Assessing the Situation
Reliable data – about the size, health, needs, income, housing conditions, age and sex of affected populations – is crucial in planning an effective and efficient response following a humanitarian crisis. However, crises often disrupt the information systems that collect and archive such data.
Housing and population censuses, which provide essential information for planning, are often disrupted by humanitarian crises, and the absence of data can exacerbate efforts for rebuilding communities. In a number of countries – including Afghanistan, Cambodia, Chad, Haiti, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Timor-Leste – UNFPA has taken a prominent role in supporting the first census in post-emergency situations. The Fund has pioneered the use of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) to deal with unmapped terrain.
In Angola, millions of people have been displaced as a result of three decades of armed conflict, which also prevented three rounds of census-taking. UNFPA collaborated with the Government to conduct quantitative and qualitative research that has served as a foundation for health policy measures and strategic reproductive health interventions. UNFPA helped carry out a census of the population in Peru affected by the August 2007 earthquake. The headcount identified the number of people and registered the losses suffered by each household. It will also provide information regarding damage to commercial, industrial and institutional services and help determine access to basic services.
Embracing the Challenge of Good Data Collection in Post-Conflict LiberiaThough the war ended in 2003, clean water and sanitation are still scarce and nearly all basic services, including health facilities, were destroyed and remain in shambles. The country’s Human Development Report recently concluded that as a result of the conflict, only 5 per cent of the country’s health facilities are still standing.
In emergency situations, when time or costs constrain conventional data collection methods, UNFPA often undertakes rapid assessments that allow the Fund and its partners to evaluate the needs and prioritize responses. It is also spearheading efforts to assess the impact of sexual violence in humanitarian settings.
In May 2007, UNFPA provided immediate support for the Uruguay flood crisis, which caused more than 12,000 people to evacuate from their homes. After assessing the needs of the displaced, UNFPA provided food, clothes, mattresses, blankets and psychosocial support. The assessment reviews interventions and challenges and provides recommendations.
In post-conflict Kosovo, an acute lack of data (the vital statistics bureau had not functioned for 10 years) made it difficult to deal with the multiple problems faced by the UNMIK, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, which was trying to restore the city’s services. UNFPA helped to carry out a sample survey, based on the data requirements of the different agencies working under UNMIK. The results formed the basis for humanitarian and development policy strategies.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo and neighbouring Burundi, UNFPA designed and conducted enumerations of tens of thousands of people displaced by years of violence. Without accurate knowledge about them, the UN could not hope to implement a coordinated response. The information UNFPA collected about their numbers, family situations, and health and nutritional needs provided the basis for its programmes in HIV prevention and other aspects of reproductive health care. It also enabled other humanitarian organizations to design their programmes for distributing food, vaccinations, sanitation and other services.
A major challenge to addressing sexual violence in emergencies is the absence of data on the nature and extent of the problem. Sexual violence is usually underreported even in well-resourced and stable situations. During emergencies, it is unlikely that there will be any reliable data about sexual violence. In most situations planning for prevention and response to sexual violence will be based on anecdotal evidence obtained through a variety of sources.
UNFPA is spearheading projects at both the global and national levels to increase the availability of reliable qualitative and quantitative data to identify trends and guide good programming efforts.
- At the global level, UNFPA is partnering with UNHCR and the International Rescue Committee to pilot a Gender-Based Violence Information Management System - the first ever attempt to systematize management of sexual violence-related data across the humanitarian community.
- In Lebanon, a study was conducted under UNFPA’s leadership to assess the needs of women and girls in selected areas that had been deeply impacted by the recent war. Findings from the study have been used to guide programming efforts for UNFPA and other partners, both under the sexual violence sub-cluster and throughout the humanitarian response.
- In Haiti, UNFPA and the Concertation Nationale contre les Violences Faites aux Femmes set up a system for collecting sexual violence data in nine districts. The project included training implementing partners on data collection methodologies and ethics, data analysis, and production and dissemination of a final report.
- Women and girls dwelling in Ethiopia’s refugee camps are often threatened by sexual and domestic violence and sexual exploitation. UNFPA evaluated the needs and vulnerabilities of these populations. The Fund carried out a comprehensive, two-month assessment on sexual violence in two refugee camps with the objectives to provide evidence-based data on the nature and prevalence of sexual violence in these camps and to recommend appropriate actions for integration into the National Gender-Based Violence Strategy.
- During Kenya’s post-election crisis, the Fund supported a rapid assessment to examine the nature and scope of sexual violence occurring as people fled their homes, as well as within camps and settlements for those displaced. Additionally, the assessment evaluated the capacity of community and camp-based programmes to prevent and adequately respond to cases of sexual violence in order to recommend strategies for strengthening the response.
- In Rwanda, UNFPA carried out a country-wide mapping of activities to address sexual violence with the aim to understand progress made, identify challenges and draw lessons learned.
- In Uganda, UNFPA is working with the Christian Children’s Fund and Columbia University on a longitudinal study of the impacts of sexual violence on girls and is continuing to assess the sexual violence situation in under-resourced areas in the North, such as the Karamoja region.
- UNFPA has trained teams of journalists from around the world to understand the complexities of reporting on sexual violence in emergencies, in an effort to both increase the ethical nature of their approach, and to ensure that they have a depth of understanding of the subject matter that would greatly enhance their stories.