Notes

Chapter 1: Introduction: The Urban Potential

1 Statistics for this chapter were derived from: United Nations. 1995. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision (ST/ESA/SER.A/150). New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

Chapter 2: Conditions of Life in Urban Areas

1 Hamid, Tabatabai, and Manal Fouad. 1993. The Incidence of Poverty in Developing Countries: An ILO Compendium of Data, A World Employment Programme Study. Geneva: International Labour Organization. Cited in "Urban Poverty." Introduction to Urbanization and Environment 7(1).

2 Satterthwaite, David. 1995. "Rapid Urbanization and the Urban Environment." Paper presented at the Seminar on Demography and Poverty. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Liège, 2-4 March 1995.

3 Oberai, A.S. 1993. Population Growth, Employment and Poverty in Third World Mega-cities, p.119ff. Geneva: International Labour Organization. The cited estimates refer to around 1988, at the time of an international survey conducted with ILO assistance. The definitions of slum dwellings are not strictly comparable, however. Cairo's high estimate results from a definition stressing informal housing (rather than its quality), Seoul's was based on a local definition of inadequacy, Shanghai's was tied to an administrative criterion concerning housing which needed to be rebuilt. Only in Seoul was the slum population's growth rate negative.

4 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). 1993. State of Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific 1993, Table 2.36. New York: United Nations. Statistics were lacking for much of East Asia and for the Pacific. Most data points referred to the mid- to late 1980s.

5 Oberai, op. cit., p.136.

6 Ibid., p.138.

7 United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat). 1996. An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 1996 (Draft), pp. 6-47. Nairobi: UNCHS/Habitat.

8 Daly, Mary. 1994. The Right to a Home: The Right to a Future, Third Report of the European Observatory on Homelessness. Brussels: FEANTSA. Cited in UNCHS, op. cit.

9 Oberai, op. cit., p. 84ff.

10 United Nations. 1995. The World's Women 1995: Trends and Statistics, Series K, No. 12, p. 41ff. New York: United Nations.

11 Cawthorne, Pamela M. 1995. "Of Networks and Markets: The Rise of a South Indian Town: The Example of Tirrupur's Cotton Knitwear Industry. " World Development 23(1): 43-56; and Findley, Sally, and Lindy Williams. 1991. Women Who Go and Women Who Stay: Reflections of Family Migration Processes in a Changing World, World Employment Programme Research Paper. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

12 Findley and Williams, op. cit.

13 Oberai, op. cit., p. 82ff.

14 Ibid., p. 83.

15 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, op. cit., Ch. 2, p. 55ff.

16 The World Bank. 1988. World Development Report 1988. New York: Oxford University Press.

17 United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat), op. cit.

18 The World Bank. 1994. Infrastructure for Development: The World Development Report 1994, p. 26ff. New York: Oxford University Press.

19 Satterthwaite, op. cit. Among the questions raised are the appropriateness of definitions of access to community piped water on the basis of physical proximity to taps without consideration of the size of the served community and "effective availability" of sufficient quantities of water, reporting biases for urban populations (particularly in squatter settlements) and lack of consideration of costs incurred and their relation to incomes.

20 The World Bank 1994.

21 Generally measured by data on wage rates since these are more widely available than other indicators of individual and household wealth.

22 Collins, S.D. 1926. Economic Status and Health: A Review and Study of the Relevant Morbidity and Mortality Data, Public Health Bulletin No. 165, Treasury Department, US Public Health Service. Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office. In "The Ranks of Death: Secular Trends in Income and Mortality," by Stephen J. Kunitz and Stanley L. Engerman. 1992. In Health Transition Review 2 (Supplementary issue).

23 Country writeups in United Nations. (Forthcoming) The Challenge of Urbanization: The World's Largest Cities. New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

24 Mexico and Cairo information from: Serageldin, Ismael, and Richard Barrett. 1993. "Environmentally Sustainable Urban Transport: Defining a Global Policy." Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in The Urban Age 2(1).

25 World Health Organization. 1992. Our Planet, Our Health, Report of the Commission on Health and Environment. Geneva: World Health Organization. Cited in United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat), op. cit.

26 Cauthen, G.M., A. Pio and H.G. ten Dam. 1988. Annual Risk of Tuberculosis Infection. Geneva: World Health Organization. Cited in United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat), op. cit.

27 World Health Organization. 1995. The World Health Report: Bridging the Gap. Geneva: World Health Organization.

28 Ibid.

29 Le Guenno, Bernard. 1995. "Emerging Viruses," Scientific American, October 1995.

30 Altman, Lawrence K. 1995. "New Skin Test Will Help Track Ebola Infection in Remote Areas," The New York Times, 19 September 1995.

31 UNFPA. 1995. The State of World Population 1995: Decisions for Development: Women, Empowerment and Reproductive Health. New York: UNFPA.

32 World Health Organization 1995, p. 15.

33 See: Way, Peter O., and Nancy Stanecki. 1995. Transmission of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

34 Fontanet, Arnaud, and Peter Piot. 1994. "State of Our Knowledge: The Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS." In AIDS Impact and Prevention in the Developing World: The Contribution of Demography and Social Science. Paper presented at a seminar, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Liège, 5–9 December 1993.

35 World Health Organization 1995, p. 15.

36 Intravenous drug users are another group at high risk of infection. In some parts of the world, prostitute populations are also high users of such drugs.

37 Rohter, Larry. 1995. "A Fever, Once in Retreat, Surges in Latin America," The New York Times, 23 September 1995.

38 "World's Poor Youths Facing Western Maladies," The New York Times, 24 September 1995.

39 Guimaraes, J.J., and A. Fischmann. 1985. "Inequalities in 1980 Infant Mortality among Shanty Town Residents and Non-shanty Town Residents in the Municipalities of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil." Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization 19(3): 235-251. In A Review of Environmental Health Impacts in Developing Country Cities, Urban Management Programme Discussion Paper No. 6, by David Bradley, Carolyn Stephens, Trudy Harpham and Sandy Cairncross. 1992. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

40 Source: recent tabulations provided by the Family Health Division of the Word Health Organization.

41 Calculated using most recent data for 75 developing countries provided by the Family Health Division of the World Health Organization.

42 In Pakistan, trained TBAs constitute nearly even proportions of all births attended in both settings (urban: 18 per cent; rural: 16 per cent). However, they service two thirds of all attended births in rural areas and less than a third of all attended urban births.

43 Data provided by the Family Health Division of the World Health Organization.

44 World Health Organization. 1993. Safe Motherhood: Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme. Geneva: Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, Division of Family Health, World Health Organization.

45 Mensch, Barbara, Mary Arends-Kuenning and Anrudh Jain. 1994. "Assessing the Impact of the Quality of Family Planning Services on Contraceptive Use in Peru: A Case Study Linking Situational Analysis Data to the DHS," Research Division Working Papers No. 67. New York: The Population Council.

46 Miller, Katharine A. 1995. "Special Urban-rural Data Analyses for Ghana, Senegal, Kenya and Zanzibar of the United Republic of Tanzania." Unpublished paper.

47 The number of visits per client in a year varies with the family planning methods which are adopted. No differences were found, however, between the method mixes in rural, urban or semi-urban settings in the sampled SDPs.

48 Differences by each indicator on average, however, do not reveal patterns of available services or equipment at particular SDPs; the proportions of SDPs offering full ranges or various combinations of equipment, staffing and capacity need further analysis.

49 Other regional differences require analysis and appropriate remedial attention as well. Regional programme priorities can be independent of the degree of urbanization.

50 The following reports in the series: The Center for African Family Studies, John Snow, Inc., and Center for Population and Family Health. 1995. Findings from the Sub-Saharan Africa Urban Family Planning Study. Arlington, Virginia, and Boston, Massachusetts: SEATS Project, John Snow, Inc., and Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University: (a) In collaboration with: National Family Welfare Council of Malawi, Blantyre District Health Office, Blantyre Munnicipal Health Department, Southern Region Provincial Health Office. Blantyre City Report; (b) In collaboration with: Bulawayo City Health and Zimbabwe National Family Plannig Council. Bulawayo City Report; and (c) In collaboration with: Mombasa District Health Office and Mombasa Municipal Health Departmnent, Mombasa City Report.

51 Janowitz, Barbara. 1992. "Cost and Cost Recovery Options for Thailand." Paper prepared for "Programme Management Issues and Operational Plans," UNFPA/Thailand

52 "Special Report: Exceeding the Breakeven Point." Integration, No. 38(December 1993): 2-21.

53 UNFPA. 1995. Report on Family Planning Sustainability, Technical Report Number 26, p. 26. New York: UNFPA.

54 National Research Council. 1995. Resource Allocation for Family Planning in Developing Countries: Report of a Meeting. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. It must be noted that comparative information concerning the distribution of the subsidy benefits for other health services and other categories of benefits in general are not available.

55 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Education Yearbook 1995. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

56 Personal communication with staff of United Nations Statistical Office, who assist governments in the design of analyses of relevant census data for use in the planning process.

57 Jespersen, Eva, and David Parker. 1990. The 20/20 Initiative. New York: UNICEF; and The World Bank. 1995. World Development Report 1995. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

58 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 1993. Trends and Projections of Enrolment by Level of Education, by Age and by Sex, 1960-2025, Current Surveys and Research in Statistics Series No. CSR-E-63. Paris: Division of Statistics, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

59 Kelley, Alan C. 1994. "Population Growth and Education, Inquiry Background Paper No. 3." In Independent Inquiry in Population and Development, a Report Prepared for the Government of Australia. 1994. A related analysis outlining alternate policy interventions to facilitate improved universal primary education is available in: Colclough, Christopher, with Keith M. Lewin. 1993. Educating All the Children: Strategies for Primary Schooling in the South. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Chapter 3: Urban Population Dynamics

1 Sources: United Nations. (Forthcoming) Population Distribution and Migration, Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993 (ST/ESA/SER.R/133). New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations; United Nations. 1995. The Challenge of Urbanization: The World's Largest Cities (ST/ESA/SER.A/151). New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations; and United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat). 1996. An Urbanizing World: Global Report on Human Settlements 1996 (Draft), pp. 6-47. Nairobi: UNCHS/Habitat.

2 Pernia, Ernesto M. (Forthcoming) "Population Distribution in Asia: A Region of Contrasts." In United Nations (Forthcoming).

3 Sachs, Ignacy. "Vulnerability of Giant Cities and the Life Lottery." In The Urbanization of the Third World, edited by Josef Gugler. 1988. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4 See note 1.

5 The statistics presented in the following section are based on: United Nations. 1995. World Population Prospects 1994. New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

6 Rwanda's projected estimate does not yet reflect the impact of the tragic internal events of 1994. Neighbouring Burundi, with an estimated 7.5 per cent of the population in urban areas, is the next most-rural African nation.

7 International migration also contributes to city growth, but is much less significant globally than the other three factors. International migration can be an important component of growth in urban areas with low rates of natural increase and rural-urban migration (as in many countries in Europe).

8 The concentration of migrants in the peak reproductive ages adds to the contribution of natural increase. Other evidence reviewed in this report, however, indicates at least a short-term reduction in fertility among recent migrants.

9 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). "Urbanized in Asia and the Pacific." Cited in "Global Urbanization: Towards the Twenty-First Century," by Terence McGee and C.J. Griffiths. In United Nations. (Forthcoming) Population Distribution and Migration, Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993 (ST/ESA/SER.R/133) New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

10 United Nations. 1996. "Trends in Urbanization and the Components of Urban Growth." Paper prepared for the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II, New York, 24-26 January 1996. New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

11 See note 1.

12 See note 1.

13 Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). (Forthcoming) "Population Dynamics in the Large Cities of Latin America and the Caribbean." In Population Distribution and Migration, Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration (ST/ESA/SER.R/133). New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

14 Op. cit., p. 430.

15 "Cities, A Survey Report: Citadels of Power," The Economist, 29 July 1995.

16 See note 1.

17 Stren, Richard (ed). 1994. Urban Research in the Developing World: Africa, vol. 2 of the series. Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies.

18 "Urban agglomerations" are comprised of city centres and adjacent urban concentrations.

Chapter 4: Sources of City Growth

1 Muhuri, Pradip K, Ann K. Blanc and Shea O. Rutstein. 1994. Socioeconomic Differentials in Fertility, Demographic and Health Surveys Comparative Studies Series No. 13. Calverton: Maryland: Macro International Inc.

2 Brockerhoff, Martin. 1996. "Migration and the Fertility Transition in African Cities." Paper prepared for the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II, New York, 24-26 January 1996; and Brockerhoff, Martin. 1994. Fertility and Family Planning in African Cities: The Impact of Female Migration, Research Division Working Papers No. 68. New York: The Population Council.

3Preston, Samuel H. 1979. "Urban Growth in Developing Countries: A Demographic Reappraisal." Population and Development Review 5(2). Reprinted in revised form in The Urbanization of the Third World, edited by Josef Gugler. 1988. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4 If China, which was not included in the early time periods, is included (63.6 per cent).

5 If China is included, a substantial drop in natural increase occurred in the 1980s, which added to the increased importance of migration.

6 These data are from: Westoff, Charles F., and Akinrinola Bankole. 1995. Unmet Need: 1990-1994, DHS Comparative Studies No. 16. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

7 Guest, Phillip. 1996. "Assessing the Consequences of Internal Migration: Methodological Issues and a Case Study of Thailand Based on Longitudinal Household Survey Data." Paper prepared for Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II, New York, 24-26 January 1996.

8 United Nations. 1993. Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on the Feminization of Internal Migration, Aguascalientes, Mexico, 22-25 October 1991. New York: United Nations; and United Nations. (Forthcoming) Population Distribution and Migration, Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution and Migration, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, 18-22 January 1993 (ST/ESA/SER.R/133). New York: United Nations.

9 Todaro, Michael P. 1989. Economic Development in the Third World, Fourth Edition. New York: Longman.

10 Findley, Sally, and Lindy Williams. 1991. Women Who Go and Women Who Stay: Reflections of Family Migration Processes in a Changing World, World Employment Programme Research Paper, p.13. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

11 Petersen, G.E., K. Thomas and P.T.T. Jeffrey. 1991. Urban Economics and National Development. Washington, D.C.: Office of Housing and Urban Programs, USAID. In "A Critical Evaluation of Migration-Development Linkages in the Bangladesh Context," by Rita Afsar. Paper prepared for the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II, UNFPA, New York, 24–26 January 1996; and Hugo, Graeme. 1983. "Circular Migration in Indonesia." Population and Development Review 8(1): 59-84. In United Nations. 1995. The Challenge of Urbanization: The World's Largest Cities (ST/ESA/SER.A/151). New York: Population Division, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

12 Individual and family migration in advanced settings such as the United States far exceed the scale observed in other settings (United Nations Centre for Human Settlements [UNCHS/Habitat]. 1996. An Urbanizing World: The 1996 Human Settlements Report [Draft]. Nairobi: UNCHS/Habitat).

Chapter 5: Urban-Rural Links: Transactions and Transformation

1 Studies are reviewed in: Findley, Sally, and Lindy Williams. 1991. Women Who Go and Women Who Stay: Reflections of Family Migration Processes in a Changing World, World Employment Programme Research Paper. Geneva: International Labour Organization. The overall level of remittances from men also reflects the higher proportion of male remitters who are sending money to a wife who has been left behind during temporary migration.

2 The World Bank. 1995. Workers in an Integrating World: The World Development Report 1995, pp. 88ff. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

3 Zhu Junming. 1996. "Multilevel Analysis of Rural Outmigration in Guangdong, China." Paper prepared for the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II. Unfpa, New York, 24-26 January 1996.

4 Gilbert, Alan. 1996. "The Coping Capacity of Latin America's Cities." Paper prepared for presentation at the Symposium on Internal Migration and Urbanization in Developing Countries: Implications for Habitat II, UNFPA, New York, 24-26 January 1996.

5 Baker, Jonathan. 1995. "Survival and Accumulation Strategies at the Rural-urban Interface in North-west Tanzania." Environment and Urbanization 7(1): 117-132; and Evans, Hugh E. 1990. "Rural-Urban Linkages and Structural Transformation," Discussion Paper, Report INU 71. Washington, D.C.: Infrastructure and Urban Development Department, The World Bank.

6 Evans, op. cit., section IV.

7 Baker, op. cit.

8 UNICEF. 1996. The State of the World's Children 1996, Statistical Table Numbers 4 and 10. New York: UNICEF; based on data provided by UNESCO.

9 Mitra, S.N., M. Nawab All, Shahidul Islam, Anne R. Cross and Tulshi Saha. 1994. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 1993-1994. Calverton, Maryland: National Institute for Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Metra and Associates and Macro International Inc.

10 Robey, B., S. O. Rutstein, L. Morris and R. Blackburn. 1992. "The Reproductive Revolution: New Survey Findings." Population Reports, Series M, No. 11. Baltimore: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University; supplemented by examination of more recent Demographic and Health Survey reports.

11 Muhuri, Pradip K., and Shea O. Rutstein. 1994. Socioeconomic, Demographic and Health Indicators for Subnational Areas. DHS Comparative Studies No. 9. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

12 Church, C.A., and J. Geller. 1989. "Lights! Camera! Action! Promoting Family Planning with TV, Video and Film." Population Reports, Series J, No. 38. Baltimore: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University.

13 Mitra et al., op. cit., pg. 21.

14 National Family Health Survey (MCH and Family Planning) 1992-1993. 1994. Bombay: International Institute for Population Sciences.

15 Evans, op. cit.

16 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). 1993. State of Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific 1993, pp. 4-19. New York: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations; tabulations of household food expenditures by income levels in regional publications series: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1993. Compendium of Food Consumption Statistics from Household Surveys in Developing Countries, Economic and Development Paper Series. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

17 Studies cited in: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat). 1996. An Urbanizing World: The 1996 Human Settlements Report (Draft). Nairobi: UNCHS.

18 United Nations Development Programme. 1996. Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities, Publication Series for HABITAT II, vol. 1. New York: United Nations Development Programme.

Chapter 6: Policies, Strategies and Issues for Improving Cities

1 United Nations. 1993. Global Population Policy: Data Base, 1993. New York: Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, United Nations.

2 This discussion relies on analyses of: The World Bank. 1991. Urban Policy and Economic Development: An Agenda for the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank; and Berghäll, Pii Elina. 1995. HABITAT II and the Urban Economy: A Review of Recent Developments and Literature. Helsinki: World Institute for Development Economics Research, The United Nations University.

3 Brennan, Ellen M. 1988. "Population Distribution Policies: A Policy Review." Population Policies in the Third World: Issues and Practice, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Commemorative Conference, Cairo Demographic Center, Cairo, Egypt, pp. 100-120.

4 UNFPA. 1993. The State of World Population 1993: The Individual and the World: Population, Migration and Development in the 1990s. New York: UNFPA; United Nations Development Programme. 1990. Human Development Report 1990. New York: United Nations Development Programme; Berghäll, op cit.; and Fuchs, R., E. Brennan, J. Chamie, F. Lo and J. Uitto. 1994. Mega-city Growth and the Future. New York: United Nations University Press.

5 This approach has been particularly stressed and analysed in the works of: Rondinelli, D.A. 1983. Secondary Cities in Developing Countries. Beverly Hills, California: Sage; 1991. "Asian Urban Development Policies in the 1990s: From Growth Control to Urban Diffusion." World Development 19: 791-803; 1994. "Urban Policy and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Private Sector's Role in Urban Development." In Urbanization in Africa: A Handbook, edited by James D. Tarver. 1994. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

6 These issues are analysed in: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS/Habitat)/International Labour Organization. 1995. Shelter Provision and Employment Generation. Nairobi/Geneva: UNCHS/Habitat and International Labour Organization; and International Labour Organization. 1995. The Future of Urban Employment. Paper prepared for the International Symposium on the Future of Urban Employment, Turin Centre, Turin, Italy, 5-7 December 1995. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

7 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 1993. Trends and Projections of Enrolment by Level of Education, by Age and by Sex, 1960-2025, Current Surveys and Research in Statistics Series No. CSR-E-63. Paris: UNESCO.

8 Detailed local studies are presented in: Kanji, Nazneen. 1995. "Gender, Poverty and Economic Adjustment in Harare, Zimbabwe." Urbanization and Environment 7(1); and Escobar Latapi, Agustin, and Mercedes González la Rocha, "Crisis, Restructuring and Urban Poverty in Mexico," loc. cit., pp. 57-76. These ethnographic and survey studies cite additional literature confirming the observed effects in other settings.

9 Whether the larger number of members per household increases or reduces family income depends on the local labour market's prevailing opportunities and wages, and on the obligations of the added household members to family elsewhere. Evidence suggests that the effects on household well-being have been, on balance, more positive in Latin America than in sub-Saharan Africa.

10 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). 1993. State of Urbanization in Asia and the Pacific 1993. New York: Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations.

11 The World Bank. 1992. World Development Report 1992. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Cited in Decentralization and Its Implications for Urban Service Delivery, Urban Management and Municipal Finance Series, Paper No. 16, by William Dillinger. 1993. Washington, D.C.: Urban Management Program, The World Bank.

12 Dillinger, op. cit., p. 24; and Wiesner, Eduardo. 1995. "Fiscal Decentralization in Colombia: Advantages and Pitfalls." The Urban Age 3(3): 9.

13 See also: Peterson, George E. 1995. "What Kind of Financing Systems Support Decentralization?" The Urban Age 3(3): 3.

14 Dillinger, op. cit., p. 29ff.

15 Dillinger, op. cit., p. 35ff.

16 Harpham, Trudy, and Carolyn Stephens. 1992. "Policy Directions in Urban Health in Developing Countries: The Slum Improvement Approach." Social Science and Medicine 35(2): 111-120.