data for more developed countries are not available. This
indicator is based on national reports of the proportion of
births attended by "skilled health personnel or skilled attendant:
doctors (specialist or non-specialist) and/or persons with midwifery
skills who can diagnose and manage obstetrical complications as
well as normal deliveries". Data for more developed countries
reflect their higher levels of skilled delivery attendance. Because
of assumptions of full coverage, data (and coverage) deficits of
marginalized populations and the impacts of chance and transport
delays may not be fully reflected in official statistics. Data estimates
are the most recent available.
Gross national income per capita. Source: 2000 figures from:
The World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. (Less-populous countries provided
by Ed Bos, World Bank.) This indicator (formerly referred to
as gross national product [GNP] per capita) measures the total output
of goods and services for final use produced by residents
and non-residents, regardless of allocation to domestic and foreign
claims, in relation to the size of the population. As such, it is an
indicator of the economic productivity of a nation. It differs
from gross domestic product (GDP) by further adjusting for income
received from abroad for labour and capital by residents, for
similar payments to non-residents, and by incorporating various
technical adjustments including those related to exchange rate
changes over time. This measure also takes into account the differing
purchasing power of currencies by including purchasing
power parity (PPP) adjustments of "real GNP". Some PPP figures are
based on regression models; others are extrapolated from the
latest International Comparison Programme benchmark estimates;
see original source for details.
Central government expenditures on education and health.
Source: The World Bank. 2002. World Development Indicators 2002.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. These indicators reflect the
priority afforded to education and health sectors by a country
through the government expenditures dedicated to them. They
are not sensitive to differences in allocations within sectors, e.g.,
primary education or health services in relation to other levels,
which vary considerably. Direct comparability is complicated by the
different administrative and budgetary responsibilities allocated
to central governments in relation to local governments, and to the
varying roles of the private and public sectors. Reported estimates
are presented as shares of GDP per capita (for education) or total
GDP (for health). Great caution is also advised about cross-country
comparisons because of varying costs of inputs in different settings
and sectors. Data refer to the most recent estimates 1997-1999.
External assistance for population. Source: UNFPA. 2001.
Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 1999. New York:
UNFPA. This figure provides the amount of external assistance
expended in 1999 for population activities in each country. External
funds are disbursed through multilateral and bilateral assistance
agencies and by non-governmental organizations. Donor countries
are indicated by their contributions being placed in parentheses.
Future editions of this report will use other indicators to provide a
better basis for comparing and evaluating resource flows in support
of population and reproductive health programmes from various
national and international sources. Regional totals include both
country-level projects and regional activities (not otherwise reported
in the table).
Under-5 mortality. Source: United Nations Population Division,
special tabulation based on United Nations. 2001. World Population
Prospects: The 2000 Revision. New York: United Nations. This indicator
relates to the incidence of mortality to infants and young
children. It reflects, therefore, the impact of diseases and other
causes of death on infants, toddlers and young children. More standard
demographic measures are infant mortality and mortality
rates for 1 to 4 years of age, which reflect differing causes of and
frequency of mortality in these ages. The measure is more sensitive
than infant mortality to the burden of childhood diseases, including
those preventable by improved nutrition and by immunization
programmes. Under-5 mortality is here expressed as deaths to children
under 5 per 1,000 live births in a given year. The estimate
refers to the period 2000-2005.
Per capita energy consumption. Source: The World Bank. 2002.
World Development Indicators 2002. Washington, D.C.: The World
Bank. This indicator reflects annual consumption of commercial
primary energy (coal, lignite, petroleum, natural gas and hydro,
nuclear and geothermal electricity) in kilograms of oil equivalent
per capita. It reflects the level of industrial development, the
structure of the economy and patterns of consumption. Changes
over time can reflect changes in the level and balance of various
economic activities and changes in the efficiency of energy
use (including decreases or increases in wasteful consumption).
Data are for 1999.
Access to safe water. Source: WHO/UNICEF. 2001. Global Water
Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (available on the
UNICEF website). This indicator reports the percentage of the
population with access to an adequate amount of safe drinking water
located within a convenient distance from the user's dwelling.
The italicized words use country-level definitions. It is related to
exposure to health risks, including those resulting from improper
sanitation. Data are estimates for the year 2000.