The State of World Population 2001 The State of World Population 2001
Notes

United Nations Population Fund

Chapter 1

  1. Polemics against such simplistic positions are still being written. See, for example: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1999. The State of the World's Forests. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; and Templeton, Scott R., and Sara J. Scherr. 1999. "Effects of Demographic and Related Microeconomic Change on Land Quality in Hills and Mountains of Developing Countries." World Development 27(6): 903-918.
  2. UNFPA. 1999. The State of World Population 1999: 6 Billion: A Time for Choices. New York: UNFPA; and UNFPA. 2000. The State of World Population 2001: Lives Together, Worlds Apart. New York: UNFPA.
  3. Cincotta, R.P., and R. Engelman. 2000. Nature's Place: Human Population and the Future of Biological Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  4. United Nations. 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision: Highlights. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York: United Nations.
  5. Replacement-level fertility is the level necessary to ensure that the population replaces itself over the longrun. For most populations, replacement is ensured with a fertility of 2.1 children per woman.
  6. Most notably in the principles and orientation of Agenda 21 (United Nations. 1993. Earth Summit Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme for Sustainable Development. New York: Division for Sustainable Development, United Nations.); its antecedents in the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our Common Future: The Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.); and its influence in later international conference documents.
  7. Mackeen, Dawn. 6 May 2001. "The Global Medicine Cabinet." The New York Times Magazine.
  8. Coe, Michael T., and Jonathan A. Foley. 2001. "Human and Natural Impacts on the Water Resources of the Lake Chad Basin." Journal of Geophysical Research 106(D4): 3349.
  9. United Nations Environment Programme. (Forthcoming.) Demise of an Ecosystem: Disappearance of the Mesopotamian Marshlands. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme.
  10. Ezzell, Carol. 2001 "The Himba and the Dam." Scientific American 284(6): 80-89.
  11. Onishi, Norimitsu. 8 January 2001. "Timia Journal: A Nomad Deserts the Desert: His Garden Blooms." The New York Times.

Chapter 2

  1. There are an estimated 9-14 thousand cubic kilometres of fresh water available each year in the form of run-off (e.g., in streams and rivers) and water returned to underground aquifers (Falkenmark, M. 1994. "Population, Environment and Development: A Water Perspective." In: Population, Environment and Development: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development, New York, New York, 20-24 January 1992, pp. 99-116, by the United Nations. 1994. New York: United Nations; and Cohen, Joel E. 1996. How Many People Can the Earth Support? New York: W. W. Norton and Company.). A quantity of fresh water falls as rain that is contributed to this total. However, the direct capture of rainfall depends on where it occurs and the technologies available for its use.
  2. Water resources per capita in more developed regions are 10,852 cubic metres, compared to 6,196 and 7,065 in less developed regions and least developed countries, respectively. See: United Nations. 2001. Population, Environment and Development 2001. Wallchart. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  3. Postel, Sandra. 2001. "Growing More Food with Less Water." Scientific American 284(2): 46.
  4. Falkenmark 1994.
  5. Soil quality, agricultural efficiency and land pattern use may lead to food purchases ("virtual water" imports) where these can be afforded. This also poses allocation decisions among alternate uses of scarce funds.
  6. Gardner-Outlaw, Tom, and Robert Engleman. 1997. Sustaining Water, Easing Scarcity: A Second Update: Revised Data for the Population Action International Report: Sustaining Water: Population and the Future of Renewable Water Supplies. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  7. "Access to Safe Water: Fundamental Human Need, Basic Human Right, Says Secretary-General in Message on World Water Day." 12 March 2001. United Nations press release (SG/SM/7738).
  8. See: Gleick, Peter. 1996. "Basic Water Requirements for Human Activities: Meeting Basic Needs." Water International 21: 83-92; and Gleick, Peter. 1999. "The Human Right to Water." Water Policy 1(5): 487-503. This measure refers to domestic consumption amounts, unlike the water system flow measures discussed above.
  9. An example is water mining in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
  10. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2000. Global Issues and Sustainability: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving Approach. Draft publication of the UNESCO Global-problematique Education Network Initiative (GENIe), supported in part by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Geneva: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
  11. World Health Organization. 2001. Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  12. Different animals have different grain requirements (cattle having among the highest). The range of water inputs for different animals and other details of dietary impacts of food consumption are reviewed in: Cohen 1996.
  13. Nichiporuk, Brian. 2000. Security Dynamics of Demographic Factors. Population Matters. A RAND Program of Policy-Relevant Research Communication. Santa Monica, California: Arroyo Center, Army Research Division, RAND Corporation; and Central Intelligence Agency. 2001. Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue about the Future with Nongovernment Experts. Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency. Web site: www.cia.gov/cia/publications/globaltrends2015/index.html).
  14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1999. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996a. Food for All. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  16. Brown, L., G. Gardner, and B. Halweil. 1999. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton and Company; Brown, L., and J. Mitchell. 1997. The Agricultural Link: How Environmental Deterioration could Disrupt Economic Progress. Worldwatch Paper. No. 136. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute; Ehrlich, A. 1994. "Building a Sustainable Food System." In: The World at the Crossroads: Towards a Sustainable, Equitable and Livable World, edited by P. Smith. London: Earthscan Publications; and International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). 1995. A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment: The Vision, Challenge and Recommended Action. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996b. FAO Production Yearbook 1995. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  18. Ibid.; and UNFPA. 1997. Population and Sustainable Development: Five Years After Rio. New York: UNFPA.
  19. Brown and Mitchell 1997.
  20. UNFPA 1997.
  21. Pinstrup-Andersen, P., R. Pandya-Lorch and M. Rosegrant. 1999. World Food Prospects: Critical Issues for the Early Twenty-first Century. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.
  22. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1995. Dimensions of Need: An Atlas of Food and Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1996a.
  23. Fort, Matthew. 25 February 2001. "Paying the Price for Cheaper Food." Guardian Unlimited (London). Web site: www.guardian.co.uk
  24. Carroll, Rory. 19 February 1999. "Gene Crops could Spell Extinction for Birds." Guardian (London).
  25. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1996a; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1999.
  26. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1999.
  27. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996a.
  28. International Food Policy Research Institute 1995.
  29. Doos, B. 1994. "Environmental Degradation, Global Food Production and Risk for Large-scale Migration." Ambio 23(3): 124-130; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  30. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995; and Repetto, R. 1996. "The ‘Second India' Revisited: Population Growth, Poverty and the Environment over Two Decades." In: Population, Environment, and Development, edited by R. K. Pachauri and Lubina F. Qureshy. 1997. New Delhi: Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI).
  31. Bojo, J. 1991. "Economics and Land Degradation." Ambio 20(2): 75-79; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  32. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  33. Brown and Mitchell 1997.
  34. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  35. Abramovitz, J. 1996. Imperiled Waters, Impoverished Future: The Decline of Freshwater Ecosystems. Worldwatch Paper. No. 128. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
  36. Reuters World Report. 9 August 2000. "Six Killed as Chinese Officials Fight over Water." London: Reuters News Service.
  37. Pimentel, D., et al. 1997. "Water Resources: Agriculture, the Environment and Society." Bioscience 46(2): 97-105.
  38. Postel, S. 1999. Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last? New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
  39. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  40. Ibid.; and Postel, S. 1997. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
  41. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  42. Postel 1997.
  43. Brown and Mitchell 1997.
  44. "Vietnam: Food Security a Strategic Issue." 7 November 1998. The Saigon Times Magazine. 
  45. The World Bank. 1996. Biodiversity and Agriculture Intensification. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1996a.
  46. Ponting, C. 1991. A Green History of the World. New York: Penguin Books.
  47. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995.
  48. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1993. Harvesting Nature's Diversity, pp. 7-25. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  49. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). 1996. Biodiversity: A Key to Food Security, pp. 5-18. Aleppo, Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas.
  50. Engelman, R., et al. 2000. People in the Balance: Population and Natural Resources at the Turn of the Millennium. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  51. Source for this section: Pinstrup-Andersen, Pandya-Lorch, and Rosegrant 1999.
  52. Cohen 1996.
  53. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1996a.
  54. Mydans, S. 6 April 1997. "Scientists Developing Super Rice to Feed Asia." The New York Times; and Pearce, F. 23 November 1996. "To Feed the World, Talk to the Farmers." New Scientist: 6-7.
  55. Grier, P. 13 July 1994. "Hardier Corn can Feed More Hungry People." Christian Science Monitor, p. 8.
  56. Pearce, F. 9 November 1996. "Crop Gurus Sow Some Seeds of Hope." New Scientist: 6.
  57. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1995; Postel 1999; and Pimentel, et al. 1997.
  58. Marland, G., T. A. Boden, and R. J. Andres. 2000. "Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emissions." In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Web site: cdiac.esd.ornl.gov.
  59. Meyerson, F. A. B. 2001a. "Population and Climate Change Policy." In: Climate Change Policy: A Survey, edited by S. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and J. Niles. (Forthcoming.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
  60. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2001. Summary for Policymakers: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  61. See Chapter 7 of: Houghton, J. T., et al. (eds.). 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (The 2001 updated assessment will contain a slightly lower estimate.)
  62. Henderson-Sellers, A., et al. 1998. "Tropical Cyclones and Global Climate Change: A Post-IPCC Assessment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79: 19-38; and Mahlman, J. D. 1997. "Uncertainties in Projections of Human-caused Climate Warming." Science 278: 1416-1417.
  63. Rosenzweig, C., and D. Hillel. 1998. Climate Change and the Global Harvest: The Potential Impacts of the Greenhouse Effect on Agriculture. New York: Oxford University Press.
  64. Mendelsohn, R., and J. R. Neumann (eds.). 1999. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  65. Meyerson 2001a.
  66. Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research. 1998. Climate Change and Its Impacts. London: The United Kingdom Meteorological Office and Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.
  67. Epstein, P. R., et al. 1998. "Biological and Physical Signs of Climate Change: Focus on Mosquito-Borne Diseases." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 79: 409-417.
  68. In the view of many ecologists, current global population and consumption patterns are already unsustainable in terms of maintaining biodiversity and the habitat that supports it. See, e.g.: Meffe, G. K., A. H. Ehrlich, and D. Ehrenfeld. 1993. "Human Population Control: The Missing Agenda." Conservation Biology 7: 1-3; and Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. See also: Root, T. L., and S. H. Schneider. 1995. "Ecology and Climate: Research Strategies and Implications." Science 269: 331-341.
  69. For discussion of the history and potential for environmental refugees, see: Ramlogan, R. 1996. "Environmental Refugees: A Review." Environmental Conservation 23: 81-88; and Myers, N. 1993. "Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World." Bioscience 43(11): 752-761.
  70. Meyerson 2001a.
  71. Meyerson, F. A. B. 1998a. "Population, Carbon Emissions, and Global Warming: The Forgotten Relationship at Kyoto." Population and Development Review 24(1): 115-130; and Marland, Boden, and Anders 2000.
  72. See: Dietz, T., and E. A. Rosa. 1997. "Effects of Population and Affluence on CO2 Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94: 175-179. See also Chapter 3 of: O'Neill, B. C., F. L. MacKellar, and W. Lutz. 2000. Population and Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  73. The formula used in the Kyoto Protocol is a measurement of the average national emission for the years 2008-2012. See: United Nations. 1998. Report of the Conference of the Parties on Its Third Session, Held at Kyoto from 1 to 11 December 1997: Addendum: Part Two: Action Taken by the Conference of the Parties at Its Third Session (FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1). New York: United Nations. The year 2010 will be used as the reference year here, to facilitate analysis of demographically related issues.
  74. United Nations 1997.
  75. Meyerson 2001a.
  76. Meyerson, F. 10 November 1997. "Pollution and Our People Problem." The Washington Post
  77. Source for this section: United Nations. 2001. World Population Prospects: The 2000 Revision: Highlights. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York: United Nations.
  78. Meyerson 1998a; and Marland, Boden, and Andres 2000.
  79. Marland, Boden, and Andres 2000.
  80. See Chapter 2 of: O'Neill, MacKellar, and Lutz 2000.
  81. See: O'Neill, MacKellar, and Lutz 2000; and Meyerson, F. A. B. 2001b. "Replacement Migration: A Questionable Tactic for Delaying the Inevitable Effects of Fertility Transition." Population and Environment 22: 401-409. Note also that urbanization is an additional factor related to both household size and ageing that affects emissions. The urban proportion of the world's population increased from 30 per cent in 1950 to about 50 per cent in 2000 and is projected to exceed 60 per cent by 2030. See: United Nations. 1999. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1999 Revision. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. The effect on emissions is complex, because urbanization tends to increase per capita income, and economies and diseconomies of scale in, e.g., energy use, change as city size increases. For a brief discussion, see Chapter 2 of: O'Neill, MacKellar, and Lutz 2000.
  82. Engelman, R. 1998. Profiles in Carbon: An Update on Population, Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International. Disparities among individual countries are even greater. For instance, the average person in the United States contributed 5.3 metric tons of fossil fuel carbon emissions to the atmosphere in 1995, more than 16,000 times as much as the average Somali, and almost five times as much as the average Mexican. Within individual countries, unequal wealth distribution may also mean that a small percentage of the population may be responsible for a large share of greenhouse gas emissions.
  83. Between 1990 and 2000, the United States population increased by 32.7 million, the greatest addition in any decade in U.S. history. See: United States Census Bureau. 2000. First Census 2000 Results: Resident Population and Apportionment Counts. Washington, D.C.: United.States Census Bureau. Web site: www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html.
  84. Meyerson, F. A. B. 1998b. "Toward a Per Capita-based Climate Treaty: Reply." Population and Development Review 24(4): 804-810.
  85. Vitousek, P. M., et al. 1997. "Human Domination of the Earth's Ecosystems." Science 277: 494-499.
  86. Bryant, D., et al. 1997. The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.
  87. Gardner-Outlaw, T., and R. Engelman. 1999. Forest Futures: Population, Consumption and Wood Resources. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  88. Wilson 1992; and Myers, N., et al. 2000. "Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities." Nature 403: 853-858.
  89. Terborgh, J. 1999. Requiem for Nature. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
  90. Sala, O. E., et al. 2000. "Global Biodiversity Scenarios for the Year 2100." Science 287: 1770-1774; Mooney, H. A., et al. 1995. "Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Basic Principles." In: Global Biodiversity Assessment, pp. 275-325, edited by V. H. Heywood and R. T. Watson. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme and Cambridge University Press; Diamond, J. M. 1985. "A Discipline with a Time Limit." Nature 317: 111-112; and Diamond, J. M. 1989. "The Present, Past and Future of Human-caused Extinction." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 325: 469-477.
  91. United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1997. United Nations List of Protected Areas. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre.
  92. Western, D., and R. W. Wright (eds.). 1994. Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-Based Conservation. Washington, D.C.: Island Press; and Terborgh 1999.
  93. Bruner, A. G., et al. 2001. "Effectiveness of Parks in Protecting Tropical Biodiversity." Science 291: 125-128.
  94. Oates, J. F. 1999. Myth and Reality in the Rain Forest: How Conservation Strategies are Failing in West Africa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; Redford, K. H. 1992. "The Empty Forest." Bioscience 42: 412-422; Terborgh 1999; Brandon, K., K. H. Redford, and S. E. Sanderson (eds.). 1998. Parks in Peril: People, Politics, and Protected Areas. Washington, D.C.: Island Press; Kramer, R., C. van Schaik, and J. Johnson (eds.). 1997. Last Stand: Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. New York: Oxford University Press; and Bowles, I. A., et al. 2000. "Logging and Tropical Conservation." Science 280: 1899.
  95. Meyerson, F. A. B. 1997. "Potential Threats to the Selva Maya Biosphere Reserves: Demographic and Land Use Data and Projections 1950-2050." In: Maya Forest Biodiversity Workshop: Inventorying and Monitoring: Report on the Maya Forest Biodiversity Monitoring Workshop: Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Flores, El Petén, Guatemala, October 1997, pp 26-31, edited by O. Herrera-MacBryde. 1998. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, U.S. MAB/TED/WCS/CCB-Stanford/CECON; Meyerson, F. A. B. 2000. "Human Population Growth, Deforestation, and Protected Areas Management: Re-thinking Conservation and Demographic Policy for the Maya Biosphere Reserve in Guatemala." Ph.D. thesis. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University.
  96. Cincotta, R. P., and R. Engelman. 2000. Nature's Place: Human Population and the Future of Biological Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International; and Gardner-Outlaw and Engelman 1999.
  97. Meyerson 2000.
  98. Ibid.; and Fearnside, P. M. 1997. "Human Carrying Capacity Estimation in Brazilian Amazonis as a Basis for Sustainable Development." Environmental Conservation 24: 271-282.
  99. Meyerson 2000.
  100. United Nations Environment Programme. 2000. Global Environment Outlook 2000. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Environment Programme. Web site: www.unep.org/Geo2000/.
  101. Ibid.
  102. The World Conservation Union (IUCN). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, Switzerland: Species Survival Commission, The World Conservation Union. Web site: www.redlist.org.
  103. United Nations Environment Programme 2000.
  104. Sources: United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme, and World Resources Institute. 2000. World Resources 2000-2001: People and Ecosystems: The Fraying Web of Life. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute; Hinrichsen, Don, and Bryant Robey. 2000. "Population and the Environment: The Global Challenge." Population Reports. Series M. No. 15. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health; and United Nations Environment Programme 2000.
  105. United Nations Environment Programme 2000.
  106. The Arabian Peninsula includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. The Mashriq includes Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria and the Occupied Palestinian Territory (West Bank and Gaza).

Chapter 3

  1. See: Marguette, Catherine, and Richard Bilsborrow. 1997. "Population and Environment Relationships in Developing Countries: A Select Review of Approaches and Methods." In: The Population, Environment, Security Equation, by B. Baudot and W. Moomaw. 1997. New York: Macmillan; and McNicoll, Geoffrey. 2000. "Managing Population-Environment Systems: Problems of Institutional Design." Population Council Policy Research Division Working Paper. No. 139. New York: The Population Council.
  2. The formula was developed in the early 1970s as part of a debate over the contribution of population to air pollution in the United States. It reached explicit mathematical formulation in: Ehrlich, P. R., and J. Holdren. 1971. "Impact of Population Growth." Science 171: 1212-1217.
  3. Some widely distributed examples include: Hinrichsen, Don, and Bryant Robey. 2000. "Population and the Environment: The Global Challenge." Population Reports. Series M. No. 15. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health; Harrison, P. 1992. The Third Revolution: Environment, Population and a Sustainable World. London: I.D. Tauris and Company in association with Penguin Books; and UNFPA. 1992. The State of World Population 1992: A World in Balance. New York: UNFPA.
  4. Harrison 1992; and Shaw, R. P. 1993. Review of Harrison 1992. Population and Development Review 12(1): 189-192.
  5. Meyerson, F. A. B. 1998a. "Population, Carbon Emissions, and Global Warming: The Forgotten Relationship at Kyoto." Population and Development Review 24(1): 115-130; Meyerson, F. A. B. 1998b. "Toward a Per Capita-based Climate Treaty: Reply." Population and Development Review 24(4): 804-810; and Meyerson, F. A. B. 2001a. "Population and Climate Change Policy." In: Climate Change Policy: A Survey, edited by S. Schneider, A. Rosencranz, and J. Niles. (Forthcoming.) Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
  6. Regional analyses were produced by: O' Neill, B. C. 1996. "Greenhouse Gases: Timescales, Response Functions, and the Role of Population Growth in Future Emissions." Ph.D. dissertation. New York: Earth Systems Group, Department of Applied Science, New York University.
  7. The World Bank. 2000. World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty. New York: Oxford University Press.
  8. Ibid.
  9. United Nations Development Programme. 1998. Human Development Report 1998: Consumption for Human Development. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  10. For example, Reed, David, and Herman Rosa. 1999. Economic Reforms, Globalization, Poverty and the Environment. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Web site: www.undp.org/seed/pei/publication/economic.html
  11. The World Bank 2000.
  12. Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf.
  13. These pollutants include small soot particles, carbon monoxide, benzene and formaldehyde (United Nations Development Programme. 1997. Energy After Rio: Prospects and Challenges. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Cited in "Energy as it Relates to Poverty Alleviation and Environmental Protection," by Sudhir Chella Rajan and Ellen Morris. 1999. Poverty and Environment Initiative Publication Series. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Web site: www.undp.org/seed/pei/publication/energy.PDF.)
  14. Smith, K. R. 1990. "Health Effects in Developing Countries." In: J. Pasztor, Janos, and L. Kristoferson (eds.). Bioenergy and the Environment. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
  15. United Nations Development Programme 1997.
  16. Haile, F. 1991. Women Fuelwood Carriers in Addis Ababa and the Peri-Urban Forest. Geneva: International Labour Organization. Cited in: Rajan and Morris 1999.
  17. A study in Pakistan showed that on average the poorest fifth of households spent over 3 hours per week collecting wood or dung. (Pakistan Living Standards Measurement Survey, 1991. Cited in Rajan and Morris 1999.) In even drier and more over-exploited settings, such as the Horn of Africa, the time is considerably longer. For families living in poverty, additional effort is required for other environmental services like fetching water. Most of this burden is borne by women and children.
  18. This was the central thesis of Boserup's seminal analysis. Her work has been reprinted in: Boserup, Ester. 1990. Economic and Demographic Relationships in Development: Essays Selected and Introduced by T. Paul Schultz. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  19. The work of Sara J. Scherr provides numerous examples. This analyst writes to counter a facile imputation of a negative impact to population growth, but provides valuable insights into the delicate conditions that must be met to ensure more successful outcomes. See: Scherr, Sara J. 1999. "Poverty-Environment Interactions in Agriculture: Key Factors and Policy Implications." Paper prepared for the United Nations Development Programme and the European Commission Expert Workshop on Poverty and the Environment, Brussels, Belgium, 20-21 January 1999. New York: United Nations Development Programme; Scherr, Sara J. 2000. "A Downward Spiral: Research Evidence on the Relationship between Poverty and Natural Resource Degradation." Food Policy 25: 479-498; and Templeton, Scott R., and Sara J. Scherr. 1999 "Effects of Demographic and Related Microeconomic Change on Land Quality in Hills and Mountains of Developing Countries." World Development 27(6): 903-918. See also: Leach, Melissa, and James Fairhead. 2000. "Challenging Neo-Malthusian Deforestation Analyses in West Africa's Dynamic Forest Landscapes." Population and Development Review 26(1): 17-43.
  20. Rosenzweig, Mark. 2000. "Study of the Demographic Effects of the Green Revolution in India." Paper presented at the RAND Workshop on Population, Health and the Environment, Santa Monica, California, 11-13 January 2001; and Rosenzweig, Mark. 2001. "Population Growth, Economic Change and Forest Degradation in India." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., 29 March 2001.
  21. See: Lee, Ronald D. 1991. "Comment: The Second Tragedy of the Commons." In: Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options. A Supplement to Vol. 16: 1990: Population and Development Review, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. New York: The Population Council.
  22. O'Meara, M. 1999. Reinventing Cities for People and the Planet. Washington, D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.
  23. Kolankiewicz, Leon, and Roy Beck. 2001. Weighing Sprawl Factors in Large U.S. Cities. Arlington, Virginia.: NumbersUSA.
  24. See: United Nations. 2001. World Population Monitoring 2001: Population, Environment and Development (EAS/P/WP.164), pp. 95f. Draft. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  25. This section relies on analyses in: Brockerhoff, Martin P. 2000. "An Urbanizing World." Population Bulletin 55(3). Washington, D.C.: The Population Reference Bureau.
  26. United Nations Development Programme 1998.
  27. Ibid.; and Brown, L., et al. 2001. State of the World 2001. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton.
  28. United Nations Development Programme 1998.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Brown, L., G. Gardner, and B. Halweil. 1999. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
  31. United Nations Development Programme 1998.
  32. This point was originally noted for earlier (and lower) U.S. population projections by: Brown, Gardner, and Halweil 1999.
  33. World Resources Institute. 1999. World Resources 1998-1999. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.
  34. Abramovitz, Janet N., et al. 2000. Vital Signs 2000: The Environmental Trends that are Shaping Our Future. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton; and Brown, et al. 2001.
  35. Daly, Herman E. 1971. "Toward a Stationary State Economy." In: Patient Earth, edited by John Harte and Robert Socolow. 1971. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
  36. The ecological footprint approach was pioneered by Mathis Wackernagel and colleagues. See: Wackernagel, Mathis, and William Rees. 1996. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, British Columbia: New Society Publishers. Further references and details are in: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Redefining Progress, Center for Sustainability Studies, and Norwegian School of Management. 2000. Living Planet Report 2000. Gland, Switzerland: World Wide Fund for Nature.
  37. United Nations Development Programme 1998.
  38. Ibid.
  39. As with other indicators that combine diverse components, technical details (such as how the elements are weighted) can affect aggregate conclusions. The components identify particular vulnerabilities and strengths more directly.
  40. This section relies on: Myers, N. 1993. "Environmental Refugees in a Globally Warmed World." Bioscience 43(11): 752-761; and Lonergan, Steve. 1998. "The Role of Environmental Degradation in Population Displacement." Environmental Change and Security Project Report, no. 4.: 5-15. Washington, D.C.: The Woodrow Wilson Center.

Chapter 4

  1. Sen, Amartya. 2000. "Population and Gender Equity." The Nation (July 24/31): 16-18.
  2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2000. "Gender and Food Security: Division of Labour." Fact sheet 6. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Web site: www.fao.org/Gender/en/lab-e.htm.
  3. United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). 2000. UNIFEM Annual Report 1999. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women.
  4. Women's Environment and Development Organization (WEDO). 1999. Rights, Risks and Reforms: A 50-Country Survey Assessing Government Actions Five Years After the International Conference on Population and Development. New York: Women's Environment and Development Organization.
  5. Tique, César, and Joana Mahumane. 2000. "Gender Assessment of Mozambique Marine Ecoregion." Draft prepared for the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). Maputo, Mozambique: World Wide Fund for Nature.
  6. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations 2000. Web site: www.fao.org/Gender/en/labb2-e.htm.
  7. Buckingham-Hatfield, Susan. 2000. Gender and Environment. London: Routledge.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Women's Environment and Development Organization 1999.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2000. Web site: www.fao.org/Gender/en/labb2-e.htm.
  12. Buckingham-Hatfield 2000.
  13. Van Zuydman, Jacques. 2001. Statement of Jacques Van Zuydman, South African Representative to the 34th Session of the Commission on Population and Development, United Nations, New York, New York, 2 April 2001.
  14. Khandker, Shahidur R., and Udry, Christopher. 1997. Gender, Property Rights, and Resource Management in Ghana. World Bank Research Program. (Project reference. no. 681-47.) Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  15. Koziell, S. Poklewski. 1999. "Two Women of the Soil." Resurgence, no. 195. Quoted in Buckingham-Hatfield 2000.
  16. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). 2001. Population and Conservation Realities and Responses in Madagascar's Spiny Forest Ecoregion: The WWF Experience. Washington, D.C.: World Wide Fund for Nature.
  17. UNFPA, United Nations Environment Programme, and World Conservation Union (IUCN). 1999. Report of the International Workshop on Population-Poverty-Environment Linkages: Key Results and Policy Actions, Gland, Switzerland, 23-25 September 1998. Gland, Switzerland, New York and Geneva: UNFPA and World Conservation Union.
  18. See: Women's Environment and Development Organization 1999; and Buckingham-Hatfield 2000.
  19. Van Zuydman 2001.
  20. Davis, Dona. 2000. "Gendered Cultures of Conflict and Discontent: Living ‘the Crisis' in a Newfoundland Community." Women's Studies International Forum 23(3): 343-353.
  21. Onishi, Norimitsu. 13 February 2001. "In Sahara Salt Mine, Life's Not Too Grim." The New York Times, p. A4.
  22. Cuomo, Kerry Kennedy. 2001. Speak Truth to Power: Human Rights Defenders Who Are Changing Our World. New York: Crown Publishers/Random House.

Chapter 5

  1. United Nations. 2001. World Population Monitoring 2001: Population, Environment and Development (ESA/P/WP.164). Draft. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  2. World Health Organization. 1997. Health and Environment in Sustainable Development: Five Years after the Earth Summit. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  3. Detailed references to localized outbreaks in more developed countries and conditions in transition states can be found in: United Nations 2001.
  4. See: Bilsborrow, Richard E. 1998. "Population, Development and the Environment in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon: Policy Issues." Draft. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  5. Roodman, David Malin. 1998. The Natural Wealth of Nations: Harnessing the Market for Environmenal Protection and Economic Strength. The Worldwatch Environmental Alert Series. New York: W. W. Norton and Company. Cited in: "Population and the Environment: The Global Challenge," by Don Hinrichsen and Bryant Robey. 2000. Population Reports. Series M. No. 15. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health.
  6. United Nations 2001, p. 99.
  7. Ibid.
  8. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2000. "Global Issues and Sustainability: Critical Thinking/Problem Solving Approach: UNESCO Global-problematique Education Network Initiative (GENIe)." Draft. Geneva: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
  9. For an overview of health effects on women and children, see: Gopalan, H. N. B., and Sumeet Saksena (eds.). 1999. Domestic Environment and Health of Women and Children. Supported by the United Nations Environmental Programme and Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). Delhi: Replika Press.
  10. United Nations Development Programme. 1998. Human Development Report 1998: Consumption for Human Development. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Cited in: Hinrichsen and Robey 2000, p. 7.
  11. This section relies on: Hinrichsen and Robey 2000, p. 7.
  12. For a detailed discussion, see: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). 2000. World Disasters Report: Focus on Public Health, Chapter 5. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
  13. See: United Nations Children's Fund. 2001. State of the World's Children 2001. New York: United Nations Children's Fund.
  14. Colborn, Theo, Diane Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers. 1997. Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival: A Scientific Detective Story. New York: Plume Books; Bell, E. M., I. Hertz-Picciotto, and J. J. Beaumont. 2001. "A Case-Control Study of Pesticides and Fetal Death due to Congenital Anomalies." Epidemiology 12: 148-156; Solomon, Gina M., and Ted Schettler. 2000. "Environment and Health: 6: Endocrine Disruption and Potential Human Health Implications." Canadian Medical Association Journal 163(11): 1471-1476; Herman-Giddens, M. E., et al. 1997. "Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network." Pediatrics 99: 505-512; and Boyce, N. 1997. "Growing Up too Soon." New Scientist (August 2, 1997): 5.
  15. See: "Global Climate Change: Beyond Sunburn." 1994. Environmental Health Perspectives 102(5): 440-443.
  16. See: Kovats, R. Sari, et al. 2000. Climate Change and Human Health: Impact and Adaptation (WHO/SDE/OEH/00.4). Geneva: World Health Organization.
  17. Balk, Deborah, et al. 2001. "Disease Climate and Land Use Change in Kenya." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Washington, D.C., 29-31 March 2001.
  18. O'Neill, Brian, F. L. MacKellar, and Wolfgang Lutz. 2000. Population and Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. Martine, George, and Jose Miguel Guzman. 2000. "Population, Poverty and Vulnerability: Mitigating the Effects of Natural Disasters." Unpublished paper of the Mexico City UNFPA Country Support Team.

Chapter 6

  1. Barboza, Nathalie. 2000. "Educating for a Sustainable Future: Africa in Action." Prospects 30(1): 71-85. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
  2. Gibb-Vogel, Carolyn, and Robert Engelman. 1999. Forging the Link: Emerging Accounts of Population and Environment Work in Communities. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International.
  3. Engelman, Robert. 1998. Plan and Conserve: A Source Book on Linking Population and Environmental Services in Communities. Washington, D.C.: Population Action International; and Gibb-Vogel and Engelman 1999.
  4. World Wildlife Fund–U.S. 2001. Disappearing Landscapes: The Population/Environment Connection. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Strategies Unit, Center for Conservation Innovation, World Wildlife Fund–U.S.
  5. Goodall, Jane, with Philip Berman. 1999. Reason for Hope: A Spiritual Journey. New York: Warner Books. The Jane Goodall Institute web site: www.janegoodall.org/inst/inst_tacare_hist.html; and Engelman 1998.
  6. Gibb-Vogel and Engelman 1999.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Conservation International. 2000. Report to the Summit Foundation. Washington, D.C.: Conservation International; Williams, John, Population-Environment Fellow, Conservation International. 2001. Personal communication; and Gibb-Vogel and Engleman 1999.
  9. Schlangen, Rhonda. 1999. "Making the Connection: The Cairo ICPD and the Environment." Population and Habitat Update 11(2): 6-7. Washington, D.C.: Population and Habitat Campaign, National Audubon Society; and Engelman 1998.
  10. Engelman 1998.
  11. World Wildlife Fund–U.S. 2001.
  12. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo: 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 3.14. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.
  13. Currently estimated at over 100 million. This number could increase as the largest ever cohort of adolescents, 1.1 billion strong, ages into the peak reproductive years—many in countries with challenged health infrastructures, low public sector expenditures on health and under-developed markets to meet increasing demand.
  14. Lee, Ronald D. 1991. "Comment: The Second Tragedy of the Commons." In: Resources, Environment, and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options. A Supplement to Vol. 16: 1990: Population and Development Review, edited by Kingsley Davis and Mikhail S. Bernstam. 1991. New York: The Population Council; Lee, R. D. and T. Miller. 1991. "Population Growth, Externalities to Childbearing, and Fertility Policy in Developing Countries." Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1990, pp. 275-304. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and Willis, R. J. 1987. "Externalities and Population." In: Population Growth and Economic Development: Issues and Evidence, edited by R. D. Lee and D. G. Johnson. 1987. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
  15. Birdsall, N. 1994. "Another Look at Population and Global Warming." In:. Population, Environment and Development: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development, New York, New York, 20-24 January 1992, pp. 39-54. New York: United Nations; Cline, W. R. 1992. The Economics of Global Warming. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics; Wexler, L. 1996. "The Greenhouse Externality to Childbearing." Unpublished manuscript; Nordhaus, W. D., and J. Boyer. 1998. "What are the External Costs of More Rapid Population Growth? Theoretical Issues and Empirical Estimates." Paper presented at the 150th Anniversary Meetings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 15 February 1998. Revised 25 February 1998; and O'Neill, B. C., and L. Wexler. 2000. "The Greenhouse Externality to Childbearing: A Sensitivity Analysis." Climatic Change 47: 283-324.
  16. Nordhaus and Boyer 1998.
  17. O'Neill and Wexler 2000.
  18. Albritton, Daniel L., et al. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis: Summary for Policymakers: A Report of Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Web site: www.ipcc.ch; and Hourcade, J. C. 1996. "Estimating the Costs of Mitigating Greenhouse Gases." In: Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change, pp. 263-296, edited by J. P. Bruce, H. Lee, and E. F. Haites. 1996. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  19. Summers, L. H. 1994. Investing in All the People: Educating Women in Developing Countries. Economic Development Institute (EDI) Seminar Paper. No. 45. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  20. Pritchett, Lant H. 1994. "Desired Fertility and the Impact of Population Policies." Population and Development Review 20(1): 1-55.
  21. Actions to reduce maternal, infant and child mortality and to stop the HIV/AIDS pandemic are central components of comprehensive reproductive health, notwithstanding their immediate contribution to population growth.
  22. Yang, C., and S. Schneider. 1998. "Global Carbon Dioxide Emission Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 3(4): 805-819; and O'Neill, B. C., F. L. MacKellar, and W. Lutz. 2000. Population and Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  23. Dietz, T., and E. A. Rosa. 1997. "Effects of Population and Affluence on CO2 Emissions." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94, pp. 175-179.
  24. O'Neill, MacKellar, and Lutz 2000.
  25. Ibid.
  26. MacKellar, F. L. 2000. "The Predicament of Population Aging: A Review Essay." Population and Development Review 26(2): 365-397.
  27. Jackson, W. A. 1998. The Political Economy of Population Aging. Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Edward Elgar.
  28. Bloom, D. E., and J. G. Williamson. 1998. "Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia." World Bank Economic Review 12: 419-455.
  29. Higgins, Matthew, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 1997. "Age Structure Dynamics in Asia and Dependence on Foreign Capital." Population and Development Review 23(2): 261-293.
  30. Bloom and Williamson 1998.
  31. Bloom and Williamson (1998) estimated potential changes in economic growth rates due to age structure effects over the period 1990-2025 for several world regions. Using the World Bank's outlook for economic growth rates over the next decade (The World Bank. 2001. Global Economic Prospects and the Developing Countries 2001. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.) as an illustrative baseline through 2025, their results can be translated into impacts on the level of gross domestic product in 2025.
  32. O'Neill, B. C. 2000. "Cairo and Climate Change: A Win-win Opportunity." Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions 10(2): 93-96.
  33. United Nations Children's Fund. 1999. State of the World's Children 1999. New York: United Nations Children's Fund.
  34. Brown, L., et al. 2001. State of the World 2001. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton and Company; and Abramovitz, Janet N., et al. 2000. Vital Signs 2000: The Environmental Trends that are Shaping Our Future. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton.
  35. Brown, L., G. Gardner, and B. Halweil. 1999. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W. W. Norton and Company.
  36. Brown, et al. 2001; and Abramovitz, et al. 2000.
  37. United Nations Development Programme. 1998. Human Development Report 1998: Consumption for Human Development. New York: United Nations Development Programme.
  38. Brown, et al. 2001.
  39. United Nations Development Programme 1998; Abramovitz, et al. 2000; and Brown, et al. 2001.
  40. See: www.globalgreendeal.org.
  41. Environmental accounting has grown into a substantial research effort in recent decades (for a recent overview see: Stavins, Robert. 2000. Economics of the Environment: Selected Readings, Fourth Edition. New York: W. W. Norton and Company; and related papers searchable at: www.ksg.harvard.edu/research/working_papers/index.htm). Critics raise questions, including how to sensibly draw boundaries in time and space around impacts, but increased discussion and a political process can ensure that important negative effects bear some level of costs, even in the costs needed to reduce waste and pollution below targeted standards.
  42. See citation in: UNFPA, United Nations Environment Programme, and World Conservation Union (IUCN). 1999. Report of the International Workshop on Population-Poverty-Environment Linkages: Key Results and Policy Actions, Gland, Switzerland, 23-25 September 1998. Gland, Switzerland, New York and Geneva: UNFPA and World Conservation Union.
  43. An example of an application in an industrialized country setting is: Palmer, Margaret A., et al. (Forthcoming.) "The Ecological Consequences of Changing Land Use for Running Waters with a Case Study of Urbanizing Watersheds in Maryland." Special issue (edited by Karin M. Krchnak) of the Bulletin Series, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, with papers from the Human Population and Freshwater Workshop, New Haven, Connecticut, 22-23 March 2001, organized by the Center for Environment and Population (CEP), the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), and the Population Resources Center PRC). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University.

Appendix

  1. United Nations. "Universal Declaration on Human Rights: Adopted by the General Assembly in its Resolution 217a (III) of 10 December 1948," Preamble. In: The United Nations and the Advancement of Women 1945-1996. The United Nations Blue Book Series, vol. 6, by the United Nations. 1996. New York: Department of Information, United Nations.
  2. Ibid., Articles 3-28.
  3. Ibid., Articles 22 and 25.
  4. Ibid., Article 2.
  5. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Articles 3, 10, 11, 12, and 13. In: United Nations. 1967. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and International Convention on Civil and Political Rights: General Assembly Resolution 2200 (XXI): 21st Session; Supplement No. 16 (A/6316). New York: United Nations. Text is also available from the web site of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: www.unhchr.ch/html/.
  6. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Articles 2, 23, 24, and 25. In: United Nations 1967. Text is also available from the web site of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: www.unhchr.ch/html/.
  7. United Nations. 1980. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: General Assembly Resolution 25 (XLIV): 44th Session: Supplement No. 49 (A/RES/44/25, reprinted in 28 I.L.M.1448), Preamble. The Convention's text is available from the web site of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights: www.unhchr.ch/html/.
  8. Ibid., Articles 10, 12, 14, and 16.
  9. Ibid., Article 14.
  10. General information on the Earth Summit available from the United Nations web page: www.un.org.
  11. United Nations. 1993. Earth Summit Agenda 21: The United Nations Programme for Sustainable Development, Chapter 1: preamble. New York: Division for Sustainable Development, United Nations. The entire text of Agenda 21 as negotiated is available at: www.un.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21.htm.
  12. Ibid., Chapter 5.
  13. Ibid., Chapter 24.
  14. Ibid., Chapter 24.
  15. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, Paragraph 3.14. New York: Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations
  16. Ibid., Paragraphs 4.1 and 4.2.
  17. Ibid., Paragraphs 3.1, 3.3, 3.24, and 3.27.
  18. United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995 (DPI/1766/Wom). New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.
  19. Ibid., paragraph 246.
  20. United Nations. 2000. "Preliminary Analysis of the Beijing+Five Document." New York: Division for the Advancement of Women, United Nations. The entire text of the Political Declaration is contained in: United Nations. 2000. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Whole of the Twenty-third Special Session of the General Assembly. General Assembly Official Records, Twenty-third Special Session, Supplement No. 3 (A/S-23/10/Rev.1). New York: United Nations.
  21. United Nations. 1995. "Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development," Paragraphs 6 and 7. Report of the World Summit for Social Development (A/CONF.166/9). New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  22. Ibid., Paragraphs 15, 16, and 26.
  23. United Nations. 2000. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly: 55/2: United Nations Millennium Declaration (A/RES/55/2), Paragraphs 2 and 4. Information about the Millennium Assembly is available at: www.un.org/millennium/.
  24. Ibid., Paragraphs 6, 20, 23, and 25.

Notes for Indicators

The designations employed in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nations Population Fund concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Data for small countries or areas, generally those with population of 200,000 or less in 1990, are not given in this table separately. They have been included in their regional population figures.

(*) More-developed regions comprise North America, Japan, Europe and Australia-New Zealand.

(+) Less-developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, Asia (excluding Japan), and Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

(‡) Least-developed countries according to standard United Nations designation.

  1. Including British Indian Ocean Territory and Seychelles.
  2. Including Agalesa, Rodrigues and St. Brandon.
  3. Including Sao Tome and Principe.
  4. Formerly Zaire.
  5. Including Western Sahara.
  6. Including St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
  7. Regional averages and totals exclude Japan and Australia-New Zealand.
  8. Including Macau.
  9. On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China.
  10. This entry is included in the more developed regions aggregate but not in the estimate for the geographical region.
  11. Turkey is included in Western Asia for geographical reasons. Other classifications include this country in Europe.
  12. Including Channel Islands, Faeroe Islands and Isle of Man.
  13. Including Andorra, Gibraltar, Holy See and San Marino.
  14. Including Leichtenstein and Monaco.
  15. Including Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turks and Caicos Islands, and United States Virgin Islands.
  16. Including Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and French Guiana.
  17. Including Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  18. Including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.
  19. Including New Caledonia and Vanuatu.
  20. The successor States of the former USSR are grouped under existing regions. Eastern Europe includes Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine. Western Asia includes Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. South Central Asia includes Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Regional total, excluding subregion reported separately below.
  21. Regional total, excluding subregion reported separately below.
  22. These subregions are included in the UNFPA Arab States and Europe region.
  23. Estimates based on previous years’ reports. Updated data are expected.
  24. Total for Eastern Europe includes some South European Balkan States and Northern European Baltic States.
  25. This figure includes Belgium and Luxembourg.
  26. More recent reports suggest this figure might have been higher. Future publications will reflect the evaluation of this information.
  27. Comprising Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands, Pacific Islands (Palau) and Wake Island.
  28. Comprising American Samoa, Cook Islands, Johnston Island, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Midway Islands, Tuvalu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands.
  29. return to top

    << BACK | CONTENTS | NEXT >>