1 United Nations, Population and Development. Programme of Action adopted at the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994. Volume 1. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, ST/ESA/SER.A/149 (New York, United Nations, 1995).
2 Ibid., paragraphs 3.4-3.9.
3 Preliminary Project Summary for National Report Summaries on Cairo +5 (New York, Center for International Cooperation, New York University, 1998).
4 The Expert Round Table on Ensuring Reproductive Rights and Implementing Reproductive Health Including Women's Empowerment, Male Involvement and Human Rights was held in Kampala in 22-25 June 1998; the Round Table on Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health was held in New York in April 1998.
5 Ministry of Health, Population and Health Sector Strategy (Dhaka, 1997).
6 UNFPA, "ICPD: Four Years Later", background paper presented at the Expert Round Table Meeting on Ensuring Reproductive Rights and Implementing Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes, including Women’s Empowerment, Male Involvement and Human Rights in Kampala, 22-25 June 1998.
7 K. Hardee, K. Agarwal, N. Luke, E. Wilson, M. Pendzich, and H. Cross, Post-Cairo Reproductive Health Policies: A Comparative Study of Eight Countries (North Carolina, The Futures Group International, 1998).
8 M. Xaba, S. Fonn, K. Tint, D. Conco, and S. Varkey, Transformation of Reproductive Health Services Project, South Africa: A Collaboration Between the Women’ s Health Project and Three Provincial Departments of Health and Welfare, edited draft, 1998.
9 The Working Group on Reproductive Health and Family Planning, Accountability Mechanisms: Marking Progress in the Implementation of ICPD, National-level Policy Reform in Brazil: the Paisme Experience (New York, 1997).
10 Hardee et al., op cit.
12 Z. U. Gill, "ICPD 1994, RH Agenda: Experience of Turning Dream into Reality in Bangladesh", unpublished paper, 1997.
13 F. Mehrotra and E. Singh, Assessment of Gender Mainstreaming in UNFPA Programmes and Projects: The India Country programme (1997).
14 Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Report and Key Future Actions Required to Achieve the Goals of the ICPD POA and Bali Declaration (Bangkok, ESCAP,1998).
15 Haberland, Miller, Bruce, Fassihian, Unutilized Capacity and Missed Opportunities in Family Planning Services (New York, Population Council, forthcoming).
16 Family Health Division, Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, National Reproductive Health Strategy (Nepal, 1998).
17 R.Cardich, J. Helzner, M. Marques, J. Schutt-Aine, V. Ward, and T. Williams, "Estudio de Calidad desde la Perspectiva de Género", draft, unpublished, 1998.
18 UNFPA, "Ensuring Reproductive Rights and Implementing Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes including Women’s Empowerment, Male Involvement and Human Rights", report of the Expert Round Table Meeting in Kampala, 22-25 June, 1998.
19 "The Unfinished Transition", The Population Council Issues Papers (New York, The Population Council).
20 UNFPA, "Reproductive Health and Rights of Refugees", background paper prepared for the Technical Consultation on Reproductive Health of Refugees held in Rennes, France, 3-5 November 1998.
21 United Nations, World Population Monitoring. Selected Aspects of Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health (New York, United Nations, 1998).
22 UNFPA, The State of the World Population 1997 The Right to Choose: Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health" (New York, UNFPA, 1997).
23 Haberland, Miller, Bruce and Fassihian, op cit.
25 This estimation was made for 1990-1995. United Nations, World Population Monitoring 1996 Select ed Aspects of Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Health" (New York, United Nations, 1998).
26 United Nations, World Population Monitoring.
27 Notes from the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Annual Meeting on Emergency Contraception, organized by the Consortium on Emergency Contraception, 1996, 1997 and 1998.
28 "FDA Tells Two Researchers to Stop Distribution of Drug for Sterilization" The Wall Street Journal, October 19, 1998.
29 UNFPA, Donor Support for Contraceptive Commodities 1996 (New York, UNFPA, 1998).
30 DKT International, 1997 Contraceptive Social Marketing Statistics (Washington, 1998).
31 Ch. Westoff, A, Sharmanov, and J. Sullivan, J., The Replacement of Abortion by Contraception in Three Central Asian Republics (Princeton, Population Resource Center, 1997).
32 WHO/UNICEF, Revised 1990 Estimates of Maternal Mortality (WHO/FRH/MSM/96.11 and UNICEF/PLN/96.1) (Geneva, WHO, 1996).
33 Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood, "Safe Motherhood in the New Millennium: The Action Agenda", report on the Safe Motherhood Technical Consultation, Draft, 1998.
35 WHO, Global and Regional Estimates of Incidence of Mortality Due to Unsafe Abortion with a Listing of Available Country Data (WHO/RHT/MSM/97.16) (Geneva, WHO, 1998).
36 Ch. Westoff, A. Sharmanov, and J. Sullivan, J., op cit.
37 V. Ghetau, Maternal Mortality and Abortion in Romania 1990-1997, (Bucharest, UNFPA, 1998).
38 IPAS, Personal communication, 1998.
39 United Nations, World Population Estimates and Projections, 1998 Revision (New York, United Nations, 1998).
40 UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update: 1998, (Geneva, UNAIDS, 1998).
41 UNAIDS, Impact of HIV and Sexual Health Education on the Sexual Behaviour of Young People: A Review Update (UNAIDS/97.4) (Geneva, UNAIDS, 1997).
42 The Programme of Action alludes, but does not specifically refer, to the "civil society". Definitions of the term "civil society" are diverse. For the purposes of this paper, civil society will be used to refer to non-state institutions (e.g., NGOs; community groups; professional associations; religious communities; the private (for-profit) sector; labour and trade unions; foundations; academic institutions; and women, men and youth groups) as well as individual members of society. Parliamentarians are unique in that they serve as bridges between the civil society and the governmental apparatus.
43 The Global Population Assistance Report is available on the Internet at http://www.nidi.nl/resflows.
44 Although such loans are usually counted as external assistance, a portion of them must be paid back by the recipient countries, so a large fraction of the total loans could really be counted as domestic allocations.
45 ODA is the funding originating from donor countries only, not multilateral or private sources.
46 The data provided for 1997 (and below for 1998) are preliminary and incomplete.
47 NGO expenditures, from their own income, are a very small proportion of the total compared to Government expenditures.
48 Estimates of expenditure per capita were calculated by subregion and then expanded to encompass the regions' entire populations.
49 The authors of the NIDI case-studies state that although the functional population categories used for measuring resource flows are based on paragraph 13.14 of the ICPD Programme of Action, reporting of allocations among the elements of reproductive health, family planning, and occasionally HIV/AIDS-prevention activities are not consistent across countries. The difficulty of allocating resource flows of the shared delivery system infrastructure between family planning and other reproductive health services was recognized in paragraph 13.15 of the Programme of Action, where a combined delivery system proportion was indicated.
50 UNAIDS and WHO, Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic (Geneva, 1998).
51 UNFPA, Global Population Assistance Report 1996 (New York, UNFPA, 1998), p. 20.
52 Subsequent analyses have confirmed these conclusions, originally documented in the World Bank, World Development Report 1993: Investment in Health (New York, Oxford University Press, 1993).
53 This total expenditure figure does not include external assistance from the development banks.