The State of World Population 2000 Notes

United Nations Population Fund

Chapter 1

  1. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1995. Hopes and Realities: Closing the Gap Between Women's Aspirations and Their Reproductive Experiences. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
  2. United Nations. 1999. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, adopted by the United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court on 17 July 1998 (A/CONF/183/9). New York: United Nations.

Chapter 2

  1. United Nations. 1999. Key Actions for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (A/S-21/5/Add.1). New York: United Nations.
  2. Paulson, Susan. 1998. "Gender Insights Can Improve Services." Network 18(4): 32.
  3. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1999. Sharing Responsibility: Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
  4. Figures are for women of reproductive age. Based on projections by Rodolfo Bulatao using regional and sub-regional estimates and methodologies from: Ross, John, John Stover, and Amy Willard. 1999. Profiles for Family Planning and Reproductive Health Programs in 116 Countries. Glastonbury, Connecticut: The Futures Group International. Further details to be published by UNFPA.
  5. Snow, R., et al. 1997. "Attributes of Contraceptive Technology: Women's Preferences in Seven Countries." In: Beyond Acceptability: Users' Perspectives on Contraception. A World Health Organization Monograph, edited by T. K. Sundari Ravindran, Marge Berer, and Jane Cottingham. 1997. London: Reproductive Health Matters; and Castle, Sarah, et al. 1999. "A Qualitative Study of Clandestine Contraceptive Use in Urban Mali." Studies in Family Planning 30(3): 231-248.
  6. Barnett, Barbara, and Jane Stein. 1998. Women's Voices, Women's Lives: The Impact of Family Planning. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Family Health International.
  7. United Nations. 2000. Concise Report on World Population Monitoring: 2000: Population, Gender and Development: Report of the Secretary-General (E/CN.9/2000/3). New York: United Nations.
  8. Research consistently shows that many users of periodic abstinence are not aware of the timing of the safe period during which unwanted pregnancies can be most effectively avoided.
  9. The Alan Guttmacher Institute. 1995. Hopes and Realities: Closing the Gap Between Women's Aspirations and Their Reproductive Experiences. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
  10. Hardee, K., et al. 1998. Post-Cairo Reproductive Health Policies and Programs: A Comparative Study of Eight Countries. POLICY Occasional Working Paper. No 2. Washington, D.C.: The Futures Group International; Ashford, L., and C. Makinson. 1999. Reproductive Health in Policy and Practice. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau; Family Care International. 1998a. Implementation of ICPD Commitments on Women's Reproductive and Sexual Health: A Report of Four African Countries. New York: Family Care International; Family Care International. 1998b. Implementation of ICPD Commitments on Women's Reproductive and Sexual Health. A South Asia Report. New York: Family Care International; and Forman, S., and R. Ghosh. 2000. Promoting Reproductive Health: Investing in Health for Development. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  11. Brundtland, Gro Harlem. 1999. Speech delivered at the Maternal Mortality Advocacy Meeting, Maputo, Mozambique, 19 April 1999.
  12. Fortney, J. A., and J. B. Smith. 1996. The Base of the Iceberg: Prevalence and Perceptions of Maternal Morbidity in Four Developing Countries. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Maternal and Neonatal Health Center, Family Health International.
  13. Strong, M. A. 1992. "The Health of Adults in the Developing World: The View from Bangladesh." Health Transition Review 2(2): 215-224.
  14. Starrs, Ann. 1998. The Safe Motherhood Action Agenda: Priorities for the Next Decade: Report on the Safe Motherhood Technical Consultation, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 18-23 October 1997. New York: Family Care International, in Collabouration with the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood.
  15. Data provided by: World Health Organization. 1999.
  16. Starrs 1998.
  17. Maine, Deborah. 1997a. Safe Motherhood Programs: Options and Issues. New York: Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University.
  18. Maine, Deborah. 1997b. "Lessons from Program Design from the Promotion of Maternal Mortality Networks." International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 59 (Supplement Issue 1002): S259-S265.
  19. Behrman, Jere R., and James C. Knowles. 1998. "Population and Reproductive Health: An Economic Framework for Policy Evaluation." Population and Development Review 24(4): 697-737.
  20. Maine, Deborah, and Allan Rosenfield. 1999. "The Safe Motherhood Initiative: Why Has It Stalled?" American Journal of Public Health 89(4): 480-482.
  21. World Health Organization. 1997. Abortion: A Tabulation of Available Data on the Frequency and Mortality of Unsafe Abortion, Third Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  22. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13 September 1994, paragraph 8.25. New York: Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.
  23. United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995, paragraph 106(k). New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.
  24. United Nations 1999, paragraph 63(iii).
  25. Maine 1997a.
  26. Salter, Cynthia, Heidi Bart Johnson, and Nicolene Hengen. 1997. "Care for Postabortion Complications: Saving Women's Lives." Population Reports. Series L. No. 10. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  27. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2000. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic: June 2000. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Murray, Christopher J. L., and Alan D. Lopez (eds.). 1998. The Global Burden of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV, Maternal Conditions, Perinatal Disorders, and Congenital Abnormalities. Global Burden of Disease Series, vol. 3. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  30. Cates, W., and K. Stone. 1994. "Family Planning: The Responsibility to Prevent Both Pregnancy and Reproductive Tract Infections." In: Proceedings from the Fourth International Conference on IUDs, edited by C. Wayne Bardin and Daniel R. Mishell, Jr. Newton, Massachusetts: Butterworth Heinemann.
  31. Weiss, E., and G. R. Gupta. 1998. Bridging the Gap: Addressing Gender and Sexuality in HIV Prevention. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
  32. Germain, Adrienne, and FranH oise Girard. 2000. "Beijing+5 and Women's Health: Building on ICPD+5." Populi 27(1): 14-15.
  33. Askew, Ian, Goli Fassihian, and Ndugga Maggwa. 1998. "Integrating STI and HIV/AIDS Services at MCH/Family Planning Clinics." In: Clinic-Based Family Planning and Reproductive Health Services in Africa: Findings from Situation Analysis Studies, edited by Kate Miller, et al., pp. 199-216. 1998. New York: The Population Council.
  34. Dehne, K., and R. Snow. 1998. "Integrating STD Management into Family Planning Services: What Are the Benefits?" Unpublished paper. Heidelberg, Germany: Department of Tropical Hygiene and Public Health, University of Heidelberg.
  35. Family Care International 1998b.
  36. UNFPA. 2000. Working to Empower Women: UNFPA's Experience in Implementing the Beijing Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.
  37. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 1999. International Partnership Against AIDS in Africa. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Web site: <www.unaids.org>.
  38. Ross, Stover, and Willard 1999.
  39. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 1997. Impact of HIV and Sexual Health Education on the Sexual Behaviour of Young People: A Review Update (UNAIDS/97.4). Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
  40. Shongwe, T. 1998. "The Swaziland Schools HIV/AIDS and Population Education (SHAPE) Programme." In: Confounding the Critics: Cairo: Five Years On. Conference Report, Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico, 15-18 November 1998; by Health Empowerment Rights and Accountability (HERA). 1998.
  41. UNFPA. 1999a. Violence Against Girls and Women: A Public Health Priority, pp. 2-23. New York: UNFPA.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Panos Institute. 1998. The Intimate Enemy: Gender Violence and Reproductive Health, p. 5. Panos Briefing No. 27. London: Panos Institute.
  44. Althaus, F. A. 1997. "Female Circumcision: Rite of Passage or Violation of Rights?" International Family Planning Perspectives 23(3): 130-133. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute.
  45. Panos Institute 1998, p. 5.
  46. Guijt, Irene, and Meera Kaul Shah. 1998. "Waking Up to Power, Conflict and Process." In: The Myth of Community. Gender Issues in Participatory Development, edited by Irene Guijt and Meera Kaul Shah. 1998. London: Intermediate Technology Publications; and Maguire, P. 1996. "Proposing a More Feminist Participatory Research: Knowing and Being Embraced Openly." In: Participatory Research in Health: Issues and Experiences, edited by K. de Kooning and M. Martin, pp. 27-39. 1996. London: Zed Books.
  47. Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI), acute respiratory infections (ARI), control of diarrhoeal disease (CDD) and prevention of malnutrition.
  48. Coeytaus, Francine. 1989. "Celebrating Mother and Child on the Fortieth Day: The Sfax, Tunisia Postpartum Program." Quality/Calidad/Qualite, No. 1. New York: The Population Council.
  49. This has been an important contributor to the success of male programmes under Profamilia in Colombia, both in Bogotá (separate facility) and Medellín (separate location within the main facility). See: AVSC International. 1997. Men as Partners Initiative: Summary Report of Literature Review and Case Studies. New York: AVSC International.
   49a. This section was prepared by Ann P. McCauley.
  1. Stewart, L., and E. Eckert. 1995. Indicators for Reproductive Health Program Evaluation. Final Report of the Subcommittee on Adolescent Reproductive Health Services. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Evaluation Project, Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  2. Marsiglio, W. 1983. "Adolescent Males' Orientation Toward Paternity." Family Planning Perspectives 25(1): 98-109; and Pleck, J. H., F. L. Sonenstein, and L. C. Ku. 1993. "Masculinity Ideology: Its Impact on Adolescent Males' Heterosexual Relationships." Journal of Social Issues 49(3): 11-29.
  3. Ireson, C. J. 1984. "Adolescent Pregnancy and Sex Roles." Sex Roles 11(3-4): 189-201; and Pick de Weiss, S., et al. (No date.) "Sex, Contraception and Pregnancy Among Adolescents in Mexico City." Unpublished paper.
  4. Cash, K., and B. Anasuchatkul. 1993. Experimental Educational Interventions for AIDS Prevention Among Northern Thai Single Migratory Female Factory Workers. Women and AIDS Research Program. Report-in-Brief. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW); and Bassett, M., and J. Sherman. 1994. Female Sexual Behavior and the Risk of HIV Infection: An Ethnographic Study in Harare, Zimbabwe. Women and AIDS Research Program Report Series. No. 3. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
  5. Praditwong, T. 1990. "Family Formation Attitudes of Thai Adolescents." Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University; and Sex Education Counseling Research Training and Therapy (SECRT) and Family Planning Association of India. 1993. "Attitudes and Perceptions of Educated, Urban Youth to Marriage and Sex." The Journal of Family Welfare 39(4): 1-40.
  6. Brown, Steven. 1993. "The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Fueling the Dynamics of Coercive Sex at the Individual Level." Presentation prepared for the Seminar on Sexual Coercion and Women's Reproductive Health, 22-23 November 1993. Unpublished manuscript; and Praditwong 1990.
  7. McCauley, A. P., and C. Salter. 1995. "Meeting the Needs of Young Adults." Population Reports. Series J. No. 41. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  8. Givaudan, M., S. Pick, and L. Proctor. 1997. Strengthening Parent/Child Communication: An AIDS Prevention Strategy for Adolescents in Mexico City. Women and AIDS Research Program. Report-in-Brief. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW); and Wilson, D., et al. 1995. Intergenerational Communication in the Family: Implications for Developing STD/HIV Prevention Strategies for Adolescents in Zimbabwe. Women and AIDS Research Program Report Series. No. 13. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
  9. Wilson 1995.
  10. Weiss, E., D. Whelan, and G. R. Gupta. 1996. Vulnerability and Opportunity: Adolescents and HIV/AIDS in the Developing World: Findings from the Women and AIDS Research Program. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women in Development (ICRW).
  11. Mensch, B., J. Bruce, and M. Greene. 1998. The Uncharted Passage: Girls' Adolescence in the Developing World. New York: The Population Council.
  12. Weiss, Whelan, and Gupta 1996.
  13. Capoor, I., and S. Mehta. 1995. "Talking About Love and Sex in Adolescent Health Fairs in India." Reproductive Health Matters 5: 22-27.
  14. Bangkok Fights AIDS Project. (No date.) Personal communication.
  15. Barker, Gary. 1996. "The Misunderstood Gender: Male Involvement in the Family and in Reproductive and Sexual Health in Latin America and the Caribbean: Report for the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Population Program, Chicago." In: "Absent and Problematic Men: Demographic Accounts of Male Reproductive Roles," by Margaret E. Greene and Ann E. Biddlecom. 2000. Population and Development Review 26(1): 81-115.
  16. McCauley and Salter 1995; Mensch, Bruce, and Greene 1998; and Senderowitz, Judith. 1995. Adolescent Health: Reassessing the Passage to Adulthood. Paper No. 272. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  17. Hughes, J., and A. P. McCauley. 1998. "Improving the Fit: Adolescents' Needs and Future Programs for Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing Countries." Studies in Family Planning 29(2): 233-253.
  18. Cash and Anasuchatkul 1995.
  19. Hughes and McCauley 1998.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Kiragu, Karungari. 1995. "Do Adults and Youth Have Differing Views: A Case Study in Kenya." In: McCauley and Salter 1995.
  22. Family Planning Association of Kenya. 1996. Cited in: Hughes and McCauley 1998.
  23. McCauley and Salter 1995.
  24. Murray, Christopher J. L., and Alan D. Lopez (eds.). 1996. The Global Burden of Disease. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, vol. 1. Boston: Harvard University Press. It should be noted that the HIV/AIDS impact projections were made prior to improvements in the UNAIDS database and are likely conservative.
  25. Murray and Lopez 1998.
  26. Ezeh, A. C., M. Seroussi, and H. Raggers. 1996. Men's Fertility, Contraceptive Use, and Reproductive Preferences. Demographic and Health Surveys. Comparative Studies. No.18. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International. Cited in: Upadhyay, U. D., and B. Robey. 1999. "Why Family Planning Matters." Population Reports. Series J. No. 49. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  27. A programme was recently established in Turkey to provide information, education and communication on reproductive health. This is but one component of Turkey's active approach to reproductive health concerns. (See: Akin, AyÕ e, and Ô evkat Bahar ÖzvariÕ . 1999. "Spotlight on Turkey." Entre Nous 45: 6-7. Copenhagen: The Women's and Reproductive Health Unit, Regional Office for Europe, World Health Organization, and UNFPA.) Other countries have provided information and services to their military for many years. The Nigerian public programme in family planning, for example, received an important early boost from service provision for soldiers.
  28. These efforts and other positive programmes are referenced in: UNFPA. 1999b. "Contributions of the United Nations Population Fund to the Execution of the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women: A Review of Latin America and the Caribbean Five Years after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences." Paper prepared for the Eighth Regional Meeting on Women of Latin America and the Caribbean, and the review process of the United Nations Beijing+5, Lima, Peru, 8-10 February 2000.
  29. Ringheim, Karin. 1999. "Reversing the Downward Trend in Men's Share of Contraceptive Use." Reproductive Health Matters 7(14): 83-96.
  30. See citations in: Upadhyay and Robey 1999.
  31. Manuals for training adolescents and adults have been developed by many organizations, including the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA).
  32. Neruaye-Tetthe, J. 1999. "Starting from Scratch: Meeting Men's Needs in Ghana." Presentation to AVSC/Reproductive Health Alliance Europe meeting on Male Contraception: Preparing for the Future, London. Cited in: Ringheim 1999.
  33. Gardner, R., and R. Blackburn. 2000. "Reproductive Health Care: Serving Migrants and Refugees." Population Reports. Series J. No. 45. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  34. Ibid., p. 3.
  35. Ibid., p. 4.
  36. WIDWorks. 1997. "Post-Conflict Transition." Information Bulletin. Washington, D.C.: Office of Women in Development, United States Agency for International Development (USAID).
  37. For instance, the World Health Organization; the Women's Health Project, South Africa; and the Harvard School of Public Health, United States of America, have developed a core curriculum in gender and reproductive health. See also: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). 1997. Handbook for Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in the Health Sector. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; Pfannenschmidt, Susan, Arlene McKay, and Erin McNeil. 1997. Through a Gender Lens: Resources for Population, Health and Nutrition. Washington, D.C.: Interagency Gender Working Group, United States Agency for International Development (USAID); and AIDS Control and Prevention Project (AIDSCAP). 1997. A Transformation Process: Gender Training for Top-Level Management of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Training Manual. Arlington, Virginia: AIDS Control and Prevention Project, Family Health International.
  38. Andina, Michèle, and Barbara Pillsbury. 1998. Trust: An Approach to Women's Empowerment: Lessons Learned from an Evaluation on Empowerment and Family Planning with Women's Organizations. Los Angeles: Pacific Institute for Women's Health.
  39. Galdos, S., and B. Feringa. 1998. "Creating Partnerships at the Grassroots Level: The Reprosalud Project, Peru." In: Health Empowerment Rights and Accountability (HERA) 1998, pp. 26-32.
  40. Li, Virginia C., and Shaoxian Wang. 1998. Collabouration and Participation: Women's Reproductive Health of Yunnan, China. Beijing: Beijing Medical College.
  41. Catino, Jennifer. 1999. Meeting the Cairo Challenge: Progress in Sexual and Reproductive Health. New York: Family Care International.

Chapter 3

  1. Johnson, Cate. 1997. "Violence Against Women: An Issue of Human Rights." Genderaction 1(4): 1-4. Washington, D.C.: Office of Women in Development, United States Agency for International Development.
  2. Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M. Gottemoeller. 1999. "Ending Violence Against Women." Population Reports. Series L. No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  3. Ibid. Over 50 population-based surveys provide estimates of violence by an intimate partner ranging from 10 to 50 per cent
  4. Ibid.
  5. Panos Institute. 1998. The Intimate Enemy: Gender Violence and Reproductive Health, pp. 1-20. Panos Briefing No. 27. London: Panos Institute.
  6. Yoshihama, M., and S. B. Sorenson. 1994. "Physical, Sexual and Emotional Abuse by Male Intimates: Experiences of Women in Japan." Violence and Victims 9(1): 63-77.
  7. Ellsberg, M. C., et al. Forthcoming. "Candies in Hell: Women's Experience of Violence in Nicaragua." Social Science and Medicine. Cited in: Heise, Ellsberg, and Gottemoeller 1999.
  8. Rogers, K. 1994. "Wife Assault: The Findings of a National Survey." Canadian Center for Justice Statistics 14(9): 1-22.
  9. Crowell, Nancy A., and Ann W. Burgess (eds.). 1996. Understanding Violence Against Women. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  10. El-Zanaty, F., et al. 1996. Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 1995. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International.
  11. Armstrong, A. 1998. Culture and Choice: Lessons from Survivors of Gender Violence in Zimbabwe, p. 149. Harare, Zimbabwe: Violence Against Women in Zimbabwe Research Project; and Visaria, Leela. 1999. "Violence against Women in India: Evidence from Rural Gujarat." In: Domestic Violence in India: A Summary Report of Three Studies, by the International Center for Research on Women, pp. 9-17. 1999. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
  12. Armstrong 1998, p. 10.
  13. The Population Council. 1994. Gender-based Abuse and Women's Reproductive Health. New York: The Population Council.
  14. Bawah, A. A., et al. 1999. "Women's Fears and Men's Anxieties: The Impact of Family Planning on Gender Relations in Northern Ghana." Studies in Family Planning 30(1): 54-66.
  15. Amaro, H., et al. 1990. "Violence during Pregnancy and Substance Use." American Journal of Public Health 80(5): 575-579; Cokkindes, V. E., et al. 1999. "Physical Violence during Pregnancy: Maternal Complications and Birth Outcomes." Obstetrics and Gynecology 93(5): 661-666; and Jejeebhoy, S. J. 1998. "Associations between Wife-beating and Fetal and Infant Death: Impressions from a Survey in Rural India." Studies in Family Planning 29(3): 300-308.
  16. Panos Institute 1998, p. 9.
  17. Connolly, A. M., et al. 1997. "Trauma and Pregnancy." American Journal of Perinatology 14(6): 331-336.
  18. Amaro, et al. 1990; and Cokkindes, et al. 1999.
  19. Campbell, J. C. 1995. "Addressing Battering during Pregnancy: Reducing Low Birth Weight and On-going Abuse." Seminars in Perinatology 19(4): 301-306.
  20. Panos Institute 1998, p. 11.
  21. Meursing, K., T. Vos, and O. Coutinho. 1994. "Child Sexual Abuse in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe." Social Science and Medicine 41(12): 1693-1704.
  22. Ehlert, U., C. Heim, and D. Hellhammer. 1999. "Chronic Pelvic Pain as a Somatoform Disorder." Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 68(2): 87-94.
  23. Chapman, J. D. 1989. "A Longitudinal Study of Sexuality and Gynecological Health in Abused Women." Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 89(5): 619-624; Collett, B. J., et al. 1998. "A Comparative Study of Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain, Chronic Non-Pelvic Pain and Those with No History of Pain Attending General Practitioners." British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 105(1): 87-92; and Walker, E. A., et al. 1992. "Medical and Psychiatric Symptoms in Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse." Psychosomatic Medicine 54: 658-664.
  24. Golding, J. 1996. "Sexual Assault History and Women's Reproductive and Sexual Health." Psychology of Women Quarterly 20: 101-120; and Golding, J., and D. L. Taylor. 1996. "Sexual Assault History and Premenstrual Distress in Two General Population Samples." Journal of Women's Health 5(2): 143-152.
  25. Golding and Taylor 1996.
  26. Panos Institute 1998, p. 11.
  27. Heise, L. 1994. Violence Against Women: The Hidden Health Burden. World Bank Discussion Paper. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Panos Institute1998.
  31. United Nations Children's Fund. 20 January 2000. "UNICEF: Child Sex Trafficking Must End." Press release. UNICEF Web site: <www.unicef.org>.
  32. United Nations. 2000. Civil and Political Rights, Including Questions of: Disappearances and Summary Executions: Report of the Special Rapporteur, Ms. Asma Jahangir: Submitted Pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1999/35 (E/CN.4/2000/3). New York: Commission on Human Rights, United Nations.

Chapter 4

  1. Silberschmidt, Margrethe. 1999. "Women Forget that Men are the Masters": Gender Antagonism and Socio-economic Change in Kisii District, Kenya. Publication of the Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Stockholm: Elanders Gotab; and Silberschmidt, M. 1991. Rethinking Men and Gender Relations: An Investigation of Men, Their Changing Roles within the Household, and the Implications for Gender Relations in Kisii District, Kenya. CDR Research Report. No. 16. Copenhagen: Centre for Development Research.
  2. Silberschmidt 1999, pp. 117f, shows that this ideal is also reinforced by some government pronouncements. Despite a growing and increasingly successful family planning programme and a continuing reduction in stated family size desires, there remains considerable ambivalence about the value of large families.
  3. Men in this study, as in others, cite women's "nagging" as a cause of acts of verbal and physical abuse against them.
  4. Silberschmidt's (1999, pp. 118f) nuanced and documented analysis is a devastating counter-argument to those who suggest that adaptive responses to improve family life (such as lowered fertility desires and adoption of contraception) are the "cause" of family breakup.
  5. The literature on machismo is extensive. A useful compilation (with extensive references) is the report of a regional conference supported by UNFPA and Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales (FLACSO Chile), "La Equidad de Genero en America Latina y el Caribe: Desafíos Desde las Identidades Masculinas" (Gender Equality in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges from Masculine Identities), Santiago, Chile, 8-10 June 1998. Published as: Valdés, Teresa, and José Olavarría (eds.). 1998. Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina (Masculinities and Gender Equality in Latin America). Santiago, Chile: Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales. Analysts suggest that machismo evolved in response to historical changes that placed special burdens on men. See: Fuller, Norma. 1998. "Reflexiones sobre el machismo en América Latina" (Thoughts about Machismo in Latin America). In: Valdés and Olavarría 1998, pp. 258-267. This study argues that machismo allowed a retention of male pride after the colonial conquest of the indigenous cultures. The paper presents, additionally, an analysis of the impact of recent social and economic changes on the machismo ideal.
  6. Research cited in the pre-publication version of the paper presented by Fuller (1998).
  7. Shepard, Bonnie. 1998. "The Masculine Side of Sexual Health." Sexual Health Exchange 2: 6-8
  8. Kaufman, Michael. 1997. "Contradictory Experiences of Power among Men (Las experiencias contradictorias del poder entre los hombres)." In: Masculinidad/es: poder y crisis (Masculinit y/ies: Power and Crisis), pp. 63-81, edited by Teresa Valdés and José Olavarría. Ediciones de las Mujeres No. 24. 1997. Santiago, Chile: Isis Internacional.
  9. Hindin, Michelle J., and Linda S. Adair. 2000 "Women's Autonomy, Men's Autonomy and Gender Violence in the Philippines: The Case for Promoting Couple Communication." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, California, 23-25 March 2000.
  10. This relation was likely due to men feeling the strain of failing to meet expectations. Focus group discussions found that the reasons given for the violence were: wife talks back (27 per cent), wife nags (24 per cent), jealousy (18 per cent), husband drunk (13 per cent), fight over children (9 per cent) and multiple reasons (10 per cent).
  11. Decisions included: buying the wife shoes, buying the children's clothes, the children's schooling, taking children to the doctor, gifts for relatives, major household purchases, buying or selling land, the wife working outside the home, the wife travelling outside of Cebu, using family planning and choice of family planning method.
  12. Raju, Saraswati, and Ann Leonard (eds.). 2000. Men As Supportive Partners in Reproductive Health: Moving from Myth to Reality. New Delhi: The Population Council.
  13. Upadhyay, U.D., and B. Robey. 1999. "Why Family Planning Matters." Population Reports. Series J. No. 49. Baltimore, Maryland: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
  14. Tawab, Nahla Abdel, et al. 1997. Counseling the Husbands of Postabortion Patients in Egypt: Effects on Husband Involvement, Patient Recovery and Contraceptive Use. New York: Asia and Near East Operations Research and Technical Assistance Project, The Population Council, and Egyptian Fertility Care Society.
  15. Raju and Leonard 2000.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Verma, Ravi K., et al. 2000. "Men's Sexual Health Problems in a Mumbai Slum Population." In: Raju and Leonard 2000.
  18. Sharma, Vinit, and Anuragini Sharma. 2000. "Encouraging the Involvement of Males in the Family." In: Raju and Leonard 2000.
  19. Mojidi, Khadijat L. 1998. "Increasing Male Participation: Lessons from Mali, Kenya and Nigeria." In: Grassroots to Global Networks: Improving Women's Reproductive Health. Papers presented at the ACCESS Lessons Learned Conference, Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA), Washington, D.C., 18-19 June 1998.
  20. See: Norori Muñoz, V., and J. Muñoz Lopez. 1998. "Conceptualizing Masculinity through a Gender-based Approach." Sexual Health Exchange 2: 3-6.
  21. A recommendation in: International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region and AVSC International. 1999. Memorias del Simposio sobre Participación Masculina en la Salud Sexual y Reproductiva: Nuevos Paradigmas. Report of a Meeting in Oaxaca, México, 11-14 October 1998. New York: AVSC International.

Chapter 5

  1. Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  2. This complaint was a common thread in many responses to the concept paper of the World Bank's Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Forthcoming. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Draft available on: <www.worldbank.org/gender>).
  3. Research by Saito and Spurling. 1992. Cited in: United Nations. 2000a. The World's Women 2000: Trends and Statistics. Social Statistics and Indicators. Series K. No. 16. New York: Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  4. United Nations 2000a.
  5. A detailed analysis of these multiple linkages is presented in: Seligman, Barbara, et al. 1997. Reproductive Health and Human Capital: A Framework for Expanding Policy Dialogue. POLICY Occasional Papers. No. 1. Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project, The Futures Group International.
  6. World Health Organization. 1999. World Health Report 1999: Making a Difference, pp. 8f. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  7. A review of the complex pattern of observed effects is presented in: UNFPA. 1999. The State of World Population 1999: 6 Billion: A Time for Choices. New York: UNFPA; and Hardee, Karen, and Janet Smith. 2000. Implementing Reproductive Health Services in an Era of Health Sector Reform. POLICY Occasional Papers. No. 4. Washington, D.C.: The POLICY Project, The Futures Group International.
  8. UNFPA and the Australian National University. 1999. Southeast Asian Populations in Crisis: Challenges to the Implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. New York: Data Communique.
  9. See this report's statistical tables. For an extended discussion, see: United Nations. 2000b. World Population Monitoring: 2000: Population, Gender and Development (ESA/P/WP.159). Draft paper. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations.
  10. Estimates for around 1990, presented in: World Health Organization 1999.
  11. United States General Accounting Office. 2000. Women's Health: NIH Has Increased Its Efforts to Include Women in Research (GAO/HEHS-00-96). Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office.
  12. Various methodologies have been devised to monetize lost life. These frequently rely on calculations of the market value of labour contributions foregone. As women's work is already insufficiently compensated such methodologies fail. Whether for men or women, such approaches miss the range of non-monetary contributions to household and family welfare.
  13. For detailed discussion, see: Reed, Holly E., Marjorie A. Koblinsky, and W. Henry Mosley (eds.). 2000. The Consequences of Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality: Report of a Workshop. Committee on Population, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
  14. Family well-being is strongly affected by the death of a prime-aged female adult in a household, even if she is not the mother.
  15. Ainsworth, M., and I. Semali. 1998. "The Impact of Adult Deaths on the Nutritional Status of Children." In: Coping with AIDS: The Economic Impact of Adult Mortality on the African Household, ch. 9, by the World Bank. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in Reed, Koblinsky, and Mosley 2000.
  16. Basu, Alaka. 1998. "The Household Impact of Adult Mortality and Morbidity." Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on the Consequences of Pregnancy, Maternal Morbidity, and Mortality for Women, Their Families, and Society, Committee on Population, Washington, D.C., 19-20 October 1998. Ithaca, New York: Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University.
  17. United Nations. 2000c. "General Committee Recommends Agenda Item on HIV/AIDS" (GA/9708). Press release. New York: United Nations.
  18. The World Bank. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. A World Bank Policy Research Report. New York: Oxford University Press.
  19. The estimated package included mass media and in-school education programmes, promotion of voluntary abstinence and responsible sexual behaviour and expanded distribution of condoms. It did not include the costs of ensuring a safe blood supply and targeted outreach to high-risk populations. Costs related to the cure of STDs (including mother-to-child transmission) were included in the basic reproductive health package. Care for those infected was recognized as an additional cost but specific estimates were not produced (paragraph 13.17).
  20. Figures cited by: the End-Violence Discussion "Virtual Working Group" Web forum moderators, 16 July 1999. See: <www.globalknowledge.org/discussion.html>.
  21. Figures are in U.S. dollars. See: Kerr, Richard, and Janice McLean. 1996. Paying for Violence: Some of the Costs of Violence Against Women in B. C.: Prepared for the Ministry of Women's Equality: Province of British Columbia: May 1996. Victoria, British Columbia: Ministry of Women's Equality, Government of British Columbia. Web site: <www.weq.gov.bc.ca/paying-for-violence>.
  22. See, respectively: Kavemann, B. 1997. "Gesellschaftliche Folgekosten sexualisierter Gewalt gegen Madchen und Jungen." In: Bundesverein zu Prävention, Prävention–Eine Investition in die Zukunft, by B. Kavemann, pp. 215-256; Korf, D. F., et al. 1996. Economishe Kosten van Thisgeweld Gegen Vrouwen; Snively, S. 1994. The New Zealand Economic Costs of Family Violence. Auckland, New Zealand: Coopers and Lybrand; Yadanis, C. L., et al. 1999. Report on the Economic Costs of Violence Against Women. Fribourg, Switzerland: University of Fribourg; Stanko, A., et al. 1998. Counting the Costs: Estimating the Impact of Domestic Violence in the London Borough of Hackney. London: Crime Concern.
  23. Murray, Christopher J. L., and Alan D. Lopez (eds.). 1996. The Global Burden of Disease. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series, vol. 1. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  24. "Abortion regret" must be set against the impact of unwanted pregnancies and childbearing on both mothers and their children. For studies on the long-term consequences for a child of being unwanted, see: Montgomery, Mark R., et al. 1997. The Consequences of Imperfect Fertility Control for Children's Survival, Health, and Schooling. Demographic and Health Survey. Analytical Report. No. 7. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International; Myhrman, Antero, et al., 1994. "Does the Wantedness of a Pregnancy Predict a Child's Educational Attainment?" Family Planning Perspecives 27(3): 116-119. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute; Baydar, Nazli. 1995. "Consequences for Children of Their Birth Planning Status." Family Planning Perspectives 27(6): 228-234, 245. New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute; Brown, Sarah, and Leon Eisenberg (eds.). 1995. The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; and the more recent studies in: Kost, Kathryn, David J. Landry, and Jacqueline E. Darroch. 1998. "The Effects of Pregnancy Planning Status on Birth Outcomes and Infant Care." Family Planning Perspectives 30(5): 223-230. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion is an important public health goal.
  25. These statistics are from: Murray and Lopez 1996. Their estimates for 1990 suggest that occupational risks are as large a contributor to global risk as unsafe sex.
  26. Hill, M. Anne, and Elizabeth M. King. 1993. "Women's Education in Developing Countries: An Overview." In: Women's Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits and Policies, A World Bank Book, edited by Elizabeth M. King and M. Anne Hill. 1993. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  27. Dollar, David, and Roberta Gotti. 1999. Gender Inequality, Income and Growth: Are Good Times Good for Women? Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series. No. 1. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: <www.worldbank.org/gender/prr>.
  28. These analyses also include now standard measures related to governance and openness of societies, initial income levels, fertility and life expectancy.
  29. Difficulties in estimating these returns are found in the work of: Schultz, T. Paul. 1993. "Returns to Women's Education." In: King and Hill 1993; and Behrman, Jere R. 1996. "Measuring the Effectiveness of Schooling Policies in Developing Countries: Revisiting Issues of Methodology." Background paper prepared for the World Bank.
  30. See, for example: Quisumbing, Agnes R., and John A. Maluccio. 1999. Intrahousehold Allocation and Gender Relations: New Empirical Evidence. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series. No. 2. Washington, D.C.: Development Research Group/Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network, The World Bank.
  31. Filmer, Deon, and Lant Pritchett. 1999. "The Effects of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries." Population and Development Review 25(1): 85-120. New York: The Population Council; and Filmer, Deon. 1999. The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series. No. 5. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: <www.worldbank.org/gender/publications>.
  32. Information compiled for: United Nations 2000a.
  33. Gardner, Robert. 1998. Education. Demographic and Health Surveys, Comparative Studies No. 29. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International.
  34. Alderman, Harold, et al. 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy." The Journal of Human Resources 31(1): 229.
  35. See: The World Bank. 2000. Advancing Gender Equality: World Bank Action Since Beijing. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: <www.worldbank.org/gender/publications>.
  36. Noteworthy among these being the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA).
  37. For various views, see: Hashemi, Syed M., and Sidney Ruth Schuler. 1997. "Sustainable Banking with the Poor: A Case Study of Grameen Bank." Report prepared for Grameen Trust and John Snow, Inc.; Rahman, Aminur. 1999. Women and Microcredit in Rural Bangladesh: Anthropological Study of the Rhetoric and Realities of Grameen Bank Lending. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press; Pitt, Mark M., et al. 1999. "Credit Programmes for the Poor and Reproductive Behavior in Low-Income Countries: Are the Reported Causal Relationships the Result of Heterogeneity Bias?" Demography 36(1): 1-21; Mehra, Rekha, and Sarah Gammage. 1997. Employment and Poor Women: A Policy Brief on Trends and Strategies. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW); and Khan, Mahmuda Rahman. 1996. Empowering Women Through Wage Employment: The Impact on Gender Relations in Bangladesh. ICRW Report-in-Brief. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).
  38. Malhotra, Anju, and Rekha Mehra. 1999. Fulfilling the Cairo Commitment: Enhancing Women's Economic and Social Options for Better Reproductive Health: Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: International Center for Research on Women (ICRW); Mehra and Gammage 1997; and Khan 1996.
  39. For the percentage due to population factors, see: Asian Development Bank. 1997. Emerging Asia: Changes and Challenges. Manila, the Philippines: Asian Development Bank; and, for the income growth in purchasing power parity dollars, see: Klasen, Stephan. 1999. Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development: Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Working Paper Series. No. 7. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Web site: <www.worldbank.org/gender/prr>.
  40. For an extended discussion of male and female longevity differences, see: United Nations 2000b.
  41. The marriage benefit in life expectancy (as in life satisfaction and other subjective dimensions) is believed to be due in part to women's support to their partner's well-being.
  42. These mothers' pension benefits have been restricted both in countries with large aged populations (such as Ecuador) and in those reforming their systems in anticipation of future fiscal challenges. Details are provided in the report of the ECLAC/PAHO/CELADE/UNFPA regional meeting, "The Latin American and Caribbean Symposium on Older Persons," Santiago, Chile, 8-10 September 1999.
  43. Data from: United Nations 2000a.
  44. This is reflected in many settings in lower rates of co-residence with children and, consequently, higher rates of single person residence among older women. In less-developed regions, extended family care may remain normative and common, though the quality of care for older women may suffer. Monitoring of the condition of older persons–women and men–needs to be improved. Individual country data, however, indicate a growing problem concerning the quality and reliability of old-age support (see, for example, studies in: International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW). 1999. Ageing in a Gendered World: Women's Issues and Identities. Dominican Republic: International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women).
  45. See: Varley, Ann, and Maribel Blasco. 1999. "Reaping What You Sow: Older Women, Housing and Family Dynamics in Urban Mexico." In: International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) 1999, pp. 153-178.
  46. See: United Nations 2000b; and UNFPA. 1998a. The State of World Population 1998: The New Generations. New York: UNFPA, and the references cited therein.
  47. See the extended discussion in: United Nations 2000b, pp. 91-97.
  48. This measure has undergone a series of technical revisions since it was first introduced. Measures from different time points are not, therefore, always directly comparable.
  49. The income variable uses share of earned income going to men and women and is subject to considerable reporting difficulties.
  50. These ratings use a standard international job classification of the International Labour Organization (ILO).
  51. Not every country surveys identical issues. Core topics include: background characteristics; lifetime reproduction; contraceptive knowledge and use; maternity and breastfeeding; immunization of children; diarrhoea, fever and cough in children; height and weight of children; marriage; fertility preferences; husband's background; and woman's work status. Many studies undertaken under other programme auspices, including UNFPA-funded national and regional studies, have adopted elements of these core modules. Specialized modules have been developed for: consanguinity; domestic violence; female genital mutilation; health expenditures; HIV/AIDS; malaria; maternal mortality; pill failure and behaviour; social marketing of contraceptives; sterilization experience; verbal autopsy (i.e., causes of maternal mortality); and women's status.
  52. Kishor, Sunita, and Katherine Neitzel. 1996. The Status of Women: Indicators for Twenty-Five Countries. Demographic and Health Surveys. Comparative Studies Series. No. 21. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International.
  53. New modules to address these concerns have been developed and are available for adaptation and use in future surveys. (For further details, see the Web site for the Demographic and Health Surveys: <www.macroint.com/dhs/>).
  54. Longwe, Sara, and Roy Clarke. 1999. "Towards Improved Leadership for Women's Empowerment in Africa: Measuring Progress and Improving Strategy." Final draft paper prepared for the Africa Leadership Forum, Accra, Ghana, April 1999.
  55. UNFPA. 1998b. Indicators for Population and Reproductive Health Programmes. New York: UNFPA.
  56. UNFPA. 2000. The Multi-Year Funding Framework: 2000-2003: Report of the Executive Director (DP/FPA/2000/6). New York: UNFPA.
  57. See: United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2000. Targets and Indicators: Selections from Progress of the World's Women. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women; and United Nations. 1999. "Guidelines: Common Country Assessment (CCA)." New York: United Nations Development Group.
  58. United Nations Development Fund for Women 2000.
  59. The State of World Population has regularly reported most of these measures in its statistical appendix for several years, as have other United Nations organization flagship reports.
  60. Some profiles have been posted on their Web site: <www.worldbank.org/gender>.
  61. Additional technical issues contribute to an underestimation of women's disease burden. See: Anand, Sudhir, and Kara Hanson. 1997. "Disability-adjusted Life Years: A Critical Review." Journal of Health Economics 16: 685-702.

Chapter 6

  1. UNFPA. 1997. The State of World Population 1997: The Right to Choose: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health, chapter 1. New York: UNFPA.
  2. United Nations. 1995. Population and Development, vol. 1: Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development: Cairo, 5-13 September 1994. New York: Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.
  3. United Nations. 1996. The Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action: Fourth World Conference on Women: Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995. New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations.
  4. See: UNFPA. 2000. Working to Empower Women: UNFPA's Experience in Implementing the Beijing Platform for Action. New York: UNFPA.
  5. Leading up to the 30 June-2 July 1999 ICPD+5 special session, UNFPA organized three round table meetings in 1998–adolescent sexual and reproductive health; reproductive rights and implementation of reproductive health programmes, women's empowerment, male involvement and human rights; and partnership with civil society in implementing the Programme of Action–and an international forum in The Hague in February 1999. There were also technical meetings on international migration and development; population and ageing; and reproductive health services in crisis situations; and regional reviews on population and development by the five United Nations regional commissions.

Chapter 7

  1. These include protections against forced or unwanted marriages, equity and equality in divorce and the disposition of property and children in dissolved unions. Together with restrictions on property ownership and management and travel without spousal permission, these and related considerations are referred to as personal status laws.
  2. UNFPA. 1999a. Report of the 1998 UNFPA Field Inquiry: Progress in the Implentation of the ICPD Programme of Action. New York: UNFPA.
  3. UNFPA. 2000a. "Contributions of the United Nations Population Fund to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women: A Review of Latin America and the Caribbean Five Years after the Cairo and Beijing Conferences." Paper prepared for the Eighth Regional Meeting on Women of Latin American and the Caribbean: Beijing+5, Lima, Peru, 8-10 February 2000.
  4. Center for Reproductive Law and Policy (CRLP). 2000. Reproductive Rights 2000: Moving Forward. New York: Center for Reproductive Law and Policy.
  5. Source for this section: Reed Boland. 2000. Personal communication based on Harvard Center for Population Law database.
  6. This approach is being strongly fostered by the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), which has sponsored a variety of studies of the methodology and its utility. See: United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2000a. "Gender-Sensitive Budget Initiatives for Latin America and the Caribbean: A Tool for Improving Accountability and Achieving Effective Policy Implementation." Paper prepared for the Eighth Regional Conference on Women of Latin America and the Caribbean: Beijing+5, Lima, Peru, 8-10 February 2000. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women. Gender budgets are also presented as a significant accountability mechanism in: United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2000b. Targets and Indicators: Progress of the World's Women 2000. New York: United Nations Development Fund for Women.
  7. United Nations Development Fund for Women 2000a.
  8. Sharpe, Rhonda. 1995. A Framework for Gathering Budget Information from Government Departments and Authorities. Cited in: United Nations Development Fund for Women 2000a.
  9. United Nations Development Fund for Women 2000a.
  10. Presentation of the UNDAF framework at the United Nations, 31 January 2000.
  11. See, for example, press releases on wage disparities in the United Kingdom (Ward, Lucy. 1 March 2000. "Cost of Being a Women Put at £250,000." Manchester Guardian Weekly.); the United States (Sallquist, Bill. 4 June 2000. "Equal Pay Still Unattainable for Many Women." The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington.); and the reporting of the European Statistical Agency, EUROSTAT (for details, see the Web site: <www.eurostat.org>).
  12. Information on materials developed throughout the world can be found through links on the Web sites: <www.humanrights.ca>; and <www.un.org/womenwatch>.
  13. See: UNFPA. 1999b. "Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in the Africa Region: UNFPA Progress Report for the Sixth Africa Regional Conference on Women." Paper prepared for the regional meeting, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 22-26 November 1999. New York: UNFPA.
  14. UNFPA. 2000b. Promoting Gender Equality in Population and Development Programmes: Best Practices and Lessons Learnt. Programme Advisory Note. No. 7. New York: Technical and Policy Division. New York: UNFPA
  15. Ibid.
  16. These examples are taken from: UNFPA 2000a.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid.
  19. UNFPA 2000b.
  20. Ibid.
  21. See, for example: Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 1999. CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality. Hull, Quebec, Canada: Minister of Public Works and Government Services (also posted on the Internet at: <www.acdi-cida.gc.ca>); and Ministry for Foreign Affairs, NEDA. 1999. Dutch Policy and Practice in Reproductive Health: If You Worry about Population: Shift Your Concern to People: An Intermediate Account of Dutch Policy and Practice in Reproductive Health. The Hague, the Netherlands: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Similar policy documents have been prepared by the Department for International Development (DFID) (United Kingdom), United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA), and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) donor institutions.
  22. Special divisions, programmes and focal point responsibilities for addressing gender concerns are now a standard part of most donor agency organizations. For example, in the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), four thematic programmes related to gender concerns in various aspects of programming have been developed in offices related to health and population concerns. They have produced various products to promote the incorporation of gender issues in policies and programmes. An example of one theme group's useful products is the Helping Involve Men (HIM) CD-ROM database of research and project documents on men's responsibilities in the areas of sexual and reproductive health ("Helping Involve Men: An Essential Library on Men and Reproductive Health." Baltimore, Maryland: Center for Communication Programs, Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health).
  23. See, for example, a document which includes a compilation of projects supported by various national donor agencies: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1999. Reaching the Goals in the S-21: Gender Equality and Health (DCD/DAC/WID[99]2), 2 vols. Reference Document. Paris: Working Party on Gender Equality, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
  24. The latest year for which data are complete is 1997 (see: UNFPA. 1999c. Global Population Assistance Report 1997. New York: UNFPA.). Preliminary data for 1998 (presented in: United Nations. 2000. The Flow of Financial Resources for Assisting in the Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development [E/CN.9/2000/5]. New York: United Nations.) do not alter the overall picture of resource shortfalls. Contributions from international foundations have increasingly supplemented donor government contributions.
  25. UNFPA. 1998. "UNFPA Support for Mainstreaming Gender Issues in Population and Development Programmes." Section in: UNFPA. 1998. Policies and Procedures Manual. New York: UNFPA.
  26. UNFPA. 1999d. "An Operational Tool on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) for UNFPA Programmes." Manual distributed by: the Gender Theme Group, Technical Branch, Technical and Policy Division. New York: UNFPA.
  27. The World Bank. Forthcoming. Policy Research Report on Gender and Development. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Draft report available on: <www.worldbank.org/gender>.
  28. Moser, Caroline, Annika Tornqvist, and Bernice van Bronkhorst (eds.). 2000. Mainstreaming Gender and Development in the World Bank: Progress and Recommendations. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  29. For access to these documents (including reviews related to agriculture, sanitation and transport sectors), see: <www.worldbank.org/gender>.

Indicators

The designations employed in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion on the part of the United Nations Population Fund concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Data for small countries or areas, generally those with population of 200,000 or less in 1990, are not given in this table separately. They have been included in their regional population figures.

(*) More-developed regions comprise North America, Japan, Europe and Australia-New Zealand.

(+) Less-developed regions comprise all regions of Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, Asia (excluding Japan), and Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

(‡) Least-developed countries according to standard United Nations designation.

  1. Including British Indian Ocean Territory and Seychelles.
  2. Including Agalesa, Rodrigues and St. Brandon.
  3. Including Sao Tome and Principe.
  4. Formerly Zaire.
  5. Including Western Sahara.
  6. Including St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.
  7. Including Macau.
  8. On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of China.
  9. Including Gaza Strip (Palestine).
  10. Turkey is included in Western Asia for geographical reasons. Other classifications include this country in Europe.
  11. Including Channel Islands, Faeroe Islands and Isle of Man.
  12. Including Andorra, Gibraltar, Holy See and San Marino.
  13. Including Leichtenstein and Monaco.
  14. Including Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turks and Caicos Islands, and United States Virgin Islands.
  15. Including Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and French Guiana.
  16. Including Bermuda, Greenland, and St. Pierre and Miquelon.
  17. Including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.
  18. Including New Caledonia and Vanuatu.
  19. The successor States of the former USSR are grouped under existing regions. Eastern Europe includes Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine. Western Asia includes Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. South Central Asia includes Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
  20. Regional total, excluding subregion reported separately below.
  21. These subregions comprise the UNFPA Arab States and Europe region.
  22. Estimates based on previous years' reports. Updated data are expected.
  23. Total for Eastern Europe includes some South European Balkan States and Northern European Baltic States.
  24. This figure includes Belgium and Luxembourg.
  25. More recent reports suggest this figure might have been higher. Future publications will reflect the evaluation of this information.
  26. Comprising Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Northern Mariana Islands, Pacific Islands (Palau) and Wake Island.
  27. Comprising American Samoa, Cook Islands, Johnston Island, Pitcairn, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, Midway Islands, Tuvalu, and Wallis and Futuna Islands.

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