The State of World Population 2000 Tables

United Nations Population Fund

Table 1: Gender Violence throughout a Woman's Life

Phase

Type of Violence

Prenatal Sex-selective abortions, battering during pregnancy, coerced pregnancy (rape during war)

Infancy Female infanticide, emotional and physical abuse, differential access to food and medical care

Childhood Genital mutilation; incest and sexual abuse; differential access to food, medical care, and education; child prostitution

Adolescence Dating and courtship violence, economically coerced sex, sexual abuse in the workplace, rape, sexual harassment, forced prostitution

Reproductive Abuse of women by intimate partners, marital rape, dowry abuse and murders, partner homicide, psychological abuse, sexual abuse in the workplace, sexual harassment, rape, abuse of women with disabilities

Old Age Abuse of widows, elder abuse (which affects mostly women)

Source: Heise, L. 1994. Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden. World Bank Discussion Paper. Washington. D.C.: The World Bank.


Table 2: Gender Equality Index

Area of life concern

     Indicator(s)

Autonomy of the body

  • Legal protection against and incidence of gender-based violence
  • Control over sexuality
  • Control over reproduction

Autonomy within the family and household

  • Freedom to marry and divorce
  • Right to custody of children in case of divorce
  • Decision-making power and access to assets within the household

Political power

  • Decision-making in supra-household levels (municipalities, unions, government, parliament)
  • Proportion of women in high managerial positions

Social resources

  • Access to health
  • Access to education

Material resources

  • Access to land
  • Access to houses
  • Access to credit

Employment and income

  • Distribution of paid and unpaid labour
  • Wage differentials for men and women
  • Division of formal and informal labour by gender

Time

  • Relative access to leisure and sleep

Gender identity

  • Rigidity of sexual division of labour

Source: Wieringa, Saskia. 1999. "Women's Empowerment in Japan: Towards an Alternative Index on Gender Equality." Paper presented at the First Global Forum on Human Development, sponsored by the Human Development Report Office, United Nations Development Programme, New York, 29-31 July 1999.


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