The State of World Population 2001 The State of World Population 2001
Contents

United Nations Population Fund

1. Overview
Introduction
    The Connections
    Demographic Challenges and Opportunities
    Milestones
Major Themes of the Report
    Environmental Trends (Chapter 2)
    Development, Poverty, and Environmental Impact (Chapter 3)
    Women and the Environment (Chapter 4)
    Health and the Environment (Chapter 5)
    Action for Sustainable and Equitable Development (Chapter 6)
Cultural Change, Population and Environment

2. Environmental Trends
Water and Population
    Water Availability
    Water Quality
    New Challenges
Feeding a Future World
    Problems of Food-Deficit Countries
    The Value of Genetic Diversity
    The Meat Consumption Revolution
    Moving Towards Food Security
Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change
    Population and Climate Policy
Forests, Habitat and Biodiversity
Regional Environmental Trends
    Asia and the Pacific
    Africa
    Latin America and the Caribbean
    Western Asia

3. Developmental Levels and Environmental Impact
Determining the Impact of Human Activity
Poverty and the Environment
    A Complex Interaction
    Globalization and Poverty
    Measuring Poverty's Dimensions
    Win-win Solutions for Poverty and the Environment
    Energy and Poverty
    Rural Development and Population
Urbanization
    Pollution
    Loss of Farmland
    Problems of Growth
Wasteful Consumption Patterns
Humanity's 'Ecological Footprint'
Environmental Refugees

4. Women and the Environment
How Environmental Degradation Affects Women
    Powerlessness and Its Impact
Involving Women in Environmental and Health Decisions
    Forging New Relationships

5. Health and the Environment
Demographic Change and Health
Pollution and Health Threats
    Heavy Metals
    Nuclear Contamination
Reproductive Health and the Environment
    Reproductive Health Service Challenges
    Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants
HIV/AIDS and the Environment
Biodiversity Loss and Health
Effects of Climate Change

6. Action for Sustainable and Equitable Development
A New Consensus
    Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Initiatives Linking Population and the Environment
    Africa
    Asia
    Latin America
    North America
Needed Resources and Technical Assistance
    Assessing the Costs of Inaction
Environmental Paybacks from Population-related Investments
    Environmental 'Externalities' to Child-bearing
    Alternative Scenarios
    Changes in Age Structure
Recommendations for Action

Appendix: Global Agreements on Human Rights, Environment and Development, Reproductive Health and Gender Equality
Human Rights Treaties
UN Conference on Environment and Development
International Conference on Population and Development
Fourth World Conference on Women
World Summit on Social Development
The Millennium Declaration

Notes

Boxes

Charts and Graphs

Tables

Indicators

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